(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Collections"

Gc ^U 

974.4 

H386c 

Ser. 3 ,v.4 
1169683 



GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



\^' 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 01101 0292 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/collectionss3v4mass 



COLLECTIONS 



MASSACHUSETTS 



I HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



VOL. IV. 
OF THE THIRD SERIES, 



CAMBRIDGE: 
CHARLES FOLSOM 

1834. 



1 



CONTENTS. 

— — 11G3G83 



Tracts relating to the Attempts to convert to 
Christianity the Indians of new England. 

Page 
The Day-Breaking, if not the Sun-fcising of the Gospel 

with the Indians in New-England .... 1 

The Clear Sun-shine of the Gospel breaking forth upon the 
Indians in New-England. Or, An Historicall Narration of 
Gods Wonderfull Workings upon sundry of the Indians, 
both chief Governors and Common-people, in bringing 
them to a willing and desired submission to the Ordinances 
of the Gospel ; and framing their hearts to an earnest 
inquirie alter the knowledge of God the Father, and of 
Jesus Christ the Saviour of the World. By Mr. Thomas 
Shepard, Minister of the Gospel of Jesus Christ at 
Cambridge in New-England. 25 

The Glorious Progress of the Gospel, amongst the Indians 
in New England. Manifested by three Letters, under 
the Hand of that famous Instrument of the Lord Mr. 
John Eliot, and another from Mr. Thomas Mayhew jun : 
both Preachers of the Word, as well to the English as 
Indians in New England. Wherein the riches of Gods 
Grace in the efFectuall calling of many of them is cleared 
up : As also a manifestation of the hungring desires of 
many People in sundry parts of that Country, after the 
more full Revelation of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, to the 
exceeding Consolation of every Christian Reader. To- 
gether with an Appendix to the foregoing Letters, hold- 
ing forth Conjectures, Observations, and Applications. 
By I. D. Minister of the Gospell. Published by Edward 
Winslow. . . . . . • . .69 



IV CONTENTS. 

The Light appearing more and more towards the perfect 
Day. Or, a farther Discovery of the present state of the 
Indians in New-England, Concerning the Progresse of 
the Gospel amongst them. Manifested by Letters from 
such as preacht to them there. Published by Henry 
Whitfeld, late Pastor to the Church of Christ at Gilford 
in New-England, who came late thence. . . . 100 

Strength out of Weaknesse ; Or a Glorious Manifestation 
of the further Progresse of the Gospel among the Indians 
in New-England. Held forth in Sundry Letters from 
divers Ministers and others to the Corporation established 
by Parliament for promoting the Gospel among the Hea- 
then in New-England ; and to particular Members thereof 
since the last Treatise to that effect, published by Mr. 
Henry Whitfield late Pastor of Gilford in New-Eng- 
land 149 

Tears of Repentance : Or, A further Narrative of the Pro- 
gress of the Gospel amongst the Indians in New-England : 
Setting forth, not only their present state and condition, 
but sundry Confessions of Sin by divers of the said Indi- 
ans, wrought upon by the saving Power of the Gospel ; 
Together with the manifestation of their Faith and Hope 
in Jesus Christ, and the Work of Grace upon their Hearts. 
Related by Mr. Eliot and Mr. Mayhew, two Faithful 
Laborers in that work of the Lord. Published by the 
Corporation for Propagating the Gospel there, for the 
Satisfaction and Comfort of such as wish well thereunto. 197 

A Late and Further Manifestation of the Progress of the 
Gospel amongst the Indians in New-England. Declaring 
their constant Love and Zeal to the Truth : With a 
readinesse to give Accompt of their Faith and Hope ; as 
of their desires in Church Communion to be Partakers 
of the Ordinances of Christ. Being a Narrative of the 
Examinations of the Indians, about their Knowledge in 
Religion, by the Elders of the Churches. Related by 
Mr. John Eliot. Published by the Corporation, estab- 
lished by Act of Parliament, for Propagating the Gospel 
there , 261 



CONTENTS. V 

A List of Representatives in the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts, from the Deposition of Sir Edmund Andros, in 
1689, to the Commencement of the New Charter, in 1692. 
By John Farmer. 289 

Churches and Ministers in New Hampshire. By John 
Farmer. (Continued.) 292 

Description of some of the Medals, struck in relation to 
Important Events in North America, before and since 
the Declaration of Independence by the United States. 
By James Mease, M. D 297 

General Abstracts of the Bills of Mortality for the City of 
Boston, for the eight Years 1825 — 1832. . . . 321 



Laws and Regulations of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, revised and reported by the Standing Committee, 
pursuant to a Vote of the Society, April 25, 1833. . 331 



TRACTS 



RELATING TO THE 



ATTEMPTS TO CONVERT TO CHRISTIANITY 



THE 



INDIANS OF NEW ENGLAND 



[The seven tracts, which are here reprinted, were written 
by different individuals, interested in the conversion of the Indians 
to Christianity, and may be relied upon as authentic narratives of 
the great efforts made by some of the fathers in our Israel for the 
spiritual welfare of the children of the forest. The authors are 
the Rev. Messrs. Eliot, Shepard, Whitfield, Mayhew, and Mr. 
Edward Winslow. Several of these tracts are in the Library of 
Harvard University. But the Committee are indebted to the 
kindness of the American Antiquarian Society for the loan of 
a volume, which contains the entire series, and which, probably, 
is the only perfect copy in the country. 

Publishing Committee.] 



THE 

DAT-BREAKING, 

IF NOT 

The Sun-Rising 

OF THE 

G O S P E L L 

With the 

INDIANS in Mew-England. 



Zach. 4. 10. 
Who hath despised the day of small things °l 

Matth. 13. 13. 
The Kingdome of heaven is like to a graine of mustard seed. 

Ibid. Verse 33. 
The Kingdome of heaven is like unto Leven. 



LONDON, 

Printed by Rich. Cotes, for Fulk Clifton, and are to bee 

sold at his shop under Saint Margarets Church 

on New-fish-street Hill, 1647. 



. 



To the Reader. 



JffEe that pen'd these following Relations, is a Minister 
•*■■*• of Christ in New England,* so eminently godly and 
faithfull, that what he here reports, as an eye or an eare 
witnesse, is not to be questioned; Were he willing his 
name should bee mentioned, it would bee an abundant, if 
not a redundant, Testimoniall to all that know him. 



Nathan. Warde. 



[* The Rev. John Eliot.] 






A 

TRVE RELATION 

OF 

Our beginnings with the INDIANS. 

UPon October 28. 1646. four of us (having sought God) went 
unto the Indians inhabiting within our bounds, with desire to 
make known the things of their peace to them. A 
little before we came to their * Wigwams, five or six of * Indian hou- 
the chief of them met us with English salutations, bid- ses or tents 
ding us much welcome ; who leading us into the prin- ™ a ^ e ° f barks 
cipall Wigwam of * Waaubon, we found many more * The name of 
Indians, men, women, children, gathered together from an Indian, 
all quarters round about, according to appointment, to 
meet with us, and learne of us. Waaubon the chief minister of 
Justice among them exhorting and inviting them before thereunto, 
being one who gives more grounded hopes of serious respect to the 
things of God, then any that as yet I have knowne of that forlorne 
generation ; and therefore since wee first began to deale seriously 
with him, hath voluntarily offered his eldest son to be educated and 
trained up in the knowledge of God, hoping, as hee told us, that he 
might come to know him, although hee despaired much concerning 
himself; and accordingly his son was accepted, and is now at school 
in Dedham, whom we found at this time standing by his father among 
the rest of his Indian brethren in English clothes. 

They being all there assembled, we began with prayer, which 
now was in English, being not so farre acquainted with the Indian 
[p. 2.] language as to expresse our hearts herein before God or 
them, but wee hope it will bee done ere long, the Indians desiring it 
that they also might know how to pray ; but thus wee began in an 
unknowne tongue to them, partly to let them know that this dutie 
in hand was serious and sacred, (for so much some of them under- 
stand by what is undertaken at prayer) partly also in regard of our 
selves, that wee might agree together in the same request and heart 
sorrow es for them even in that place where God was never wont 
to be called upon. 



4 The Day-Breaking of the Gospell 

When prayer was ended it was a glorious affecting spectacle to 
see a company of perishing, forlorne outcasts, diligently attending to 
the blessed word of salvation then delivered ; professing they under- 
stood all that which was then taught them in their owne tongue ; 
it much affected us that they should smell some things of the Ala- 
baster box broken up in that darke and gloomy habitation of filthi- 
nesse and uncleane spirits. For about an houre and a quarter the 
Sermon continued, wherein one of our company ran thorough all 
the principall matter of religion, beginning first with a repetition of 
the ten Commandments, and a briefe explication of them, then 
shewing the curse and dreadfull wrath of God against all those who 
brake them, or any one of them, or the least title of them, and so 
applyed it unto the condition of the Indians present, with much 
sweet affection ; and then preached Jesus Christ to them the onely 
meanes of recovery from sinne and wrath and eternall death, and 
what Christ was, and whither he was now gone, and how hee will 
one day come againe to judge the world in flaming fire ; and of 
the blessed estate of all those that by faith beleeve in Christ, and 
know him feelingly : he spake to them also (observing his owne 
method as he saw most fit to edifie them) about the creation and fall 
of man, about the greatnesse and infinite being of God, the maker 
of all things, about the joyes of heaven, and the terrours and 
horrours of wicked men in hell, perswading them to repentance for 
severall sins which they live in, and many things of the like nature ; 
not medling with any matters more difficult, and which to such 
weake ones might at first seeme ridiculous, untill they had tasted 
and beleeved more plaine and familiar truths. 

Having thus in a set speech familiarly opened the principal mat- 
ters [p. 3.] of salvation to them, the next thing w r ee intended was 
discourse with them by propounding certaine questions to see what 
they would say to them, that so wee might skrue by variety of 
meanes something or other of God into them ; but before wee did 
this we asked them if they understood all that which was already 
spoken, and whether all of them in the Wigwam did understand or 
onely some few? and they answered to this question with multitude 
of voyces, that they all of them did understand all that which was 
then spoken to them. We then desired to know of them, if they 
would propound any question to us for more cleare understanding of 
what was delivered ; whereupon severall of them propounded pres- 
ently severall questions, (far different from what some 
The name of other Indians under Kitshomakin in the like meeting 
cLYefe Indi- aD0Ut S1X weekes before had done, viz. 1. What was the 
ans about us. cause of Thunder. 2. Of the Ebbing and Flowing of 
the Sea. 3. Of the wind) but the questions (which wee 
thinke some speciall wisedome of God directed these unto) (which 
these propounded) were in number six. 



With the Indians in New-England. 5 

How may wee come to know Jesus Christ ? 1 Quest. 

Our first answer was, That if they were able to read 1 Answ. 
our Bible, the book of God, therein they should see 
most cleerely what Jesus Christ was : but because they could not do 
that; therefore, 

Secondly, we wisht them to thinke, and meditate of so much as 
had been taught them, and which they now heard out of 
Gods booke, and to thinke much and often upon it, 2 Answ r 
both when they did lie downe on their Mats in their 
Wigwams, and when they rose up, and to goe alone in the fields 
and woods, and muse on it, and so God would teach them ; espe- 
cially if they used a third helpe, which was, 

Prayer to God to teach them and reveale Jesus Christ unto 
them ; and wee told them, that although they could not 
make any long prayers as the English could, yet if ZJlnsw. 
they did but sigh and groane, and say thus ; Lord make 
mee know Jesus Christ, for I know him not, and if they did say so 
againe and againe with their hearts that God would teach them 
Jesus Christ, because hee is such a God as will bee found of them 
that seeke him with all their hearts, and hee is a God hearing the 
prayers of all men both Indian as well as English, and that English 
men by this [p. 4.] meanes have come to the knowledge of Jesus 
Christ. 

The last helpe wee gave them was repentance, they must con- 
fesse their sinnes and ignorance unto God, and mourne 
for it, and acknowledge how just it is, for God to deny 4 Answ. 
them the knowledge of Jesus Christ or any thing else 
because of their sinnes. 

These things were spoken by him who had preached to them in 
their owne language, borrowing now and then some small helpe from 
the Interpreter whom wee brought with us. and who could oftentimes 
expresse our minds more distinctly then any of us could ; but this 
wee perceived, that a few words from the Preacher were more re- 
garded then many from the Indian Interpreter. 

One of them after this answer, replyed to us, that hee was a 
little while since praying in his Wigwam, unto God and 
Jesus Christ, that God would give him a good heart, 2 Quest. 
and that while hee was praying, one of his fellow Indi- 
ans interrupted him, and told him, that hee prayed in vaine, because 
Jesus Christ understood not what Indians speake in prayer, he had 
bin used to heare English man pray and so could well enough 
understand them, but Indian language in prayer hee thought hee 
was not acquainted with it, but was a stranger to it, and therefore 
could not understand them. His question therefore was, whether 
Jesus Christ did understand, or God did understand Indian 
prayers. 



6 The Day-Breaking of the Gospell 

This question sounding just like themselves, wee studied to give 
as familiar an answer as wee could, and therefore in 
Ansio. this as in all other our answers, we endeavoured to" 
speake nothing without clearing of it up by some famil- 
iar similitude ; our answer summarily was therefore this, that Jesus 
Christ and God by him made all things, and makes all men, not 
onely English but Indian men, and if hee made them both (which 
wee know the light of nature would readily teach as they had been 
also instructed by us) then hee knew all that was within man and 
came from man, all his desires, and all his thoughts, and all his 
speeches, and so all his prayer ; and if hee made Indian men, then 
hee knowes all Indian prayers also : and therefore wee bid them 
looke upon that Indian Basket that was before them, there was 
black and white strawes, and many other things they made it of, now 
though others did not know what those things were who [p. 5.] 
made not the Basket, yet hee that made it must needs tell all the 
things in it, so (wee said) it was here. 

Another propounded this question after this answer, Whether 
English men were ever at any time so ignorant of God 
and Jesus Christ as themselves ? 
When wee perceived the root and reach of this question, wee 
gave them this answer, that there are two sorts of Eng- 
Answ. lish men, some are bad and naught, and live wick- 

edly and loosely, (describing them) and these kind of 
English men wee told them were in a manner as ignorant of Jesus 
Christ as the Indians now are ; but there are a second sort of 
English men, who though for a time they lived wickedly also like 
other prophane and ignorant English, yet repenting of their sinnes, 
and seeking after God and Jesus Christ, they are good men now, 
and now know Christ, and love Christ, and pray to Christ, and are 
thankfull for all they have to Christ, and shall at last when they dye, 
goe up to heaven to Christ ; and we told them all these also were 
once as ignorant of God and Jesus Christ as the Indians are, but 
by seeking to know him by reading his booke, and hearing his word, 
and praying to him, &lc. they now know Jesus Christ, and just so 
shall the Indians know him if they so seeke him also, although at 
the present they bee extremely ignorant of him. 

How can there be an Image of God, because it's 

Quest, forbidden in the second Commandment? 

Wee told them that Image was all one Picture, as the Picture 

of an Indian, Bow and Arrowes on a tree, with such 

Ansio. little eyes and such faire hands, is not an Indian but the 

Picture or Image of an Indian, and that Picture man 

makes, and it can doe no hurt nor good. So the Image or Picture 

of God is not God, but wicked men make it, and this Image can 

doe no good nor hurt to any man as God can. 



with the Indians in New-England. 7 

Whether, if the father bee naught, and the child good, will God 
bee offended with that child, because in the second 
Commandment it's said, that hee visits the sinnes of 5 Quest. 
fathers upon the children? 

Wee told them the plainest answer wee could thinke of, viz. that 
if the child bee good, and the father bad, God will not 
bee offended with the child, if hee repents of his owne Answ. 
and his fathers [p. 6.] sinnes, and followes not the steps 
of his wicked father; but if the child bee also bad, then God will 
visit the sins of fathers upon them, and therefore wisht them to con- 
sider of the other part of the promise made to thousands of them 
that love God and the Evangenesh Jehovah, i. e. the Command- 
ments of Jehovah. 

How all the world is become so full of people, if 6 Quest. 
they were all once drowned in the Flood? 

Wee told them the story and causes of Noahs preservation in the 
Arke at large, and so their questioning ended ; and 
therefore wee then saw our time of propounding some Answ. 
few questions to them, and so take occasion thereby 
to open matters of God more fully. 

Our first question was, Whether they did not desire to see God, 
and were not tempted to thinke that there was no God, 
because they cannot see him ? Quest. 1. 

Some of them replyed thus ; that indeed they did desire to see 
him if it could bee, but they had heard from us that 
hee could not be seene, and they did beleive that Answ. 
though their eies could not see him, yet that hee was to 
bee seene with their soule within : Hereupon we sought to con- 
tinue them the more, and asked them if they saw a great Wigwam, 
or a great house, would they thinke that * Racoones 
or Foxes built it that had no wisedome ? or would they * A beast 
thinke that it made it selfe ? or that no wise workman ^^Fox 
made it, because they could not see him that made it ? 
No but they would beleeve some wise workman made it though 
they did not see him ; so should they beleeve concerning God, when 
they looked up to heaven, Sunne, Moone, and Stars, and saw this 
great house he hath made, though they do not see him with their 
eyes, yet they have good cause to beleeve with their soules that a 
wise God, a great God made it. 

We knowing that a great block in their way to beleiving is that 
there should bee but one God, (by the profession of the Quest 2 
English) and yet this God in many places ; therefore we 
asked them whether it did not seeme strange that there aJnaml^of 
should bee but one God, and yet this God in * Massa- pkcTsTwe 
chusets, at Coneetacut, at Quimipeiock, in old England, tb - e English 
in this Wigwam, in the next every where. sit downe - 



G 

9 

u 

8 The Day-Breaking of the Gospell 

o 

1 Their answer was by one most sober among them, that indeed it 

was strange, as every thing else they heard preached was strange 
[p. 7.] also, and they were wonderfull things which they never 

heard of before ; but yet they thought it might bee true, 
That Hee and that God was so big every where : whereupon we 
was present f ur ther illustrated what wee said, by wishing them to 
every w . cons - lc ] er Q r me light of the Sun, which though it be but 
a creature made by God, yet the same light which is in this Wig- 
wam was in the next also, and the same light which was here at 
Massachusets was at Quinipeiock also and in old England also, and 
every where at one and the same time the same, much more was it 
so concerning God. 

Whether they did not finde somewhat troubling them within 

after the commission of sin, as murther, adultery, theft, 
3. Quest, lying, &ic. and what they thinke would comfort them 

against that trouble when they die and appeare before 
God, (for some knowledge of the immortality of the soule almost 
all of them have.) 

They told us they were troubled, but they could not tell what to 

say to it, what should comfort them ; hee therefore 
Answ. who spake to them at first concluded with a dolefull 

description (so farre as his ability to speake in that 
tongue would carry him) of the trembling and mourning condition of 
every soul that dies in sinne, and that shall be cast out of favour with 
God. 

Thus after three houres time thus spent with them, wee asked 
them if they were not weary, and they answered, No. But wee 
resolved to leave them with an appetite ; the chiefe of them seeing us 
conclude with prayer, desired to know when wee would come 
againe, so wee appointed the time, and having given the children 
some apples, and the men some tobacco and what else we then had 
at hand, they desired some more ground to build a Town together, 
which wee did much like of, promising to speake for them to the gen- 
erall Court, that they might possesse all the compasse of that hill, 
upon which their Wigwams then stood, and so wee departed with 
many welcomes from them. 

A true relation of our coming to the Indians the second time. 

YPon November 11. 1646. we came the second time unto the 
same Wigwam of fVaawbon, where we found many more 
Indians met together then the first time wee came to them : and 
having seatcs provided for us by themselves, and being sate downe 
[p. 8.] a while, wee began againe with prayer in the English tongue ; 
our beginning this time was with the younger sort of Indian chil- 
dren in Catechizing of them, which being the first time of instructing 



with the Indian^ in New-England. 9 

them, we thought meet to aske them but only three questions in their 
own language, that we might not clog their mindes or memories 
with too much at first, the questions (asked and answered in the 
Indian tongue) were these three, 1 ($u* Who made you and all 
the world ? Answ. God. 2. Qu. Who doe you looke should save 
you and redeeme you from sinne and hell? Answ. Jesus Christ. 
3. Qw. How many commandments hath God given you to keepe ? 
Answ. Ten. These questions being propounded to the Children 
severally, and one by one, and the answers being short and easie, 
hence it came to passe that before wee went thorow all, those who 
were last catechized had more readily learned to answer to them, by 
hearing the same question so oft propounded and answered before 
by their fellowes ; and the other Indians who were growne up to 
more yeares had perfectly learned them, whom wee therefore desired 
to teach their children againe when wee were absent, that so when 
wee came againe wee might see their profiting, the better to encour- 
age them hereunto, wee therefore gave something to every childe. 

This Catechisme being soone ended, hee that preached to them, 
began thus (speaking to them in their own language) viz. Wee are 
come to bring you good newes from the great God Almighty maker 
of Heaven and Earth, and to tell you how evill and wicked men 
may come to bee good, so as while they live they may bee happy, and 
when they die they may goe to God and live in Heaven. Having 
made this preface, hee began first to set forth God unto them by 
familiar descriptions, in his glorious power ; goodnesse, and great- 
nesse, and then set forth before them what his will was, and what 
hee required of all men even of the Indians themselves, in the ten 
commandments, and then told them the dreadfull torment and pun- 
ishment of all such as breake any one of those holy commandments, 
and how angry God was for any sinne and transgression, yet 
notwithstanding hee had sent Jesus Christ to die for their sinnes 
and to pacifie God by his sufferings in their stead and roome, 
if they did repent and beleeve the Gospell, and that hee would 
love the poore miserable Indians if now they sought God and be- 
leeved [p. 9.] in Jesus Christ : threatening the sore wrath of God 
upon all such as stood out and neglected such great salvation which 
now God offered unto them, by those who sought nothing more then 
their salvation : thus continuing to preach the space of an houre, 
we desired them to propound some questions ; which were these fol- 
lowing. Before I name them it may not be amisse to take notice 
of the mighty power of the word which visibly apeared especially 
in one of them, who in hearing these things about sinne and hell, 
and Jesus Christ, powred out many teares and shewed much afflic- 
tion without affectation of being seene, desiring rather to conceale 
his griefe w 7 hich (as w T as gathered from his carriage) the Lord forced 
from him. 

VOL. JV. THIRD SERIES. £ 



10 The Day-Breaking of the Gospell 

The first Question was suddenly propounded by an old man then 

present, who hearing faith and repentance preacht upon 

1 Quest. them to finde salvation by Jesus Christ, hee asked 

whether it was not too late for such an old man as hee, 

who was neare death to repent or seeke after God. 

This Question affected us not a little with compassion, and we 
held forth to him the Bible, and told him what God 
Msw. said in it concerning such as are hired at the eleventh 
houre of the day : wee told him also that if a father 
had a sonne that had been disobedient many yeares, yet if at last that 
sonne fall downe upon his knees and weepe and desire his father to 
love him, his father is so mercifull that hee will readily forgive him 
and love him ; so wee said it was much more with God who is a 
more mercifull father to those whom hee hath made, then any father 
can bee to his rebellious childe whom he hath begot, if they fall 
downe and weepe, and pray, repent, and desire forgivenesse for 
Jesus Christ's sake ; and wee farther added that looke as if a father 
did call after his childe to returne and repent promising him favour, 
the childe might then bee sure that his father would forgive him ; 
so wee told them that now was the day of God risen upon them, 
and that now the Lord was calling of them to repentance, and that 
he had sent us for that end to preach repentance for the remission 
of sins, and that therefore they might bee sure to finde favour though 
they had lived many yeares in sinne, and that therefore if now they 
did repent it was not too late as the old man feared, but if they did 
not come when they were thus called, [p. 10.] God would bee 
greatly angry with them, especially considering that now they must 
sinne against knowledge, whereas before we came to them they 
knew not any thing of God at all. 

Having spent much time in clearing up the first question, the 
next they propounded (upon our answer) was this, viz, 
2. Quest. How come the English to differ so much from the In- 
dians in the knowledge of God and Jesus Christ, seeing 
they had all at first but one father ? 

Wee confessed that it was true that at first wee had all but one 

father, but after that our first father fell, hee had divers 

Answ. children some were bad and some good, those that were 

bad would not take his counsell but departed from him 

and from God, and those God left alone in sinne and ignorance, but 

others did regard him and the counsell of God by him, and those 

knew God, and so the difference arose at first, that some together 

with their posterity knew God, and others did not; and so wee told 

them it was at this day, for like as if an old man an aged father 

amongst them have many children, if some of them bee rebellious 

against the counsell of the father, he shuts them out of doores, and 

lets them goe, and regards them not, unlesse they returne and re- 



with the Indians in New-England. 1 1 

pent, but others that will bee ruled by him, they learne by him and 
come to know his minde ; so wee said English men seek God, dwell 
in his house, heare his word, pray to God, instruct their children 
out of Gods booke, hence they come to know God ; but Indians 
forefathers were stubborne and rebellious children, and would not 
heare the word, did not care to pray nor to teach their children, and 
hence Indians that now are, do not know God at all : and so must 
continue unlesse they repent, and returne to God and pray, and 
teach their children what they now may learne : but withall wee told 
them that many English men did not know God but were like to 
Kitchamakins drunken Indians ; Nor were wee willing to tell them 
the story of the scattering of Noahs children since the flood, and 
thereby to shew them how the Indians come to bee so ignorant, be- 
cause it was too difficult, and the history of the Bible is reserved 
for them (if God will) to be opened at a more convenient season in 
their owne tongue. 

Their third question was, How may wee come to 3. Quest. 
serve God f [p. 11.] 

Wee asked him that did propound it whether he did desire indeed 
to serve him ? and hee said, yes. Hereupon wee 
said, first, they must lament their blindnesse and Answ. 
sinfulnesse that they cannot serve him ; and their 
ignorance of Gods booke (which wee pointed to) which directs 
how to serve him. Secondly, that they could not serve God but 
by seeking forgivenesse of their sinnes and power against their 
sinnes in the bloud of Jesus Christ who was preached to them. 
Thirdly, that looke as an Indian childe, if he would serve his 
father, hee must first know his fathers will and love his father too, or 
else he can never serve him, but if hee did know his fathers will 
and love him, then he would serve him, and then if hee should 
not doe some things as his father commands him, and yet afterwards 
grieve for it upon his knees before his father, his father would pity 
and accept him : so wee told them it was with God, they must la- 
bour to know his will and love God, and then they will bee willing 
to serve him, and if they should then sin, yet grieving for it before 
God he would pity and accept of them. 

Their fourth Question was, How it comes to passe 4. Quest. 
that the Sea water was salt, and the Land water fresh. 

'Tis so from the wonderfull worke of God, as why are Straw- 
berries sweet and Cranberries sowre, there is no rea- 
son but the wonderfull worke of God that made them 
so: our study was chiefly to make them acknowledge 4 Berry which 
God in his workes, yet wee gave them also the reason Winter Tnd ° 
of it from naturall causes which they lesse understood, very sowre, 
yet did understand somewhat appearing by their usuall ^y 3 ^ ca " ed 
signes of approving what they understand. r i es . 



G 
9 

U 

12 The Day-Breaking of the GospeU 

u 

1 Their fifth Question was, that if the water was higher then the 

earth, how comes it to passe that it doth not overflow 
5 ' QuesL all the earth ? 
Wee still held God before them, and shewed that this must needes 

bee the wonderfull worke of God, and we tooke an 
Answ. apple and thereby shewed them how the earth and 

water made one round globe like that apple; and how 
the Sun moved about it; and then shewed them how God made a 
great hole or ditch, into which hee put the waters of the Sea, so that 
though it was upon the earth and therefore above the earth, yet we 
told them that by making so deepe a hole the waters were kept 
within compasse [p. 12.] that they could not overflow, just as if In- 
dians making a hole to put in much water, the water cannot over- 
flow nor runne abroad, which they would if they had no such hole ; 
so it was with God, it was his mighty power that digged a hole for 
all Sea-waters, as a deepe ditch, and there by God kept them in 
from overflowing the whole earth, which otherwise would quickly 
drowne all. 

They having spent much conference amongst themselves about 

these Questions and the night hastening, we desired 
C. Quest, them to propound some other Questions, or if not, we 

would aske them some, hereupon one of them asked 
us; If a man hath committed adultery or stolen any goods, and the 
Sachim doth not punish him, nor by any law is hee punished, if also 
he restore the goods he hath stolen, what then ? whether is not all 
well now ? meaning that if Gods Law was broken and no man 
punished him for it, that then no punishment should come from God 
for it, and as if by restoring againe an amends was made to God. 
Althongh man be not offended for such sinnes yet God is angry, 

and his anger burnes like fire against all sinners : and 
Ansio. here wee set out the holinesse and terrour of God in 

respect of the least sinne ; yet if such a sinner with 
whom God is angry fly to Jesus Christ, and repent and seeke for 
mercy and pardon for Christ's sake, that then God will forgive and 
pity. Upon the hearing of which answer hee that propounded the 
question drew somewhat backe and hung downe his head as a man 
smitten to the very heart, with his eyes ready to drop, and within a 
little while after brake out into a complaint, Mee little know Jesus 
Christ, otherwise he thought he should seeke him better : we 
therefore told him, that looke as it was in the morning at first there 
is but a little light, then there is more light, then there is day, then 
the Sun is up, then the Sun warmes and heates, &tc. so it was true 
they knew but little of Jesus Christ now, but wee had more to tell 
them concerning him hereafter, and alter that more and afier that 
more, untill at last they may come to know Christ as the English 
doe ; and wee taught them but a little at a time, because they could 



with the Indians in New-England. 13 

understand but little, and if they prayed to God to teach them, he 
would send his Spirit and teach them more, they and their fathers 
had lived in ignorance untill now, it hath [p. 13.] beene a long night 
wherein they have slept and have not regarded God, but now the 
day-light began to stirre upon them, they might hope therefore for 
more ere long, to bee made knowne to them. 

Thus having spent some houres with them, wee propounded two 
Questions. 

What do you remember of what was taught you since 1 Quest. 
the last time wee were here ? 

After they had spoken one to another for some time, one of them 
returned this answer, that they did much thanke God for 
our comming, and for what they heard, they were won- Answ. 
derfull things unto them. 

Doe you beleeve the things that are told you, viz. that God is 
musquantum, i. e. very angry for the least sinne in your 2 Quest. 
thoughts, or words, or workes . ? 

They said yes, and hereupon wee set forth the terrour of God 
against sinners, and mercy of God to the penitent, and 
to such as sought to know Jesus Christ, and that as .insw. 
sinners should bee after death, Chechainnppan, i. e. 
tormented alive, (for wee know no other word in the tongue to ex- 
presse extreame torture by) so beleevers should after death Wowein 
wicke Jehovah, L e. live in all blisse with Jehovah the blessed God : 
and so we concluded conference. 

Having thus spent the whole afternoone, and night being almost 
come upon us ; considering that the Indians formerly desired to 
know how to pray, and did thinke that Jesus Christ did not under- 
stand Indian language, one of us therefore prepared to pray in their 
own language, and did so for above a quarter of an houre together, 
wherein divers of them held up eies and hands to heaven ; all of them 
(as wee understood afterwards') understanding the same ; but one of 
them I cast my eye upon, was hanging downe his head with his rag 
before his eyes weeping ; at first I feared it was some sorenesse of 
his eyes, but lifting up his head againe, having wiped his eyes (as 
not desirous to be seene) I easily perceived his eyes were not sore, 
yet somewhat red with crying ; and so held up his head for a while, 
yet such was the presence and mighty power of the Lord Jesus on 
his heart that hee hung downe his head againe, and covered his 
eyes againe and so [p. 14.] fell wiping and wiping of them weeping 
abundantly, continuing thus till prayer was ended, after which hee 
presently turnes from us, and turnes his face to a side and corner of 
the Wigwam, and there fals a weeping more aboundantly by him- 
selfe, which one of us perceiving, went to him, and spake to him 
encouraging words ; at the hearing of which hee fell a weeping more 
and more ; so leaving of him, he who spake to him came unto 



14 The Day-Breaking of the Gospell 

mee (being newly gone out of the Wigwam) and told mee of his 
teares, so we resolved to goe againe both of ns to him, and speake to 
him againe, and wee met him comming out of the Wigwam, and 
there wee spake againe to him, and he there fell into a more abun- 
dant renewed weeping, like one deeply and inwardly affected indeed, 
which forced us also to such bowels of compassion that wee could 
not forbeare weeping over him also : and so wee parted greatly re- 
joycing for such sorrowing. 

Thus I have as faithfully as I could remember given you a true 
account of our beginnings with the Indians within our owne bounds; 
which cannot but bee matter of more serious thoughts what further 
to doe with these poore Natives the dregs of mankinde and the 
saddest spectacles of misery of meere men upon earth : wee did 
thinke to forbeare going to them this winter, but this last dayes 
worke wherein God set his seale from heaven of acceptance of our 
little, makes those of us who are able, to resolve to adventure thorow 
frost and snow, lest the fire goe out of their hearts for want of a little 
more fewell : to which we are the more incouraged, in that the 
next day after our being with them, one of the Indians came to his 
house who preacht to them to speake with him, who in private con- 
ference wept exceedingly, and said that all that night the Indians 
could not sleepe, partly with trouble of minde, and partly with wond- 
ring at the things they heard preacht amongst them ; another Indian 
comming also to him the next day after, told him how many of the 
wicked sort of Indians began to oppose these beginnings. 

Whence these Indians came here to inhabit is not certaine, his 
reasons are most probable who thinke they are Tartars passing out 
of Asia into America by the straits of Anian, who being spilt by 
some revenging hand of God upon this continent like water [p. 15.] 
upon the ground are spread as farre as these Atlanticke shores, there 
being but few of them in these parts in comparison of those which 
are more contiguous to the Anian straits, if we may credit some 
Historians herein : what ever these conjectures and uncertainties 
bee, certaine it is, that they are inheritors of a grievous and fearefull 
curse living so long without Ephod or Teraphim, and in nearest alli- 
ance to the wilde beasts that perish ; and as God delights to convey 
blessings of mercy to the posterity of some, in respect of his prom- 
ise to their fathers, so are curses entailed and come by naturall de- 
scent unto others, for some great sinnes of their Ancestors, as no 
doubt it is in respect of these. Yet notwithstanding the deepest de- 
generacies are no stop to the overflowing grace and bloud of Christ, 
when the time of love shall come, no not to these poore outcasts, 
the utmost ends of the earth being appointed to bee in time, the 
Sonne of Gods possession. 

Wee are oft upbraided by some of our Countrymen that so little 
good is done by our professing planters upon the hearts of Natives ; 



with the Indians in New-England. 1 5 

auch men have surely more spleene then judgement, and know not 
the vast distance of Natives from common civility, almost humanity 
it selfe, and 'tis as if they should reproach us for not making the 
windes to blow when wee list our selves, it must certainely be a spirit 
of life from God (not in mans power) which must put flesh and 
sinewes unto these dry bones : if wee would force them to baptisme 
(as the Spaniards do about Cusco, Peru, and Mexico, having learnt 
them a short answer or two to some Popish questions) or if wee 
would hire them to it by giving them coates and shirts, to allure them 
to it (as some others have done) wee could have gathered many 
hundreds, yea thousands it may bee by this time, into the name of 
Churches ; but wee have not learnt as yet that art of coyning Chris- 
tians, or putting Christs name and Image upon copper mettle. Al- 
though I thinke we have much cause to bee humbled that wee have 
not endeavoured more then wee have done their conversion and 
peace with God, who enjoy the mercy and peace of God in their 
land. Three things have made us thinke (as they once did of build- 
ing the Temple) it is not yet time for God to worke, 1. Because 
till the Jewes come in, there is a seale set upon the hearts of those 
people, as [p. 16.] they thinke from some Apocalypticall places. 
2. That as in nature there is no progresses ab extremo ad extremum 
nisi per media, so in religion such as are so extreamly degenerate, 
must bee brought to some civility before religion can prosper, or the 
word take place. 3. Because wee want miraculous and extraordi- 
nary gifts without which no conversion can bee expected amongst 
these ; But me thinkes now that it is with the Indians as it was with 
our New-English ground when we first came over, there was scarce 
any man that could beleeve that English graine would grow, or that 
the Plow could doe any good in this woody and rocky soile. And 
thus they continued in this supine unbeliefe for some yeares, till ex- 
perience taught them otherwise, and now all see it to bee scarce 
inferiour to Old-English tillage, but beares very good burdens ; so 
wee have thought of our Indian people, and therefore have beene 
discouraged to put plow to such dry and rocky ground, but God 
having begun thus with some few it may bee they are better soile 
for the Gospel then wee can thinke : I confesse I thinke no great 
good will bee done till they bee more civilized, but why may not 
God begin with some few, to awaken others by degrees ? nor doe I 
expect any great good will bee wrought by the English (leaving 
secrets to God) (although the English surely begin and lay the first 
stones of Christs Kingdome and Temple amongst them) because 
God is wont ordinarily to convert Nations and peoples by some of 
their owne country men who are nearest to them, and can best 
speake, and most of all pity their brethren and countrimen, but yet 
if the least beginnings be made by the conversion of two or three, 
its worth all our time and travailes, and cause of much thankfulnesse 



1 6 The Day-Breaking of the Gospell 

for such seedes, although no great harvests should immediately ap- 
peare ; surely this is evident, first that they never heard heart- 
breaking prayer and preaching before now in their owne tongue, 
that we know of, secondly, that there were never such hopes of a 
dawning of mercy toward them as now, certainely those aboundant 
teares which wee saw shed from their eies, argue a mighty and 
blessed presence of the spirit of Heaven in their hearts, which when 
once it comes into such kinde of spirits will not easily out againe. 

The chiefe use that I can make of these hopefull beginnings, 
[p. 17.] besides rejoycing for such shinings, is from Esay 2. 5. 
Oh house of Israel, let us walke in the light of the Lord ; Consider- 
ing that these blinde Natives beginne to looke towards Gods moun- 
taine now. 

The observations I have gathered by conversing with them are 
such as these. 

That none of them slept Sermon or derided Gods messenger : 
Woe unto those English that are growne bold to doe 
that, which Indians will not, Heathens dare not. 

That there is need of learning in Ministers who preach to Indians, 
much more to English men and gracious Christians, for 

2. these had sundry philosophicall questions, which some 
knowledge of the arts must helpe to give answer to ; 

and without which these would not have beene satisfied : worse 
then Indian ignorance bath blinded their eies that renounce learning 
as an enemy to Gospell Ministeries. 

That there is no necessity of extraordinary gifts nor miraculous 
signes alway to convert Heathens, who being manifest 

3. and professed unbeleevers may expect them as soone 
as any ; (signes being given for them that beleeve not 

1 Cor, 14. 22.) much lesse is there any need of such gifts for 
gathering Churches amongst professing Christians, (signes not being 
given for them which beleeve,) for wee see the Spirit of God work- 
ing mightily upon the hearts of these Natives in an ordinary way, 
and I hope will ; they being but a remnant, the Lord using to shew 
mercy to the remnant ; for there be but (ew that are left alive from 
the Plague and Pox, which God sent into those parts, and if one or 
two can understand they usually talke of it as wee doe of newes, it 
flies suddainely farre and neare, and truth scattered will rise in time, 
for ought we know. 

If English men begin to despise the preaching of faith and re- 
pentance, and humiliation for sinne, yet the poore Hea- 

4. thens will be glad of it, and it shall doe good to them ; 
for so they are, and so it begins to doe ; the Lord grant 

that the foundation of our English woe, be not laid in the ruine and 
contempt of those fundamentall doctrines of faith, repentance, humil- 
iation for sin, he. but rather relishing the novelties and dreames of 



with the Indians in New-England. 17 

such men as are surfetted with the ordinary food of the Gospell of 
Christ, [p. 18.] Indians shall weepe to heare faith and repentance 
preached, when English men shall mourne, too late, that are weary 
of such truths. 

That the deepest estrangements of man from God is no hindrance 
to his grace nor to the Spirit of grace, for what Nation 
or people ever so deeply degenerated since Adams fall 5. 

as these Indians, and yet the Spirit of God is working 
upon them ? 

That it is very likely if ever the Lord convert any of these Na- 
tives, that they will mourne for sin exceedingly, and 
consequently love Christ dearely, for if by a little meas- 6. 

ure of light such heart-breakings have appeared, what 
may wee thinke will bee, when more is let in ? they are some of 
them very wicked, some very ingenious, these latter are very apt 
and quick of understanding and naturally sad and melancholly (a 
good servant to repentance,) and therefore there is the greater hope 
of great heart-breakings, if ever God brings them effectually home, 
for which we should affectionately pray. 

A third meeting with the Indians. 

NOvember 26. I could not goe my selfe, but heard from those 
who went of a third meeting ; the Indians having built more 
Wigwams in the wonted place of meeting to attend upon the Word 
the more readily. The preacher understanding how many of the 
Indians discouraged their fellowes in this worke, and threatning 
death to some if they heard any more, spake therefore unto them, 
about temptations of the Devill, how hee tempted to all manner of 
sinne, and how the evill heart closed with them, and how a good 
heart abhorred them ; the Indians were this day more serious then 
ever before, and propounded divers questions againe ; as 1. Because 
some Indians say that we must pray to the Devill for all good, and 
some to God ; they would know whether they might pray to the 
Devill or no. 2. They said they heard the word humiliation oft 
used in our Churches, and they would know what that meant . ? 
3. Why the English call them Indians, because before they came 
they had another name f 4. What a Spirit is? 5. Whether they 
should beleeve Dreames ? 6. How the English come to know God 
so much [p. 19.] and they so little ? To all which they had fit 
answers ; but being not present I shall not set them downe : onely 
their great desire this time was to have a place for a Towne and to 
learne to spinne. 

Sir, I did thinke I should have writ no more to you concerning 
the Indians ; but the Ship lingers in the Harbour, and the Lord 
Jesus will have you see more of his conquests and triumphes among 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 3 



18 The Day-Breaking of the Gospell 

these forlorne and degenerate people ; surely hee heares the prayers 
of the destitute and that have long lien downe in the dust before God 
for these poore prisoners of the pit : surely some of these American 
tongues and knees must confesse him, and bow downe before him : 
for the Saturday night after this third meeting (as I am informed 
from that man of God who then preached to them) 
The name of there came to his house one Wampas a wise and sage 

an Indian. Indian, as a messenger sent to him from the rest of the 
company, to offer unto him his owne sonne and three 
more Indian children to bee trained up among the English, one of 
the children was nine yeares old, another eight, another five, another 
foure : and being demanded why they would have them brought up 
among the English, his answer was, because they would grow rude 
and wicked at home, and would never come to know God, which 
they hoped they should doe if they were constantly among the 
English. 

This Wampas came also accompanied with two more Indians, 
young lusty men, who offered themselves voluntarily to the service 
of the English that by dwelling in some of their families, they might 
come to know Jesus Christ ; these are two of those three men whom 
wee saw weeping, and whose hearts were smitten at our second 
meeting above mentioned, and continue still much affected, and 
give great hopes ; these two are accepted of and received into two 
of the Elders houses, but the children are not yet placed out be- 
cause it is most meet to doe nothing that way too suddainly, but 
they have a promise of acceptance and education of them either in 
learning or in some other trade of life in time convenient, to which 
Wampas replyed that the Indians desired nothing more. 

These two young men who are thus disposed of, being at an El- 
ders house upon the Sabbath day night, upon some conference 
[p. 20.] with them, one of them began to confesse how wickedly he 
had lived, and with how many Indian women hee had committed 
filthinesse, and therefore professed that hee thought God would 
never looke upon him in love. To which hee had this answer, that 
indeed that sinne of whoredoms was exceeding great, yet if hee 
sought God for (Jurists sake to pardon him, and confesse his sinne 
and repented of it indeed, that the Lord would shew him mercy ; 
and hereupon acquainted him with the story of Christs conference 
with the Samaritan woman, John 4. and how Jesus Christ forgave 
her although shee lived in that sinne of filthinesse, even when Christ 
began to speake to her : whereupon he fell a weeping and lamenting 
bitterly, and the other young man being present and confessing the 
like guiltinesse with his fellow, hee burst out also into a great mourn- 
ing, wherein both continued for above halfe an houre together at 
that time also. 

It is wonderfull to see what a little leven and that small mustard- 



with the Indians in New- England. 19 

seed of the Gospell will doe, and how truth will worke when the 
spirit of Christ hath the setting of it on, even upon hearts and spirits 
most uncapable ; for the last night after they had heard the word 
this third time, there was an English youth of good capacitie who 
lodged in Waaubons Wigwam that night upon speciall occasion, and 
hee assured us that the same night Waauhon instructed all his com- 
pany out of the things which they had heard that day from the 
Preacher, and prayed among them, and awaking often that night 
continually fell to praying and speaking to some or other of the 
things hee had heard, so that this man (being a man of gravitie and 
chiefe prudence and counsell among them, although no 
* Sachem) is like to bee a meanes of great good to the ThatisKing. 
rest of his company unlesse cowardise or witchery put 
an end (as usually they have done) to such hopefull beginnings. 

The old man who askt the first question the second time of our 
meeting (viz. whether there was any hope for such old men or no) 
hath six sonnes, one of his sonnes was a Pawwaw, and 
his wife a great Pawwaw, and both these God hath con- That is Sor - 
vinced of their wickednesse, and they resolve to heare itches! 1 
the word and seeke to the devill no more. This, the 
two Indians who are come to us acquaint us with, and that they now 
say, that Chepian, i. e. [p. 21.] the devill is naught, and that God 
is the author onely of all good as they have been taught. Hee 
therefore who preacheth to the Indians desired them to, tell him who 
were Pawwaws when hee went againe to preach amongst them ; 
and upon speciall occasion this Decemb. 4. being called of God to 
another place where the Indians use to meet, and having preacht 
among them, after the Sermon, hee that was the Pawwaw of that 
company was discovered to him, to whom hee addressed himselfe 
and propounded these questions, viz. 1. Whether doe you thinke 
that God or Chepian is the author of all good ? he answered, God. 
2. If God bee the author of all good, why doe you pray to Chepian 
the devill ? The Pawwaw perceiving him to propound the last 
question with a sterne countenance and unaccustomed terrour, hee 
gave him no answer, but spake to other Indians that hee did never 
hurt any body by his Pawwaiving, and could not bee got by all the 
meanes and turnings of questions that might bee, to give the least 
word of answer againe ; but a little after the conference was ended, 
hee met with this Pawivaw alone and spake more lovingly and cur- 
teously to him, and askt him why hee would not answer, he then 
told him that his last question struck a terrour into him and made 
him afraid, and promised that at the next meeting hee would pro- 
pound some question tb him as others did. 

And here it may not bee amisse to take notice of what these two 
Indians have discovered to us concerning these Pawwaws : for they 
were askt how they came to bee made Pawwaws, and they answer- 



20 The Day-Breaking of the Gospell 

ed thus, that if any of the Indians fall into any strange dreame 
wherein Chepian appeares unto them as a serpent, then the next 
day they tell the other Indians of it, and for two dayes after the rest 
of the Indians dance and rejoyce for what they tell them about this 
Serpent, and so they become their Pawvjaws : Being further askt 
what doe these Pawwaws, and what use are they of; and they said 
the principall imployment is to cure the sick by certaine odde ges- 
tures and beatings of themselves, and then they pull out the sicknesse 
by applying their hands to the sick person and so blow it away : so 
that their Pawwaws are great witches having fellowship with the old 
Serpent, to whom they pray, and by whose meanes they heale sicke 
persons, and (as they [p. 22.] said also) will shew many strange jug- 
lings to the wonderment of the Indians. They affirmed also that if 
they did not cure the sick party (as very often they did not) that 
then they were reviled, and sometime killed by some of the dead 
mans friends, especially if they could not get their mony againe out 
of their hands, which they receive aforehand for their cure. 

Wee have cause to be very thankfull to God who hath moved the 

hearts of the generall court to pur- 
* This towne the Indians did desire chase so much land for them to make 

to know what name it should have, .1, •„ . • 1 • 1 .1 7 ?• 

and it was told them it should bee their t0Wne m whlch the lndianS are 

called N oonatomen, which signifies much taken with,* and it is some- 
in English rejoycing, because they w b at observable that while the Court 

hearing the word, and seeking to • 1 • . 1 

know God, the English did rejoyce were considering where to lay out 
at it, and God did rejoyce at it, their towne, the Indians (not know- 

which pleased them much; 8f there- \ n „ f any tn j n2 A were a |j 0Llt lnat time 
fore that is to be the name of their a ,. J ,°' T c a 

J towne consulting about Lawes lor them- 

selves, and their company who sit 
downe with Waaubon ; there were ten of them, two of them are 
forgotten. 

Their Lawes were these. 

1. That if any man be idle a weeke, at most a fortnight, hee shall 
pay five shillings. 

2. If any unmarried man shall lie with a young woman unmar- 
ried, hee shall pay twenty shillings. 

3. If any man shall beat his wife, his hands shall bee tied behind 
him and carried to the place of justice to bee severely punished. 

4. Every young man if not anothers servant, and if unmarried, 
hee shall be compelled to set up a Wigwam and plant for himselfe, 
and not live shifting up and downe to other Wigwams. 

5. If any woman shall not have her haire tied up but hang loose 
or be cut as mens haire, she shall pay five shillings. 

6. If any woman shall goe with naked breasts they shall pay two 
shillings six pence. 

7. All those men that weare long locks shall pay five shillings. 

8. If any shall kill their lice betweene their teeth, they shall pay 



with the Indians in New-England. 2 1 

five shillings. This Law though ridiculous to English eares yet 
tends to preserve cleanlinesse among Indians. 

'Tis wonderfull in our eyes to understand by these two honest 
[p. 23.] Indians, what Prayers Waaubon and the rest of them use 
to make, for hee that preacheth to them professeth hee never yet 
used any of their words in his prayers, from whom otherwise it 
might bee thought that they had learnt them by rote, one is this. 

Amanaomen Jehovah tahassen metagh. 

Take away Lord my stony heart. 
Another. 

Chechesom Jehovah kekowhogkow, 
Wash Lord my soule. 

Another. 

Lord lead mee when I die to heaven. 
These are but a taste, they have many more, and these more 
enlarged then thus expressed, yet what are these but the sprinklings 
of the spirit and blood of Christ Jesus in their hearts ? and 'tis no 
small matter that such dry barren and long-accursed ground should 
yeeld such kind of increase in so small a time. I would not readily 
commend a faire day before night, nor promise much of such kind 
of beginnings, in all persons, nor yet in all of these, for wee know 
the profession of very many is but a meere paint, and their best 
graces nothing but meere flashes and pangs, which are suddenly 
kindled and as soone go out and are extinct againe, yet God doth 
not usually send his Plough h Seedsman to a place but there is at 
least some little peece of good ground, although three to one bee 
naught : and mee thinkes the Lord Jesus would never have made 
so fit a key for their locks, unlesse hee had intended to open some 
of their doores, and so to make way for his comming in. Hee that 
God hath raised up and enabled to preach unto them, is a man (you 
know) of a most sweet, humble, loving, gratious and enlarged spirit, 
whom God hath blest, and surely will still delight in, h do good by. 
I did think never to have opened my mouth to any, to desire those 
in England to further any good worke here, but now I see so many 
things inviting to speak in this businesse, that it were well if you did 
lay before those that are prudent and able these considerations. 

1. That it is prettie heavy and chargeable to educate and traine 
up those children which are already offered us, in schooling, cloath- 
ing, diet and attendance, which they must have. 

2. That in all probabilitie many Indians in other places, especially 
[p. 24.] under our jurisdiction, will bee provoked by this example 
in these, both to desire preaching, and also to send their children to 
us, when they see that some of their fellowes fare so well among 
the English, and the civill authoritie here so much favouring and 
countenancing of these, and if many more come in, it will bee more 
heavy to such as onely are fit to keepe them, and yet have their 
hands and knees infeebled so many wayes besides. 



22 The Day-Breaking of the Gospell 

3. That if any shall doe any thing to incourage this worke, that 
it may bee given to the Colledge for such an end and use, that so 
from the Colledge may arise the yeerly revenue for their yeerly 
maintenance. I would not have it placed in any particular mans 
hand for feare of cousenage or misplacing or carelesse keeping and 
improving; but at the Colledge it's under many hands and eyes the 
chief and best of the country who have been St will be exactly care- 
full of the right and comely disposing of such things ; and therefore, 
if any thing bee given, let it bee put in such hands as may immedi- 
atly direct it to the President of the Colledge, who you know will 
soone acquaint the rest with it ; and for this end if any in England 
have thus given any thing for this end, I would have them speake to 
those who have received it to send it this way, which if it bee with- 
held I thinke ' tis no lesse then sacriledge : but if God moves no 
hearts to such a work, I doubt not then but that more weake meanes 
shall have the honour of it in the day of Christ. 

A fourth meeting with the Indians. 

THis day being Decemb. 9. the children being catechised, and 
that place of Ezekiel touching the dry bones being opened, 
and applyed to their condition ; the Indians offered all their children 
to us to bee educated amongst us, and instructed by us, complaining 
to us that they were not able to give any thing to the English for 
their education : for this reason there are therefore preparations 
made towards the schooling of them, and setting up a Schoole among 
them or very neare unto them. Sundry questions also were pro- 
pounded by them to us, and of us to them ; one of them being askt 
what is sinne ? hee answered a naughty heart. Another old man 
complained to us of his feares, viz. that hee [p. 25.] was fully pur- 
posed to keepe the Sabbath, but still hee was in feare whether he 
should goe to hell or heaven ; and thereupon the justification of a 
sinner by faith in Christ was opened unto him as the remedy against 
all feares of hell. Another complayned of other Indians that did 
revile them, and call them Rogues and such like speeches for cut- 
ting off their Locks, and for cutting their Haire in a modest manner 
as the New-English generally doe ; for since the word hath begun 
to worke upon their hearts, they have discerned the vanitie and 
pride which they placed in their haire, and have therefore of their 
owne accord (none speaking to them that we know of) cut it mod- 
estly ; they were therefore encouraged by some there present of 
chiefe place and account with us, not to feare the reproaches 
of wicked Indians, nor their witch-craft and Pawwaws and poyson- 
ings, but let them know that if they did not dissemble but would 
seeke God unfaignedly, that they would stand by them, and that 
God also would be with them. They told us also of divers Indians 



with the Indians in New-England. 23 

who would come and stay with them three or foure dayes, and one 
Sabbath, and then they would goe from them, but as for themselves, 
they told us they were fully purposed to keepe the Sabbath, to 
which wee incouraged them, and night drawing on were forced 
to leave them, for this time. 



FINIS. 









THE 

Clear Sun-shine of the Gospel 

BREAKING FORTH 
UPON THE 

INDIANS 

I N 

NEW-ENGLAND. 

O R, 

An Historicall Narration of Gods 

Wonderfull Workings upon sundry of the 

Indians, both chief Governors and Common-people, 

in bringing them to a willing and desired submission to 

the Ordinances of the Gospel ; and framing their 

hearts to an earnest inquirie after the knowledge 

of God the Father, and of Jesus Christ 

the Saviour of the World. 

By Mr. Thomas Shepard Minister of the Gospel of 

Jesus Christ at Cambridge in JVew-England. 

Isaiah 2. 2, 3. And it shall come to passe in the last dayes, that the mountain of the 
Lords house shall bee established in the top of the mountains, and shall bee ex- 
alted above the hills ; and all Nations shall flow unto it. 

And many people shal go and say, Come ye and let us go up to the mountain of the 
Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob, and he will teach us of his wayes, and 
we will walk in his paths : for out of Zion shall go forth the Law, and the 
word of the Lord from Jerusalem. 

London, Printed by R. Cotes for John Bellamy at the three golden 
Lions in Cornhill near the Roy all Exchange, 1648. 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 4 



TO THE 

RIGHT HONOVRABLE 

THE 

LORDS & COMMONS 

Assembled 

In High Court of Parliament. 



Right Honorable, 

THese few sheets present unto your view a short but 
welcome discourse of the visitations of the most 
High upon the saddest spectacles of degeneracy upon 
earth, The poore Indian People : the distance of place, 
(if our spirits be right) will be no lessening of the mercy, 
nor of our thankefulnesse, That Christ is glorified, that 
the Gospel doth any where find footing ; and successe 
is a mercy as well worthy the praise of the Saints on 
Earth, as the joy of the Angels in heaven. The report 
of this mercy is first made to you, who are the Represen- 
tative of this Nation, That in you England might bee 
stirred up, to be Rejoycers in, and Advancers of these 
promising beginnings. And because to you an account 
is first due of the successe of the Gospel in those darke 
corners of the World, which have been so much inlightned 
by Your favour, enlivened by Your resolutions, encour- 
aged by Your fore-past indeavours for God, & hope stil 
being parts of Your selves, to be further strengthned by 
Your benigne aspects and bountifull influences on them. 



28 The Epistle 

The present troubles have not so far obliterated and 
worn out the sad mispressions which former times have 
made upon our spirits, but we can sadly remember those 
destructive designes which were on foot, and carryed on 
for the Introduction of so great evils both into Church 
and State ; In order to which it was the endeavour of the 
Contrivers and Promoters of those designes, to wast the 
number of the godly, as those who would never be 
brought to comply in such destructive enterprises ; which 
was attempted by banishing and forcing some abroad, 
by burthening and afflicting all at home. Among those 
who tasted of the first, I say not the worst sort of their 
cruelty, were these our Brethren, who to enjoy the liber- 
ties of the Gospel, were content to sit downe, and pitch 
their tents in the utmost parts of the Earth, hoping that 
there they might be out of the reach of their malice, as 
they were assured they were beyond the bounds of their 
love. God who doth often make mans evill of sin, ser- 
viceable to the advancement of the riches of his owne 
Grace ; The most horrid act that ever was done by the 
sonnes of men, the murther of Christ, God made service- 
able to the highest purposes of Grace and mercy that 
ever came upon his breast ; That God doth shew that 
hee had mercifull ends, in this their malicious purpose : 

as hee suffer'd Paul to be cast into prison, to 
Acts 1G - 30 > convert the Jay lor, to be ship wrack t at Melita 9 
Acts 28.1.' 11. to preach to the barbarous, so he suffer'd their 

way to be stopped up here, and their persons 
to be banished hence, that hee might open a passage for 
them in the Wildernesse, and make them instruments to 
draw soules to him, who had been so long estranged 
from him. 

It was the end of the adversary to suppresse, but Gods 
to propagate the Gospel ; theirs to smother and put out 
the light, Gods to communicate and disperse it to the 

utmost corners of the Earth ; that as one saith 
SSu^rSsn- of Paul, his blindnesse gave light to the whole 
luminatio. World, so we hope God will make their dis- 

Acts 9. 9. i . 7 r c 

tance and estrangednesse irom us, a meanes ol 
bringing many near and in to acquaintance with him. 



Dedicatory, 29 

Indeed a long time it was before God let them see any 
farther end of their comming over, then to preserve their 
consciences, cherish their Graces, provide for their suste- 
nance : But when Providences invited their return, he let 
them know it was for some farther Arrand that hee 
brought them thither, giving them some Bunches of 
Grapes, some Clusters of Figs in earnest of the 
prosperous successe of their endeavours upon f s s a al# 5 2 'io n, 
those poor outcasts : The utmost ends of the 12 - 
earth are designed and promised to be in time Luke io.'i. ' 
the possessions of Christ ; And hee sends his 
Ministers into every place where he himself intends to 
come, and take possession. Where the Ministery is the 
Harbinger and goes before, Christ and Grace will cer- 
tainly follow after. 

This little we see is something in hand, to earnest to 
us those things which are in hope ; something in posses- 
sion, to assure us of the rest in promise, when 
the ends of the earth shall see his glory, and ^ s e a v L ff f 5 ' 
the Kingdomes of the world shall become the P sal - 72. 8, 9, 
Kingdomes of the Lord and his Christ, when 
hee shall have Dominion from Sea to Sea, and they that 
dwell in the wildernesse shall bow before him. And if the 
dawn of the morning be so delightfull, what will the clear 
day be ? If the first fruits be so precious, what wil the 
whole harvest be 1 if some beginnings be so ful of joy, 
what will it be when God shall perform his 
whole work, when the whole earth shall be full 
of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the Sea, 
and East and West shal sing together the song of the 
Lamb? 

In order to this what doth God require of us, but that 
we should strengthen the hands, incourage the hearts of 
those who are at work for him, conflicting with difficul- 
ties, wrestling with discouragements, to spread the Gos- 
pel, &, in that, the fame and honor of this Nation, to the 
utmost ends of the earth? It was the design of your 
enemies to make them little, let it be your endevor to 
make them great, their greatnesse is your strength. Their 



30 The Epistle, fyc. 

enemies threatned their hands should reach them for evil, 
God disappointed them ; And let your hands reach them 
now for good ; there is enough in them to speak them fit 
objects of your incouragement, they are men of choice 
spirits, not frighted with dangers, softned with allure- 
ments, nor discouraged with difficulties, preparing the 
way of the Lord in those impassable places of the earth, 
dealing with such whom they are to make men, before 
they can make them Christians. They are such who are 
impressed for your service in the service of Christ, can 
stand alone, but desire to have dependence on you, they 
feare not the malice of their enemies, but desire the coun- 
tenance and incouragement of their friends ; And shal 
your Honors in consideration of their former sufferings, 
their present service, and reall deservings, help the day of 
small things among them ; shal you interest them in your 
assistances, as you are interessed in their affections, you 
wil thereby not only further these beginnings of God by 
incouraging their hearts, and strengthning their hands to 
work for him, but also (as we humbly conceive) much 
add to the comfort of your owne accounts in the day of 
the Lord, and lay greater obligations on them yet more to 
pray for you, to promote your counsels, and together with 
us your unworthy servants to write down themselves, 
Yours humbly devoted in the service of the Gospel. 

Stephen Marshall John Downam Tho. Goodwin 

Jeremy Whitaker Philip JVye Tho. Case 

Edm. Calamy Syd. Symptson Simeon Ashe 

William Greenhill William Carter Samuel Bolton. 






TO THE 

Godly and well affected of this 

Kingdome of ENGLAND ; 

who pray for, and rejoyce in, the 

thrivings of the Gospel of our 

LORD JESVS. 

Christian Reader, 

JF ever thou hadst experience of this day of power, these visita- 
tions of Christ upon thine own spirit ; 1 suppose thee to be one 
who hast ernbarqu'd many prayers for the successe of the Gos- 
pel in these darke corners of the earth ; to strengthen thy faith, in- 
large thy heart, and assure thy soul that God is a God hearing 
prayers : An account is here given to thee of the conquests of the 
Lord Iesus upon these poor out-casts, who have thus long been 
estranged from him, spilt like water upon the ground and none to 
gather them. Formerly thou had, The Day-break, some d awnings 
of light, after a long and black night of darkenes, here thou seest 
the sun is up, which wee hope will rejoice like the strong man to run 
its race, scattering those thick clouds of darknesse, and shining 
brighter and brighter till it come to a perfect day. These few 
sheets give thee some footing for such thoughts, and some further in- 
couragments to wait fy pray for the accomplishment' of such things. 
Here thou mayst see, the Ministry is precious, the feet of them who 
bring glad tidings beauiifull, Ordinances desired, the "Word frequent- 
ed, and attended, the Spirit also going forth in power and efficacy 
with it, in awakening and humbling of them, drawing forth those 
affections of sorrow, and expressions of tears in abundance, which no 
tortures or extremities were ever observed to force from them, with 
lamenting : we read here, their leaving of sinne, they forsake their 
former evill wayes, and set up fences never to returne, by making 
laws for the punishment of those sins wherein they have lived, and to 
which they have been so much addicted. They set up prayers in 
their families morning and evening, and are in earnest in them; 
And with more affection they, crave Gods blessing upon a little 
parched corn, fy Indian stalks, then many of us do upon our greatest 
plenty and abundance. They rest on the Lords day, and make laws 
for the observation of it, wherein they meet together to pray fy in- 
struct one another in the things of God, which have been commu- 



The Epistle 

nicated to them. They renounce their diabolicall Charmes and 
CharmerSj and many of those who were practitioners in these sinfull 

and soul-undoing Arts, being made naked, convinced 

"6. 16. an( i as } iame( i f th e i r ev m^ forsake their way, and be- 

Incantatio ia ^ e themselves to prayer, preferring the Christian 

raussitatio.' Charm, before their diabolical Spells : herein God 

Jer 8. 17. making good that promise Zeph. 2. 11. I will famish 

al the Gods of the earth, (which he doth by withdraw- 
ing the worshippers, and throwing contempt upon the worship) And 
men shal worship me alone every one from his place, even all the 
Isles of the Heathens, 

All these are hopefull presages that God is going out in his power 
and grace to conquer a people to himself ; That he begins to cast an 

owning look on them, whom he hath so long neglected 

Act. 14. 16. <^ despised. And indeed God may wel seek out for 

cts . 30. ther ground to sow the seed of his Ordinances upon, 

seeing the ground where it hath been sown hath brought 
forth no better fruit to him ; he may well bespeak another people to 
himself, seeing he finds no better entertainment among the people he 
hath espoused to him, and that by so many mercies, priviledges, in- 
deerments, ingagements. We have as many sad symptomes of a 
declining, as these poor outcasts have glad presages of a Rising Sun 
among them. The Ordinances are as much contemned here, as fre- 
quented there; the JVJinistery as much discouraged here, as embraced 
there ; Religion as much derided, the ways of godliness as much 
scorned here, as they can be wished and desired there ; generally 
wee are sick of plenty, wee surfet of our abundance, the worst of 
Surfets, and with our loathed Manna and disdained food, God is 
preparing them a Table in the wih t 'ernes ; where our satieties, wil be 
their sufficiencies ; our complaints, their contents ; our burthens, 
their comforts ; if he cannot have an England here, he can have an 
England there ; &f baptize &f adopt them, into those priviledges, ivhich 
wee have, looked upon as our burthens. We have sad decay es upon 
us, we are a revolting Nation, a people guilty of great defection from 
God, Some fall from the worship of God to their old superstitions, 
and corrupt worship, saying with those in leremy, It was better with 
us then now. Some fall from the doctrin of grace to errors, some 
to damnable, others to defiling, some to destructive, others to corrup- 
tive opinions* Some fall from professed seeming holynes, to sin fy 
profanenes ; who like blazing cornets did shine bright for a time, but 
after have set in a night of darknes. We have many sad symptomes 
on us, we decay under all the means of nourishment, are barren 
under all Gods sowings, dry under al the dews, droppings showres 

of heaven, like that Country tvhereof Historians speak, 
Siccitas dat where drought causeth dirt, and showres causeth dust, 
pulvereln. * ^ n ^ w ^ ai doth God threaten herein, but to remove the 



To the Reader. 33 

Candlesticks, to take away the Gospel, that pretious Gospel, the 
streams whereof have brought so many ships laden with blessings to 
our shoar, that Gospel under the shadow whereof we have sate down 
and been refreshed these many years? where the power is lost, God 
will not long continue the form, where the heat is gone, he wil not 
long continue the light. The temple did not preserve the lews when 
their hearts were the Synagogues of Satan, nor shall any outward 
priviledge hold us up, when, the inward power is down in our spirits. 
God hath forsaken other Churches as eminent as ever England was : 
where are the churches of Asia, once famous for the gospel, for gen- 
eral Councels, now places for Zim and Ochim, their habitation deso- 
late 9 where are those ancient people of the lews who were (segulla 
micol hagndmim) his peculiar and chosen people of al nations ? they 
are scattered abroad as a curse, and their place knows them no more. 
And shall 1 tel you *? God hath no need of us, he can cal them 
Gnammi, his people, who were Lo gnammi, not his people, and them 
beloved, who were not beloved. Indeed he hath held up us, as if he 
had not known where to have another people, if he should forsake us ; 
we have been a Goshen, when others have been an Egypt, a Canaan, 
when others an Akeldama, the garden of God, when others have been 
a wildernesse, our fleece hath been wet, when others have been dry : 
But know, God hath no need of us, he can want no peo- 
ple if he please to call; If he speake, all the ends of the Psal. 22. 27,28. 
world shall remember and turn unto the Lord, and all 1 E sa 9 C 'io 
the kindreds of the Nations shall worship before him. 
If he set up his standard, to him shal the Gentiles flock, and the 
earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover 
the sea. It is not for need but for love that God 
abides with England, and there is nothing out ofhimselfe Al p at deus ; non 
the incentive of this love : there can be no reason given Jabet, sed°ipse 
why God should fence us, and suffer other places to lye est unde amat. 
wast, that we should bee his Garden, and other places a Au £- 
Wildernes, that he should feed us with the bread of 
Heaven, and suffer others to starve, men of the same mould, his off- 
spring as well as we, and such (did he conquer to himselfe) were 
likely to doe him more service, bring him more glory then we have 
done. Wee see something here done in order to such a work, our 
Harvest is much over, we see little incomes, there we see the fields are 
ripe for harvest ; here the ministry is contemned, there the feet of 
them that bring glad tydings are beautifull ; we have outlived the 
power and efficacy of Ordinances, there God goes forth with life and 
power ; we can outfit the most speaking and winning discoveries of 
Christ, there every notion, breeds motion in them ; the glory of the 
Lord is much departed from us, there his rising is conspicuous and 
glorious. The blind man found it good to be in the way where 
Christ came : And who would be in iEgypt when there is light in 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 5 



34 The Epistle 

Goshen ? Oh that England would be quickned by their risings, and 
weep over her own declinings ! What a wonder is it that they should 
doe so much, and we so lillle, that they should be men in their in- 
fancy, and we such children in our manhood, that they so active, we 
so dead ? That which was Hieroms complaint may be 
Heu ! quod prae- ours, O that Infidelity should do that which those who 
ouodnonpre- P r °f esse themselves beleevers cannot do! We have 
stitit fides. the light of former times, but want the heat, knowledge 
Ignis qui in pa- abounds as the waters cover the sea, but we want the 
Calidus 8 in U no- sa ^ ' we ^ iave a f° rm °f Godlinesse, but want the pow- 
bis Lucidus. er : And it wil be smal comfort should God continue 
to us the form, and cary to others the power, to suffer 
us to wast our selvs with unnecessary brangles (which are the sweat 
of the tirnes) and in the mean to cary the life and power of Religion 
unto others. 

Let these poor Indians stand up incentives to us, as the Apostle set 
up the Gentiles a provocation to the lews : who knows 
Rom 11. 14. ou t Q d gave -life to New England, to quicken Old, 
and hath warmed them, that they might heat us, raised 
them from the dead, that they might recover us from that consump- 
tion, and those sad decayes which are come upon us ? 

This smal Treatise is an Essay to that end, an Indian Sermon, 
though you will not hear us, possibly when some rise from the dead 
you will hear them. The main Doctrin it preacheth unto all, is to 
value the Gospel, prize the Ministry, loath not your Manna, surfet 
not of your plenty, be thankfull for mercies, fruitfull under means : 
Awake from your slumber, repair your decayes, redeem your time, 
improve the seasons of your peace; answer to cals, open to knocks, 
attend to whispers, obey commands ; you have a name you live, take 
heed you bee not dead, you are Christians in shew, be so indeed : 
least as you have lost the power, God take away from you the form 
also. 

And you that are Ministers learn by this not to despond though 
you see not present fruit of your labors, though you fish all night 
and catch nothing, God hath a fulnesse of time to perform all his 
purposes. And the deepest degeneracies, fy widest estrangements 
from God, shall be no bar or obstacle to the power and freenesse of 
his owne grace when that time is come. 

And you that are Merchants, take incouragement from hence to 
scatter the beames of light, to spread and propagate the Gospel into 
those dark corners of the earth ; whither you traffick you take much 
from them, if you can carry this to them., you wil make them an abun- 
dant recompence. And you that are Christians indeed, rejoice to see 
the Curtaines of the Tabernacle inlarged, the bounds of the Sanc- 
tuary extended, Christ advanced, the Gospel propagated, and souls 
saved. And if ever the love of God did center in your hearts, if 



To the Reader. 



35 



ever the sense of his goodness hath begot bowels of compassion in 
you, draw them forth towards them whom God hath singled out to 
be the objecis of his grace and mercy ; lay out your prayers, lend 
your assistance to carry on this day of' the Lord btgun among them. 
They are not able (as Moses said) to bear the burthen of that peo- 
ple alone, to make provision for the children whom God hath given 
them ; &f therefore it is requisite the spiritual community should help 
to bear part ivith them. Many of the young ones are given and 
taken in, to be educated fy brought up in Schooles, they are naked 
and must be clad, they want al things, and must be supplyed. The 
Parents also, and many others being convinced of the evill of an idle 
life, desire to be employed in honest labor, but they want instruments 
and tooles to set them on work, and cast-garments to throw upon 
those bodies, that their loins may blesse you, whose souls Christ hath 
cloathed. Some worthy persons have given much ; and if God shall 
move the heart of others to offer willingly towards the building of 
Christ a Spirituall temple, it will certainly remain upon their ac- 
count, when the smallest rewards from God, shall be better then the 
greatest layings out for God. But we are making a relation, not 
a collection ; we leave the whole to your Christian consideration, not 
doubting but they who have tasted of mercy from God, will be ready 
to exercise compassion to others, fy commend you unto 
him who gave himself for us, that bee might redeem us Tit 9. 14. 
from all iniquity, and purifie as well as purchase unto 
himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works. 



Stephen Marshall 
ler. Whitaker 
Edmund Calamy 
William Greenhill 



Iohn Downam 
Philip Nye 
Sy. Simpson 
William Carter 



Tho. Goodwin 
Tho. Case 
Simeon Ashe 
Samuel Bolton. 



±169683 






THE 

CLEARE SVNSHINE 

OF THE 

GOSPELL, 

Breaking forth upon the INDIANS 
in New-England. 

Much Honored and deare Sir, 

THat glorious and sudden rising of Christ Jesus upon our poore 
Indians which began a little before you set saile from these 
shores, hath not been altogether clouded since, but rather broken 
out further into more light and life, wherewith the most High hath 
visited them ; and because some may call in question the truth of 
the first relation, either because they may thinke it too good newes 
to be true, or because some persons maligning the good of the Coun- 
trey, are apt, as to aggravate to the utmost any evill thing against it, 
so to vilifie and extenuate any good thing in it : and because 
your selfe desired to heare how farre since God hath carried 
on that worke, which your owne eyes saw here begun ; I shall 
therefore as faithfully and as briefly as I can, give you a true 
relation of the progresse of it, which I hope may be a sufficient con- 
firmation of what hath been published to [p. 2.] the world before, 
having this as the chiefe end in my owne eye, that the precious 
Saints and people of God in England, beleeving what hath been 
and may bee reported to them, of these things, may help forward 
this work together with us by their prayers and prayses, as we de- 
sire to doe the like for the worke of Christ begun among them there. 
I dare not speake too much, nor what I thinke about their conver- 
sion, I have seen so much falsenesse in that point among many Eng- 
lish, that I am slow to beleeve herein too hastily concerning these 
poore naked men ; onely this is evident to all honest hearts that 
dwell neer them, and have observed them, that the work of the 
Lord upon them (what ever it bee) is both unexpected and wonder- 
full in so short a time ; I shall set downe things as they are, and then 
your selfe and others to whom these may come, may judge as you 
please of them. 



38 The clear e Sun-shine of the Gospel, 

Soon after your departure hence, the awakening of these Indians 

in our Towne raised a great noyse among all the rest 
PHnce 0Ur roun d aDOUt ,,s i especially about Concord side where the 

* Sachim (as I remember) and one or two more of his 
men, hearing of these things and of the preaching o( the Word, and 

how it wrought among them here, came therefore 
town so called, hither to * JVoonanetum to the Indian Lecture, and 

what the Lord spake to his heart wee know not, only 
it seems hee was so farre affected, as that he desired to become 
more like to the English, and to cast off those Indian wild and sin- 
full courses they formerly lived in ; but when divers of his men per- 
ceived their Sachims mind, they secretly opposed him herein ; which 
opposition being known, he therefore called together his chiefe men 
about him, Sl made a speech to this effect unto them, " viz. That 
" they had no reason at all to oppose those courses the English were 
"now taking for their good, for (saiih hee) all the time you have 
" lived after the Indian fashion under the power and protection of 
" higher Indian Sachems, what did they care for you ? they onely 
"sought their owne ends out of you, and therefore would exact 
"upon you, and take away your skins and your Kettles & your 
" Wampam from you at their own pleasure, & this was al that they 
" regarded : but you may evidently see that the English mind no 
"such things, care for none of your goods, but onely seeke your 
" good and welfare, and in stead of taking away, are ready to give 
"to you; with many other things I now [p. 3.] forget, which were 
related by an eminent man of that town to me. What the effect of 
this speech was, we can tell no otherwise then as the effects shewed 
it ; the first thing was, the making of certain Lawes for their more 
religious and civill government and behaviour, to the making of 
which, they craved the assistance of one of the chiefe Indians in 
JVoonanetvm, a very active Indian to bring in others to the knowl- 
edge of God ; desiring withall an able faithfull man in Concord to 

record and keep in writing what they had generally 
* Teacher of agreed upon. Another effect was, their desire of * Mr. 
Roxbury\h&t Eliots coming up to them, to preach, as he could find 
preachet'h to time among them ; and the last effect was, their desire 
the Indians in f having a Towne given them within the bounds of 
Language. Concord neare unto the English. This latter when it 

was propounded by the Sachim of the place, he was 
demanded why hee desired a towne so neare, when as there was 
more roome for ihem up in the Country. To which the Sachim 
replyed, that he therefore desired it because he knew that if the 
Indians dwelt far from the English, that they would not so much 
care to pray, nor would they be so ready to heare the Word of God, 
but they would be all one Indians still ; but dwelling neare the Eng- 
lish he hoped it might bee otherwise with them then. The Town 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England. 39 

therefore was granted them ; but it seemes that the opposition made 
by some of themselves more malignantly set against these courses, 
hath kept them from any present setling downe : and surely this op- 
position is a speciall finger of Satan resisting these budding begin- 
nings ; for what more hopefull way of doing them good then by cohabi- 
tation in such Townes, neare unto good examples, and such as may 
be continually whetting upon them, and dropping into then) of the 
things of God ? what greater meanes at least to civilize tbem ? as is 
evident in the Cusco and Mexico Indians, more civill then any else 
in this vast Continent that wee know of, who were reduced by the 
politick principles of the two great conquering Princes of those 
Countries after their long and tedious wars, from these wild and 
wandring course of life, unto a setling into particular Townes and 
Cities : but I forbear, only to confirme the truth of these things, I 
have sent you the orders agreed on at Concord by the Indians, 
under the hand of two faithlull witnesses, who could testifie more, if 
need were, of these matters: I have sent you their [p. 4] owne 
Copy and their own hands to it, which I have here inserted. 



Conclusions and Orders made and agreed upon by divers 

Sachims and other principal! men amongst the Indians at 
Concord, in the end of the eleventh moneth, An. 1646. 

1. nr^Hat every one that shall abuse themselves with wine or 

1 strong liquors, shall pay for every time so abusing them- 
selves, 20 s. 

2. That there shall be no more Pawwowing amongst * Pawwows 
the Indians. And if any shall hereafter * Pawwow, " e sSre™ 
both he that shall Powwow, h he that shall procure that cure by 
him to Powwow, shall pay 20 5. apeece. J} eI ^n° f the 

3. They doe desire that they may be stirred up to seek 
after God. 

4. They desire they may understand the wiles of Satan, and grow 
out of love with his suggestions, and temptations. 

5. That they may fall upon some better course to improve their 
time, then formerly. 

6. That they may be brought to the sight of the sinne of lying, and 
whosoever shall be found faulty herein shall pay for the first of- 
fence 5 5. the second 10 s. the third 20 s. 

7. Whosoever shall steale any thing from another, shall restore four- 
fold. 

8. They desire that no Indian hereafter shall have any more but 
one wife. 

9. They desire to prevent falling out of Indians one with another, 
and that they may live quietly one by another. 



40 The chare Sim-shine of the Gospel, 

10. That they may labour after humility, and not be proud. 

11. That when Indians doe wrong one to another, they may be 
lyable to censure by fine or the like, as the English are. 

12. That they pay their debts to the English. 

13. That they doe observe the Lords-Day, and whosoever shall 
prophane it shall pay 205. 

14. That there shall not be allowance to pick Lice, as formerly, and 
eate them, and whosoever shall offend in this case shall pay for 
every louse a penny, [p. 5. J 

15. They will weare their haire comely, as the English do, and 
whosoever shall offend herein shall pay 5 s. 

16. They intend to reforme themselves, in their former greasing 

, w . • themselves, under the Penalty of 5 s. for every default. 

A Wigwam is ' J . J . 

such a dwel- 17. They doe all resolve to set up prayer in their wig- 
ling house as warns, and to seek to God both before and after 

they live in. meafe> 

18. If any commit the sinne of fornication, being single persons, 
the man shall pay 20 s. and the woman 10s. 

19. If any man lie with a beast he shall die. 

20. Whosoever shall play at their former games shall pay 10 s. 

21. Whosoever shall commit adultery shall be put to death. 

22. Wilfull murder shall be punished with death. 

23. They shall not disguise themselves in their mournings, as for- 
merly, nor shall they keep a great noyse by howling. 

24. The old Ceremony of the Maide walking alone and living apart 

so many dayes 20 s. 
* A Canooe is 25. No Indian shall take an English mans * Canooe 
a small Boate. w j t hout leave under the penaltie of 5 s. 

26. No Indian shall come into any English mans house 
except he first knock : and this they expect from the English. 

27. Whosoever beats his wife shall pay 20 s. 

28. If any Indian shall fall out with, and beate another Indian, he 
shall pay 20 s. 

29. They desire they may bee a towne, and either to dwell on this 
side the Beare Swamp, or at the east side of Mr. Flints Pond. 

Immediately after these things were agreed upon, most of the In- 
dians of these parts, set up Prayer morning and evening in their 
families, and before and after meat. They also generally cut their 
haire, and were more civill in their carriage to the English then for- 
merly. And they doe manifest a great willingnesse to conform 
themselves to the civill fashions of the English. The Lords day 
they keepe a day of rest, and minister what edification they can to 
one another. These former orders were put into this forme by 
Captaine Simond Willard of Concord, whom the Indians with 
unanimous consent intreated to bee their Recorder, being very soli- 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England, 41 

citous that what they did agree upon might be faithfully preserved 
without alteration. 

Thomas Flint. Simon Willard. 

[p. 6.] These things thus wrought in a short time about Concord 
side, I looke upon as fruits of the ministery of the Word ; for although 
their high esteem bred lately in them, especially the chief and best 
of the English, together with that mean esteem many of them have 
of themselves, and therefore will call themselves sometimes poore 
Creatures, when they see and heare of their great distance from 
others of the English ; I say, although these things may be some 
causes of making these orders and walking in these courses, yet the 
chiefe cause seemes to bee the power of the Word, which hath been 
the chiefe cause of these Orders, and therefore it is that untill 
now of late they never so much as thought of any of these things. 

I am not able to acquaint you very much from my owne eye and 
eare witnesse of things, for you know the neare relation between me 
and the fire side usually all winter time, onely I shall impart two or 
three things more of what I have heard and seen, and the rest I shall 
relate to you as 1 have received from failhfull witnesses, who testifie 
nothing to me by their writings, but what is seene in the open Sun, 
and done in the view of all the world, and generally known to be 
true of people abiding in these parts wee live in. 

As soone as ever the fiercenesse of the winter was past, March. 
3. 1647. I went out to JVoonanetum to the Indian Lecture, where 
Mr. Wilson, Mr. Allen, of Dedham, Mr. Dunster, beside many 
other Christians were present; on which day perceiving divers of 
the Indian women well affected, and considering that their soules 
might stand in need of answer to their scruples as well as the mens; 
&, yet because we knew how unfit it was for women so much as to 
aske questions publiquely immediatly by themselves ; wee did there- 
fore desire them to propound any questions they would bee resolved 
about by first acquainting either their Husbands, or the Interpreter 
privately therewith : whereupon we heard two questions thus orderly 
propounded ; which because they are the first that ever were pro- 
pounded by Indian women in such an ordinance that ever wee 
heard of, and because they may bee otherwise usefull, I shall there- 
fore set them dovvne. 

The first question was propounded by the wife of one Wampooas 
a well affected Indian, viz. "Whether (said she) do I pray 
"when [p. 7.] my husband prayes if I speak nothing as he doth, 
"yet if 1 like what he saith, and my heart goes with it? (for the 
Indians will many times pray with their wives, and with their chil- 
dren also sometime in the fields) shee therefore fearing lest prayer 
should onely be an externall action of the lips, enquired if it might! 
not be also an inward action of the heart, if she liked of what he said. 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 6 



42 The cleare Sun-shine of the Gospel, 

The second question was propounded by the Wife of one Toiher- 
swampe, her meaning in her question (as wee all perceived) was this, 
viz. " Whether a husband should do well to pray with his wife, and 
"yet continue in his passions, &l be angry with his wife? But the 
modesty and wisdome of the woman directed her to doe three things 
in one, for thus shee spake to us, viz. " Before my husband did pray 
" hee was much angry and froward, but since hee hath begun to 
"pray hee was not angry so much, but little angry : wherein first 
shee gave an honorable testimony of her husband and commended 
him for the abatement of his passion; secondly, shee gave implicitly 
a seoret reproofe for what was past, and for somewhat at present that 
was amisse ; and thirdly, it was intended by her as a question 
whether her husband should pray to God, and yet continue in some 
unruly passions ; but she wisely avoyded that, lest it might reflect 
too much upon him, although wee desired her to expresse if that was 
not her meaning. 

At this time (beside these questions) there were sundry others 
propounded of very good use, in all which we saw the Lord Jesus 
leading them to make narrow inquiries into the things of God, that 
so they might see the reality of them. I have heard few Christians 
when they begin to looke toward God, make more searching ques- 
tions that they might see things really, and not onely have a notion 
of them : I forbeare to mention any of them, because I forget the 
cliiefe of them ; onely this wee tooke notice of at this dayes meeting, 
that there was an aged Indian who proposed his complaint in pro- 
pounding his question concerning an unruly disobedient son, and 
" what one should do with him in -case of obstinacy and disobedience, 
11 and that will not heare Gods Word, though his Father command 
"him, nor will not forsake his drunkennesse, though his father for- 
" bid him ? Unto which there were many answers to set forth the 
sinne of disobedience [p. 8.] to parents; which were the more 
quickned and sharpned because wee knew that this rebellious sonne 
whom the old man meant, was by Gods providence present at this 
Lecture : Mr. Wilson was much inlarged, and spake so terribly, yet 
so graciously as might have affected a heart not quite shut up, which 
this young desperado hearing (who well understood the English 
tongue) instead of humbling himself before the Lords Word, which 
touched his conscience and condition so neare, hee was filled with a 
spirit of Satan, and as soone as ever Mr. Wilsons speech was ended 
hee brake out into a loud contemptuous expression ; So, saith he : 
which we passed by without speaking againe, leaving the Word with 
him, which we knew would one day take its effect one way or other 
upon him. 

The latter end of this yeare Mr. Wilson, Mr. Eliot, and my selfe 
were sent for by those in Yarmouth to meet with some other Elders 
of Plimouih patient, to heare and heale (if it were the will of Christ) 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England. 43 

the difference and sad breaches which have been too long a time 
among them, wherein the Lord was very mercifull to us and them 
in binding them up beyond our thoughts in a very short time, in giv- 
ing not only that bruised Church but the whole Towne also a hope- 
full beginning of setled peace and future quietnesse ; but Mr. Eliot 
as hee takes all other advantages of time, so hee tooke this, of speak- 
ing with, and preaching to the poore Indians in these remote places 
about Cape Cod : in which journey 1 shall acquaint you with what 
all of us observed. 

Wee first found these Indians (not very farre from ours) to un- 
derstand (but with much difficulty) the usuall language of those in 
our parts, partly in regard of the different dialect which generally 
varies in 40. or 60. miles, and partly and especially in regard of 
their not being accustomed unto sacred language about the holy 
things of God, wherein Mr. Eliot excells any other of the English, 
that in the Indian language about common matters excell him : I 
say therefore although they did with much difficulty understand him, 
yet they did understand him, although by many circumlocutions and 
variations of speech and the helpe of one or two Interpreters which 
were then present. 

Secondly, wee observed much opposition against him, and hearing 
of him at the day appointed, especially by one of the chiefest [p. 9.] 
Sachims in those parts, a man of a fierce, strong and furious spirit 
whom the English therefore called by the name Jehu : who although 
before the day appointed for preaching, promised very faire that he 
would come and bring his men with him ; yet that very morning 
when they were to bee present, he sends out almost all his men- to 
Sea, pretending fishing, and therefore although at last he came late 
himselfe to the Sermon, yet his men were absent, and when he came 
himself, would not seem to understand any thing, although hee did 
understand as some of the Indians themselves then told us, when 
Mr. Eliot by himself and by them inquired of him if he understood 
what was spoken : yet he continued hearing what was said with a 
dogged looke and a discontented countenance. 

Thirdly, notwithstanding this opposition wee found another Sachim 
then present willing to learne, and divers of his men attentive and 
knowing what was said : and in the time which is usually set apart 
for propounding questions, an aged Indian told us openly, " That 
" these very things which Mr. Eliot had taught them as the Com- 
" mandements of God, and concerning God, and the making of the 
" world by one God, that they had heard some old men who were 
" now dead, to say the same things, since whose death there hath 
" been no remembrance or knowledge of them among the Indians 
" untill now they heare of them againe. Which when I heard sol- 
emnly spoken, I could not tell how those old Indians should attaine 
to such knowledge, unlesse perhaps by means of the French 



44 The chare Sun-shine of the Gospel. 

Preacher cast upon those coasts many yeers since, by whose ministry 
they might possibly reape and retaine some knowledge of those 
things ; ibis also I hear by a godly and able Christian who hath 
much converse with them ; that many of them have this apprehen- 
sion now stirring among them, viz. "That their forefathers did 
" know God, but that after this, they fell into a great sleep, and when 
" they did awaken they quite forgot him, (for under such metaphori- 
call language they usually expresse what eminent things they meane :) 
so that it may seem to be the day of the Lords gracious visitation of 
these poore Natives, which is just as it is with all other people, when 
they are most low, the wheele then turnes, and the Lord remembers 
to have mercy, [p. 10.] ' 

Fourthly, a fourth and last observation wee took, was the story of 
an Indian in those parts, telling us of his dreame many yeers since, 
which he told us of openly before many witnesses when we sate at 
meat: the dreame is this, hee said "That about two yeers before 
" the English came over into those parts there was a great mortality 
" among the Indians, and one night he could not sleep above half 
" the night, alter which hee fell into a dream, in which he did think 
" he saw a great many men come to those parts in cloths, just as the 
"English now are apparelled, and among them there arose up a 
" man all in black, with a thing in his hand which hee now sees was 
" all one English mans book ; this black man he said stood upon a 
" higher place then all the rest, and on the one side of him were the 
" English, on the other a great number of Indians : this man told 
" all the Indians that God was moosquantum or angry with them, 
" and that he would kill them for their sinnes, whereupon he said 
"himself stood up, and desired to know of the black man what God 
" would do with him and his Squaw and Papooses, but the black 
" man would not answer him a first time, nor yet a second time, 
" untill he desired the third time, and then he smil'd upon him, and 
" told him that he and his Papooses should be safe, and that God 
" would give unto them Mitcheu, (i. e.) victualls and other good 
" things, and so hee awakened. What similitude this dream hath 
with the truth accomplished, you may easily see. I attribute little 
to dreams, yet God may speak to such by them rather then to those 
who have a more sure Word to direct and warn them, yet this dream 
made us think surely this Indian will regard the black man now 
come among them rather then any others of them : but whether Sa- 
tan, or fear, and guilt, or world prevailed, we cannot say, but this is 
certaine, that he withdrew from the Sermon, and although hee came 
at the latter end of it, as hoping it had been done, yet we could not 
perswade him then to stay and hear, but away he flung, and we saw 
him no more till next day. 

From this third of March untill the latter end of this Summer I 
could not be present at the Indian Lectures, but when I came this 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England. 45 

last time, I marvailed to see so many Indian men, women and chil- 
dren in English apparel], they being at JVoonanetum generally clad, 
especially upon Lecture dayes, which they have got [p. 1 1.] partly 
by gift from the English, and partly by their own labours, by which 
some of them have very handsomely apparelled themselves, & you 
would scarce know them from English people. There is one thing 
more which I would acquaint you with, which hapned this Summer, 
viz. June 9. the first day of the Synods meeting at Cambridge, 
where the forenoon was spent in hearing a Sermon preached by one 
of the Elders as a preparative to the worke of the Synod, the after- 
noon was spent in hearing an Indian Lecture where there was a 
great confluence of Indians [from] all parts to heare Mr. Eliot, which 
we conceived not unseasonable at such a time, partly that the reports 
of Gods worke begun among them, might be seen and beleeved of the 
chief who were then sent and met from all the Churches of Christ in 
the Countrey, who could hardly beleeve the reports they had receiv- 
ed concerning these new stirs among the Indians, and partly hereby 
to raise up a greater spirit of prayer for the carrying on of the work 
begun upon the Indians, among all the Churches and servants of 
the Lord Jesus : The Sermon was spent in shewing them their mis- 
erable condition without Christ, out of Ephes. 2. 1. that they were 
dead in trespasses and sinnes, and in pointing unto them the Lord 
Jesus, who onely could quicken them. 

When the Sermon was done, there was a convenient space of time 
spent in hearing those questions which the Indians publikely pro- 
pounded, and in giving answers to them ; one question was, What 
Countrey man Christ was, and, where he was borne ? 

Another was, How farre off that place was from us here ? 

Another was y Where Christ now was ? 

And another, How they might lay hold on him, and where, being 
now absent from them ? with some other to this purpose ; which re- 
ceived full answers from severall hands. But that which I note is 
this, that their gracious attention to the Word, the affections and 
mournings of some of them under it, their sober propounding of di- 
vers spirituall questions, their aptnesse to understand and beleeve 
what was replyed to them, the readinesse of divers poore naked chil- 
dren to answer openly the chief questions in Catechism which were 
formerly taught them, and such like appearances of a great change 
upon them, did marvellously affect all the wise and godly Ministers, 
Magistrates, h people, and did [p. 12.] raise their hearts up to great 
thankfulnesse to God ; very many deeply and abundantly mourning 
for joy to see such a blessed day, and the Lord Jesus so much 
known and spoken of among such as never heard of him before : So 
that if any in England doubt of the truth of what was formerly writ, 
or if any malignant eye shall question and vilifie this work, they will 
now speak too late, for what was here done at Cambridge was not 



46 The clear e Sun-shine of the Gospel, 

set under a Bushell, but in the open Sunne, that what Thomas would 
not beleeve by the reports of others, he might be forced to beleeve, 
by seeing with his own eyes and feeling Christ Jesus thus risen 
among them with his own hands. 

I have done with what I have observed my self; I shall therefore 
proceed to give you a true relation of what I have heard from others, 
and many faitblull witnesses have seene : and first I shall speake a 
little more of the old man who is mentioned in the story now in print; 
this old man hath much affection stirred up by the Word, and com- 
raing to Mr. Kliots house (for of him I had this story) Mr. Eliot 
told him that because he brought his wife h all his children con- 
stantly to the Lecture, that he would therefore bestow some Cloths 
upon him, (it being now winter & the old man naked:) which prom- 
ise he not certainly understanding the meaning of, asked therefore of 
another Indian (who is Mr. Eliots servant and very liopefull) what 
it was that Mr. Eliot promised him ? he told him that hee said hee 
would give him some Cloths ; which when hee understood, hee af- 
fectionately brake out into these expressions, God I see is mercifull : 
a blessed, because a plain hearted affectionate speech, and worthy 
English mens thoughts when they put on their Cloths ; tothinke that 
a poor blind Indian that scarce ever heard of God before, that he 
should see not only God in his Cloths, but mercy also in a promise 
of a cast off worne sute of Cloths, which were then given him, and 
which now he daily weares. But to proceed ; 

This same old man, (as 1 think a little before hee had these 
Cloths) after an Indian Lecture, when they usually come to pro- 
pound questions ; instead of asking a question, began to speak to 
the rest of the Indians, and brake out into many expressions of 
wondring at Gods goodnesse unto them, that the Lord should at last 
look upon I hem and send his Word as a light unto them [p. 13.] that 
had been in darknesse and such grosse ignorance so long ; me won- 
der (saith he) at God that he should thus deale with us. This 
speech expressed in many words in the Indian Language, and with 
strong actings of his eyes and hands, being interpreted afterward to 
the English, did much also affect all of them that were present this 
Lecture also. 

There were this winter many other questions propounded, which 
were writ down by Mr. Edward Jackson one of our Town, con- 
stantly present at these Lectures, to take notes both of the questions 
made by the Indians and returned by Mr. Eliot to them ; this man 
having sent me in his notes, I shall send you a tast of some of them. 

1 Why some men were so bad, that they hate those men that would 
teach them good things ? 

2 Whether the devill or man ivere made first ? 

3 Whether if a father prayes to God to teach his sons to know 
him, and he doth teach them himself and they will not learn to know 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England. 47 

God, what should such fathers doe % (this was propounded by an 
old man that had rude children.) 

4 A * Squaw propounded this question, Whether she might not 
go &f pray in some private place in the woods, when her * j n dian wo- 
husband was not at home, because she was ashamed to man. 
pray in the Wigwam before company !■ 

5 How may one know wicked men, who are good and who are 
bad? 

6 To what Nation Jesus Christ came first unto, and when ? 

7 If a man should be inclosed in Iron a foot thick and thrown 
into the fire, what would become of his soule, whether could the 
soule come forth thence or not ? 

8 Why did not God give all men good hearts that they might 
bee good ? 

9 If one should be taken among strange Indians that know not 

God, and they would make him to fight against some * They hold 

that he should not, and he refuse, and for his refusall that all their 

they kill him, what would become of his soule in such a f*°?* and , val " 
a mi • at. r u 1 iant men nave 

case f lhis was propounded by a * stout iellow who a reward after 
was affected. death. 

10 How long it is before men beleeve that have the Word of God 
made known to them ? 

1 1 How they should know when their faith is good, and their 
prayers good prayers ? [p. 14.] 

12 Why did not God kill the Devill that made all men so bad, 
God having all power % , 

13 If we be made weak by sinne in our hearts, how can we come 
before God to sanctifie a Sabbath ? 

There were many more questions of this kind, as also many Phi- 
losophicall about the Sunne, Moon, Stars, Earth and Seas, Thunder, 
Lightning, Earthquakes, he. which 1 forbear to make mention of, 
lest I should clog your time with reading, together with the various 
answers to thern : by these you may perceive in what streame their 
minds are carried, and that the Lord Jesus hath at last an enquiring 
people among these poor naked men, that formerly never so much 
as thought of him ; which questionings and enquiries are accounted 
of by some as part of the whitenings of the harvest toward, wherever 
they are found among any people, the good and benefit that comes 
to them hereby is and will be exceeding great. 

We had this year a malignant drunken Indian, that (to cast some 
reproach, as wee feared, upon this way) boldly propounded this 
question, Mr. Eliot (said he) Who made Sack c l who made Sack ? 
but he was soon snib'd by the other Indians, calling it 
* a Papoose question, and seriously and gravely an- * That is a 
swered (not so much to his question, as to his spirit) by ^ n ldish ques " 
Mr. Eliot, which hath cooled his boldnesse ever since. 



48 The chare Sun-shine of the Gospel, 

while others have gone on comfortably in this profitable and pleas- 
ant way. 

The man who sent me these and the like questions with their 
severall answers in writing, concluded his letter with this story, which 
I shall here insert, that you may see the more of God among these 
poore people : " Upon the 25. of Aprill last (saith he) 
* Sachim^ " * * lac * some occas '°n to go to speak with * Wabun 
" about Sun-rising in the morning, and staying some half 
" an hours time, as 1 came back by one of the Wigwams, the man 
" of that Wigwam was at prayer ; at which 1 was so much affected, 
" that I could not but stand under a Tree within hearing, though I 
"could not understand but little of his words, and consider that God 
" was fulfilling his Word, viz. The ends of the earth shall remember 
" themselves and turne unto him', and that Scripture, Thou art the 
" God that hearest prayer, unto thee shall all flesh come. 
" Also this present September I have observed one of them to 
" [p. 15.] call his children to him from their gathering of Corne in 
" the field, and to crave a blessing, with much affection, lraving but 
"a homely dinner Jo eate. 

These things me thinkes should move bowels, and awaken Eng- 
lish hearts to be thankfull, it is no small part of Religion to awaken 
with God in family prayer, (as it seemes these doe it early) and to 
crave a blessing with affectionate hearts upon a homely dinner, per- 
haps parent Corns or Indian stalks : I w T ish the like hearts and 
wayes were seen in many English who professe themselves Chris- 
tians, and that herein and many the like excellencies they were be- 
come Indians, excepting that name, as he did in another case, 
except his bonds : and that you may see not only how farre Reli- 
gion, but civility hath taken place among them, you may be pleased 
therefore to peruse this Court Order, which is here inserted. 



The order made last Generall Court at Boston the 26. of 
May, 1647. concerning the Indians, &c. 

"IT^Pon information that the Indians dwelling among us, and sub- 
Y mined to our government, being by the Ministry of the Word 
brought to some civility, are desirous to have a course of ordinary 
Judicature set up among them : It is therefore ordered by authority 
of this Court, that some one or more of the Magistrates, as they 
shall agree amongst themselves, shall once every quarter keep a 
Court at such place, where the Indians ordinarily assemble to hear 
the Word of God, and may then hear and determine all causes both 
civill and criminal!, not being capitall, concerning the Indians only, 
and that the Indian Sachims shall have libertie to take order in the 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England. 49 

nature of Summons or Attachments, to bring any of their own peo- 
ple to the said Courts, and to keep a Court of themselves, every 
moneth if they see occasion, to determine small causes of a civill 
nature, and such smaller criminall causes, as the said Magistrates 
shall refer re to them ; and the said Sachims shall appoint Officers to 
serve Warrants, and to [p. 16.] execute the Orders and Judgements 
of either of the said Courts, which Officers shall from time to time 
bee allowed by the said Magistrates in the quarter Courts or by the 
Governour : And that all fines to bee imposed upon any Indian in 
any of the said Courts, shall goe and bee bestowed towards the 
building of some meeting houses, for education of their poorer chil- 
dren in learning, or other publick use, by the advice of the said 
Magistrates and of Master Eliot, or of such other Elder, as shall 
ordinarily instruct them in the true Religion. And it is the desire 
of this Court, that these Magistrates and Mr. Eliot or such other 
Elders as shall attend the keeping of the said Courts will carefully 
indeavour to make the Indians understand our most usefull Lawes, 
and the principles of reason, justice and equity whereupon they are 
grounded, & it is desired that some care may be taken of the In- 
dians on the Lords dayes. 

Thus having had a desire to acquaint you with these proceedings 
among the Indians, and being desirous that you might more fully 
understand, especially from him who is best able to judge, I did 
therefore intreat my brother Eliot after some conference about these 
things, to set down under his own hand what he hath observed lately 
among them : which I do therefore herein send unto you in his 
owne hand writing as he sent it unto mee, which 1 think is worthy all 
Christian thankfull eares to heare, and wherein they may see a little 
of the Spirit of this man of God, whom in other respects, but espe- 
cially for his unweariednesse in this work of God, going up and 
down among them and doing them good, I think we can never love 
nor honour enough. 



The Letter of Mr. Eliot to T. S. concerning the late work 
of God among the Indians. 

Deare Brother, 

AT your desire I have wrote a few things touching the Indians 
which at present came to my mind, as being some of those 
passages which took princinall impression in my heart, [p. 17.] 
wherein I thought I saw the Lord, and said the finger of God is 
here. 

That which I first aymed at was to declare & deliver unto them 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 7 



50 The chare Sun-shine of the Gospel, 

the Law of God; to civilize them, w C h course the Lord took by 
Moses, to give the Law to that rude company because of transgres- 
sion, Gal. 3. 19. to convince, bridle, restrain, and civilize them, and 
also to humble them. But when I first attempted it, they gave no 
heed unto it, but were weary, and rather despised what 1 said. A 
while after God stirred up in some of them a desire to come into 
the English fashions, and live after their manner, but knew not how 
to attain unto it, yea despaired that ever it should come to passe in 
their dayes, but thought that in 40. yeers more, some Indians would 
be all one English, and in an hundred yeers, all Indians here about, 
would so bee : which when I heard, (for some of them told me 
they thought so, and that some wise Indians said so) my heart 
moved within mee, abhorring that wee should sit still and let that 
work alone, and hoping that this motion in them was of the Lord, 
and that this mind in them was a preparative to imbrace the Law 
and Word of God ; and therefore I told them that they and wee 
were already all one save in two things, which make the only differ- 
ence betwixt them and us : First, we know, serve, and pray unto 
God, and they doe not : Secondly, we labour and work in building, 
planting, clothing our selves, &ic. and they doe not : and would they 
but doe as wee doe in these things they would be all one with Eng- 
lish men : they said they did not know God, and therefore could 
not tell how to pray to him, nor serve him. 1 told them if they 
would learn to know God, I would teach them : unto which they 
being very willing, I then taught them (as I sundry times had indea- 
vored afore) but never found them so forward, attentive and desirous 
to learn till this time, and then I told them I would come to their 
Wigwams, and teach them, their wives and children, which they 
seemed very glad of; and from that day forward I have not failed 
to doe that poore little which you know I doe. 

I first began with the Indians of JVoonanetum, as you know ; 
those of Dorchester mill not regarding any such thing : but the bet- 
ter sort of them perceiving how acceptable this was to the English, 
both to Magistrates, and all the good people, it pleased God to step 
in and bow their hearts to desire to be taught to know God, [p. 18.] 
and pray unto him likewise, and had not I gone unto them also, and 
taught them when 1 did, they had prevented me, and desired me so 
to do, as I afterward heard. 

The effect of the Word which appears among them, and the 
change that is among them is this : First, they have utterly forsaken 
all their Powwaws, and given over that diabolical] exercise, being 
convinced that it is quite contrary to praying unto God ; yea sundry 
of their Powwaws have renounced their wicked imployinent, have 
condemned it as evill, and resolved never to use it any more ; others 
of them, seeing their imployment and gaines were utterly gone here, 
have fled to other places, where they are still entertained, and have 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England. 51 

raised lies, slanders, and an evill report upon those that heare the 
Word, and pray unto God, and also upon the English that indeavour 
to reclaime them and instruct them, that so they might discourage 
others from praying unto God, for that they account as a principall 
signe of a good man, and call all religion by that name, praying to 
God ; and beside they mock and scofFe at those Indians which 
pray, and blaspheme God when they pray ; as this is one instance. 
A sober Indian going up into the countrey with two of his sons, did 
pray (as his manner was at home) and talked to them of God and 
Jesus Christ : but they mocked, & called one of his sons Jehovah, 
and the other Jesus Christ : so that they are not without opposition 
raised by the Powwaws, and other wicked Indians. 

Againe as they have forsaken their former Religion, and manner 
of worship, so they doe pray unto God constantly in their families, 
morning and evening, and that with great affection, as hath been 
seen and heard by sundry that have gone to their PVigwams at such 
times; as also when they goe to meat they solemnly pray and give 
thanks to God, as they see the English to doe: so that that curse 
which God threatens to poure out upon the families that call not on 
his name, is through his grace, and tender mercy stayed from break- 
ing forth against them, and when they come to English houses, they 
desire to be taught ; and if meat bee given them, they pray and give 
thanks to God : and usually expresse their great joy, that they are 
taught to know God, and their great affection to them that teach them. 

Furthermore they are carefull to instruct their children, that so 
when I come they might be ready to answer their Catechize, [p. J 9.] 
which by the often repeating of it to the children, the men and wo- 
men can readily answer to. 

Likewise they are carefull to sanctifle the Sabbath, but at first 
they could not tell how to doe it, and they asked of mee how they 
should doe it, propounding it as a question whether they should 
come to the English meetings or meet among themselves ; they said, if 
they come to the English meetings they understand nothing, or to no 
purpose, and if they met together among themselves, they had none 
that could teach them. I told them that it was not pleasing to 
God, nor profitable to themselves, to hear and understand nothing, 
nor having any that could interpret to them. Therefore I coun- 
selled them to meet together, and desire those that were the wisest 
and best men to pray, and then to teach the rest such things as I had 
taught them from Gods Word, as well as they could ; and when one 
hath done, then let another do the like, and then a third, and when 
that was done aske questions, and if they could not answer them, 
then remember to aske me, &c. and to pray unto God to help them 
therein : and this is the manner how they spend their Sabbaths. 

They are also strict against any prophanation of the Sabbath, by 
working, fishing, hunting, &c. and have a Law to punish such as are 



52 The chare Sun-shine of the Gospel, 

delinquents therein by a fine of 10 s. and sundry cases they have 
had, wherein they have very strictly prosecuted such as have any 
way prophaned the Sabbath. As for example, upon a Sabbath 
morning Cutchamaquin the Sachim his wife going to fetch water 
met with other women, and she began to talk of worldly matters, 
and so held on their discourse a while, which evill came to JVaban- 
tons eare, who was to teach that day (this Nabanton is a sober 
good man, and a true friend to the English ever since ourcomming) 
so he bent his discourse to shew the sanctification of the Sabbath, 
&, reproved such evils as did violate the same ; &i among other 
things worldly talk, and thereupon reproved that which he heard of 
that morning. After hee had done, they fell to discourse about it, 
and spent much time therein, hee standing to prove that it was a 
sinne, and she doubting of it, seeing it was early in the morning, and 
in private ; and alledging that he was more to blame then she, be- 
cause he had occasioned so much discourse in the publick meeting : 
but in conclusion they determined [p. 20.] to refer the case to me, 
and accordingly they did come to my house on the second day 
morning and opened all the matter, and I gave them such direction 
as the Lord directed me unto, according to his holy Word. 

Another case was this, upon a Lords day towards night two stran- 
gers came to Wabans Wigwam (it being usuall with them to tra- 
vaile on that day, as on any other ;) and when they came in, they 
told him that at a place about a mile off they had chased a Rackoone, 
and he betook himself into an hollow tree, and if they would goe 
with them, they might fell the tree and take him : at which tidings, 
Waban being willing to be so well provided to entertain those stran- 
gers (a common practise among them, freely to entertain travailers 
and strangers) he sent his two servants with them, who felled the 
tree, and took the beast. But this act of his was an offence to the 
rest, who judged it a violation of the Sabbath, and moved agitation 
among them : but the conclusion was, it was to bee moved as a 
question upon the next Lecture day ; which was accordingly done, 
and received such answer as the Lord guided unto by his Word. 

Another case was this, upon a Lords day their publick meetting 
holding long, and somewhat late, when they came at home, in one 
Wigwam the fire was almost out, and therefore the man of the 
house, as he sate by the fire side took his Hatchet and split a little 
dry peece of wood, which they reserve on purpose for such use, and 
so kindled his fire, which being taken notice of, it was thought to bee 
such a worke as might not lawfully be done upon the Sabbath day, 
and therefore the case was propounded the Lecture following for 
their better information. 

These instances may serve to shew their care of the externall 
observation of the Sabbath day. 

In my exercise among them (as you know) wee attend foure 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-Englct7id. 53 

things, besides prayer unto God, for his presence and blessing upon 
all we doe. 

First, I catechize the children and youth ; wherein some are very 
ready h expert, they can readily say all the Commandements, so far 
as 1 have communicated them, and all other principles about the 
creation, the fall, the redemption by Christ, &c. wherein also the 
aged people are pretty expert, by the frequent repetition [p. 21.] 
thereof to the children, and are able to teach it to their children at 
home, and do so. 

Secondly, I Preach unto them out of some texts of Scripture, 
wherein I study all plainnesse, and brevity, unto which many are 
very attentive. 

Thirdly, if there be any occasion, we in the next place go to ad- 
monition and censure; unto which they submit themselves rever- 
ently, and obediently, and some of them penitently confessing their 
sins with much plainnesse, and without shillings, and excuses : I will 
instance in two or three particulars ; this was one case, a man 
named TVampoowas, being in a passion upon some light occasion 
did beat his wife, which was a very great offence among them now 
(though in former times it was very usuall) and they had made a 
Law against it, and set a fine upon it ; whereupon he was publikly 
brought forth before the Assembly, which was great that day, for 
our Governor and many other English were then present : the man 
wholly condemned himself without any excuse : and when he was 
asked what provocation his wife gave him ? he did not in the least 
measure blame her but himself, and when the quality of the sinne 
was opened, that it was cruelty to his own body, and against Gods 
Commandement, and that passion was a sinne, and much aggravated 
by such effects, yet God was ready to pardon it in Christ, he. he 
turned his face to the wall and wept, though with modest indeavor 
to hide it; and such was the modest, penitent, and melting behavior 
of the man, that it much affected all to see it in a Barbarian, and all 
did forgive him, onely this remained, that they executed their Law 
notwithstanding his repentance, and required his fine, to which he 
willingly submitted, and paid it. 

Another case of admonition was this, Cutshamaquin the Sachim 
having a son of about 14. or 15. yeers old, he had bin drunk, & had 
behaved himself disobediently, and rebelliously against his father and 
mother, for which sinne they did blame him, but he despised their 
admonition. And before I knew of it, I did observe when I cate- 
chized him, when he should say the fift Commandement, he did not 
freely say, Honor thy father, but wholly left out mother, and so he 
did the Lecture day before, but when this sinne of his was pro- 
duced, he was called forth before the Assembly, [p. 22,] and hee 
confessed that what was said against him was true, but hee fell to 
accuse his father of sundry evils, as that hee would have killed him 
in his anger, and that he forced him to drink Sack, and I know not 



54 The chare Sun-shine of the Gospel, 

what else : which behavior wee greatly disliked, shewed him the 
evill of it, and Mr. Wilson being present laboured much with him, 
for hee understood the English, but all in vaine, his heart was hard 
and hopelesse for that time, therefore using due loving persivasions, 
wee did sharply admonish him of his sinne, and required him to an- 
swer further the next Lecture day, and so left him ; and so stout he 
was, that when his father offered to pay his fine of 10 s. for his 
drunkennesse according to their Law, he would not except it at his 
hand. When the next day was come, and other exercises finished, 
I called him forth, and he willingly came, but still in the same mind 
as before. Then wee turned to his father, and exhorted him to re- 
move that stumbling block out of his sonnes way, by confessing his 
own sinnes whereby hee had given occasion of hardnesse of heart to 
his sonne ; which thing was not suddain to him, for 1 had formerly 
in private prepared him thereunto, and hee was very willing to hear- 
ken to that counsell, because his conscience told him he was blame- 
worthy ; and accordingly he did, he confessed his maine and 
principal! evils of his own accord : and upon this advantage I took 
occasion to put him upon confession of sundry other vices which I 
knew hee had in former times been guilty of, and all the Indians 
knew it likewise ; and put it after this manner, Are you now sorry 
for your drunkennesse, filthines, false dealing, lying, he. which sinnes 
you committed before you knew God ? unto all which cases, he ex- 
pressed himself sorrovvfull, and condemned himself for them : which 
example of the Sachim was profitable for all the Indians. And 
when he had thus confessed his sinnes, we turned againe to his sonne 
and laboured with him, requiring him to confesse his sinne, and in- 
treat God to forgive him for Christ his sake, and to confesse his 
offence against his father and mother, and intreatthem to forgive him, 
but he still refused ; and now the other Indians spake unto him so- 
berly, and affectionatly, to put him on, and divers spake one after 
another, and some severall times. Mr. Wilson againe did much 
labour with him, and at last he did humble himself, confessed all, 
[p. 23.] and intreated his father to forgive him, and took him by the 
hand, at which his father burst forth into great weeping : hee did the 
same also to his mother, who wept also, and so did divers others ; and 
many English being present, they fell a weeping, so that the house 
was filled with weeping on every side ; and then we went to prayer, 
in all which time Cvtshamnquin wept, in so much that when wee 
had done the board he stood upon was all dropped with his teares. 

Another case of admonition was this, a hopefull young man who 
is my servant, being upon a journey, and drinking Sack at their set- 
ting forth, he drank too much, and was disguised ; which when I 
heard I reproved him, and he humbled himself, with confession of 
his sinne, and teares. And the next Lecture day I called him forth 
before the Assembly, where he did confesse his sinne with many 
teares. 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England. 55 

Before I leave this point of admonition, if I thought it would not 
bee two tedious to you, T would mention one particular more, where 
we saw the power of God awing a wicked wretch by this ordinance 
of admonition. Il was George that wicked Indian, who as you 
know, at our first beginnings sought to cast aspersions upon Religion, 
by laying slanderous accusations against godly men, and who asked 
that captious question, who m,ade Sack? and this fellow having kild 
a young Cow at your Towne, and sold it at the Colledge instead of 
Moose, covered it with many lies, insomuch as Mr. Dunster was 
loath he should be directly charged with it when we called him forth, 
but that wee should rather inquire. But when he was called before 
the Assembly, and charged with it, he had not power to deny it, but 
presently confessed, onely bee added one thing which wee think was 
an excuse ; thus God hath honored this ordinance among them. 

Fourthly, the last exercise, you know, we have among them, is 
their asking us questions, and very many they have asked, which I 
have forgotten, but some few that come to my present remembrance 
I will briefly touch. 

One was Wabbakoxets question, who is reputed an old Powwaiv, 
it was to this purpose, seeing the English had been 27. yeers (some 
of them) in this land, why did wee never teach them to know [p. 24.] 
God till now ? had you done it sooner, said hee, wee might have 
known much of God by this time, and much sin might have been 
prevented, but now some of us are grown old in sin, <^c. To whom 
we answered, that we doe repent that wee did not long agoe, as now 
we doe, yet withall wee told them, that they were never willing to 
hear till now, and that seeing God hath bowed their hearts to be wil- 
ling to hear, we are desirous to take all the paines we can now to 
teach them. 

Another question was, that of Cutshamaquin, to this purpose, 
Before I knew God, said he, I thought I was well, but since I have 
known God and sin, I find my heart full of sin, and, more siufull then 
ever it was before, and this hath been a great trouble to mee ; and 
at this day my heart is but very little better then it was, and I am 
afraid it will be as bad againe as it was before, and therefore 1 some- 
time wish I might die before I be so bad again as I have been. Now 
my question is, whether is this a sin or not ? This question could 
not be learned from the English, nor did it seem a coyned feigned 
thing, but a reall matter gathered from the experience of his own 
heart, and from an inward observation of himself. 

Another question was about their children, Whither their little 
children goe when they dye, seeing they have not sinned ? 

Which question gave occasion more fully to teach them originall 
sin, and the damned state of all men : And al*o, and especially it 
gave occasion to teach them the Covenant of God, which he hath 
made with all his people, and with their children, so that when God 



56 The chare Sun-shine of the Gospel, 

chooses a man or a woman to be his servant, he chooses all their 
children to be so also: which doctrin was exceeding gratefull unto 
them. 

Another great question was this, when I preached out of 1 Cor. 
6. 9, 10, 11. old Mr. Broxvn, being present, observed them to be 
much affected, and one especially did weep very much, though cov- 
ered it what bee could ; and after that there was a general! question, 
which they sent unto mee about, by my man, as the question of them 
all, Whether any of them should goe to Heaven, seeing they found 
their hearts full of sin ne, and especially full of the sinne of lust, 
which they call nanwunwudsquas, that is, mad alter women ; and 
the next meeting, being at Dorchester mill, Mr. Mather and Mr. 
[p. 25.] Wareham, with divers others being present, they did there 
propound it, expressing their feares, that none of them should bee 
saved-, which question did draw forth my heart to preach and presse 
the promise of pardon to all that were weary and sick of sinne, if 
they did beleeve in Christ who had died for us, and satisfied the jus- 
tice of God for all our sinnes, and through whom God is well pleased 
with all such repenting sinners that come to Christ, and beleeve in 
him; and the next day I took that Text, Matth. Jl. 28, 29. and 
this doctrin some of them in a speciall manner did receive in a very 
reverent manner. 

There is another great question that hath been severall limes pro- 
pounded, and much sticks with such as begin to pray, namely, If 
they leave off Powwawing, and pray to God, what shall they do 
when they are sick*} for they have no skill in physick, though some 
of them understand the vertues of sundry things, yet the state of 
mans body, and skill to apply'them they have not : but all the refuge 
they have and relie upon in lime of sicknesse is their Powwaws, who 
by antick, foolish and irrationall conceits delude the poore people ; 
so that it is a very needful! thing to inlorme them in the use of Phys- 
ick, and a most efTectuall meanes to take them off from their Pow- 
wawing. Some of the wiser sort I have stirred up to get this skill ; 
I have shewed them the anatomy of man's body, and some generall 
principles of Physick, which is very acceptable to them, but they are 
so extreamely ignorant, that these things must rather be taught by 
sight, sense, and experience then by precepts, and rules of art; and 
therefore I have had many thoughts in my heart, that it were a sin- 
gular good work, if the Lord would stirre up the hearts of some or 
other of his people in England to give some maintenance toward 
some Schoole or Collegiate exercise this way, wherein there should 
be Anatomies and other instructions that way, and where there might 
be some recompence given to any that should bring in any vegetable 
or other thing that is vertuous in the way of Physick ; by this means 
we should soon have all these things which they know, and others of 
our Countreymen that are skilfull that way, and now their skill lies 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England. 57 

buried for want of incouragement, would be a searching and trying 
to find out the vermes of things in this countrey, which doubtlesse 
are many, and would not a [p. 26.] little conduce to the benefit of 
the people of this Countrey, and it may bee of our native Countrey 
also ; by this meanes wee should traine up these poore Indians in 
that skill which would confound and root out their Powwaws, and 
then would they be farre more easily inclined to leave those wayes, 
and pray unto God, whose gift Physick is, and whose blessing must 
make it effectual]. 

There is also another reason which moves my thought and desires 
this way, namely that our young Students in Physick may be trained 
up better then yet they bee, who have onely theoreticall knowledge, 
and are forced to fall to practise before ever they saw an Anatomy 
made, or duely trained up in making experiments, for we never had 
but one Anatomy in the Countrey, which Mr. Giles Firman (now 
in England) did make and read upon very well, but no more of 
that now. 

This very day that I wrote these things unto you, I have been 
with the Indians to teach them, as I was wont to doe, and one of 
their questions among many other was to know what to say to such 
Indians as oppose their praying to God, and beleeving in Jesus 
Christ, and for their own information also, What get you, say they, 
by praying to God, and beleeving in Jesus Christ ? you goe naked 
still, and you are as poore as wee, and our Corne is as good as 
yours, and wee take more pleasure then you ; did we see that you 
got any thing by it, wee would pray to God and beleeve in Jesus 
Christ also as you doe ? Unto which question I then answered 
them. First, God giveth unto us two sorts of good things, one sort 
are little ones, which I shewed by my little finger ; the other sort 
are great ones, which I shewed by my thumbe, (for you know they 
use and delight in demonstrations :) the little mercies are riches, as 
cloths, food, sack, houses, cattle, and pleasures, these are little things 
which serve but for our bodies a little while in this life ; the great 
mercies are wisdome, the knowledge of God, Christ, eternall life, 
repentance, faith, these are mercies for the soule, and for eternall 
life : now though God do not yet give you the little mercies, he 
giveth you that which is a great deale better, which the wicked In- 
dians cannot see. And this I proved to them by this example; 
when Foxun the Mohegan Counseller, who is counted the wisest 
Indian in the Country, [p. 27.] was in the Bay, 1 did on purpose 
bring him unto you ; and when he was here, you saw he was a foole 
in comparison of you, for you could speak of God and Christ, and 
heaven and repentance and faith, but he sate and had not one word 
to say, unlesse you talked of such poor things as hunting, wars, &c. 
Secondly, you have some more cloths then they, and the reason 
why you have no more is because you have but a little wisdome, if 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 8 



58 The chare Sun-shine of the Gospel, 

you were more wise to know God, and obey his Commands, you 
would work more then you do, for so God commandeth, Six dayes 
thou shalt work, fyc. and thus the English do : and if you would bee 
so wise as to worke as they do, you should have cloths, houses, cat- 
tle, riches as they have, God would give you them. 

This day they told me this news, that some of them having been 
abroad in the Country at Titacut, divers of those Indians would be 
glad to know God, and to pray unto God, and would be glad if I 
would come and teach them, but some of them opposed and would 
not. They askt me this day, why God made the Rainbow. These 
things are now fresh in my mind, that makes me so large in them, 
but Pie forbeare any more of their questions of this nature. 

There do sundry times fall out differences among them, and they 
usually bring their cases to me, and sometime such, as it's needfull 
for me to decline ; where I may, I advise them to some issue. One 
great case that hath come severall times to mee, is about such debts 
as they owe by gaming, for they have been great gamesters, but 
have moved questions about it, and are informed of the unlawfulnesse 
of it, and have thereupon wholly given over gaming for any wagers, 
and all games wherein is a lot, onely use lawfull recreations, and 
have a Law against unlawfull gaming ; but other Indians that are of 
another mind, come and challenge their old debts, and now they re- 
fuse to pay, because it was a sinne so to game, and they now pray 
to God, and therefore must not pay such sinfull debts. Now the 
case being serious, and such as I saw a snare underneath, the first 
counsaile they had was, who ever would challenge such a debt should 
come to our Governor, and he would take order to rectifle the mat- 
ter. But the Creditors liked not that way, and therefore soon after 
there came another case of the same kinde, and an issue was very 
necessary ; [p. 28.] therefore I first dealt with the creditor, and 
shewed him the sinfulnesse of such games, and how angry God was 
at them ; and therefore perswaded him to be content to take half his 
debt, unto which he very willingly condescended ; then I dealt with 
the debtor, and askt him if he did not promise to pay him all that debt ? 
and he answered yea, he did so ; then I shewed him that God com- 
mands us to performe.our promises, and though he sinned in gaming, 
he must repent of that, but seeing he hath promised payment, he 
should sin to break his promise : at which he was utterly silenced ; 
but then I asked him, if hee would willingly pay half, if I should 
perswade the other to accept it ; yea said hee very willingly, and so 
the matter ended : and in this way they usually end such cases since 
that time. Their young men, who of all the rest, live most idlely 
and dissolutely, now begin to goe to service, some to Indians, some 
to English ; and some of them growing weary, broak out of their 
services, and ,'they had no help among them for it ; so that some 
propounded what they should doe to remedy that evill ; they were 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England. 59 

answered, that the English bring such servants to the Court, and our 
Magistrates rectifie those evills ; then they desired that they might 
have a Court among them for government, at which motion wee re- 
joyced, seeing it came from themselves, and tended so much to civ- 
ilize them, since which time 1 moved the Generall Court in it, and 
they have pleased to order a way for exercising government among 
them : the good Lord prosper and blesse it. 

They moved also as you know for a School, and through Gods 
mercy a course is now taken that there be Schooles at both places 
where their children are taught. 

You know likewise that wee exhorted them to fence their ground 
with ditches, stone walls, upon the banks, and promised to helpe 
them with Shovels, Spades, Mattocks, Crows of Iron ; and they are 
very desirous to follow that counsell, and call upon me to help them 
with tooles faster then I can get them, though I have now bought 
pretty store, and they (I hope) are at work. The women are de- 
sirous to learn to spin, and I have procured Wheels for sundry of 
them, and they can spin pretty well. They begin to grow industri- 
ous, and find something to sell at Market all the yeer long : all winter 
they sell Brooms, Staves, Elepots, [p. 29.] Baskets, Turkies. In 
the Spring, Craneberies, Fish, Stawberies ; in the Summer Hurtle- 
berries, Grapes, Fish : in the Autumn they sell Craneberries, Fish, 
Venison, &c. and they find a good benefit by the Market, and grow 
more and more to make use thereof; besides sundry of them work 
with the English in Hay lime, and Harvest, but yet it's not compara- 
ble to what they might do, if they were industrious, and old boughs 
must be bent a little at once ; if we can set the young twiggs in a 
better bent, it will bee Gods mercy. Deare brother I can go no fur- 
ther, a weary body, and sleepy eyes command me to conclude, if I 
have not satisfied your desire in this little I have wrote, let me un- 
derstand it from you, and I shall be willing to do my indeavour : and 
thus with my deare love remembred to your self and your beloved 
yoakfellow, and desiring your prayers for Gods grace and blessing 
upon my spirit and poor indeavours, I take leave at this time and res! 

Roxbury this 24. of Your loving brother in 

Septemb. our Saviour Christ % 

1647. 

John Eliot. 

Let me adde this Postscript, that there be two reasons that make 
me beleeve the Lords time is come to make a preparative at least 
for the comming of his grace, and kingdome among them. First, 
that he hath bowed their hearts, who were as averse, and as farre off 
from God, as any heathen in the world ; and their hearts begin to 
bow more and more. Secondly, because the Lord hath raised a 
mighty spirit of prayer in this behalfe in all the Churches. 



60 The chare Sun-shine of the Gospel, 

This Relation of Mr. Eliots I know many things therein to be 
true, &z all the rest I have heard confirmed by credible persons, eye 
& eare witnesses of these things, and they are familiarly known in 
these parts. I know also that Mr. Eliot writes (as his spirit is) 
modestly and sparingly, and speaks the least in sundry particulars ; 
for in his story of the repentance and publike admonition of his own 
man, page 23. hee saith he manifested many teares in publike, but I 
heard it from many then present that there were so many, as that 
the dry place of the Wigwam where hee stood [p. SO.] was bedirtied 
with them, powring them out so abundantly. Indians are well known 
not to bee much subject to teares, no not when they come to feele 
the sorest torture, or are solemnly brought forth to die ; and if the 
Word workes these teares, surely there is some conquering power of 
Christ Jesus stirring among them, which what it will end in at last, 
the Lord best knows. Jf Mr. Brightmans interpretation of Daniels 
prophesie be true, that Anno 1650. Europe will hear some of the 
best tidings that ever came into the world, viz. rumors from the 
Easterne Jews, which shall trouble the Turkish tyrant and shake 
his Pillars when they are comming to repossesse their own land, for 
which they will be wrastling (if my memory failes not, according to 
his notion) about 40. yeers ; I shall hope then that these Westerne 
Indians will soon come in, and that these beginnings are but prepar- 
atives for a brighter day then we yet see among them, wherein East 
& West shall sing the song of the Lambe : but I have no skill in 
prophesies, nor do I beleeve every mans interpretation of such Scrip- 
ture ; but this is certain, God is at work among these ; and it is not 
usual for the Sun to set as soon as it begins to rise, nor for the Lord 
Jesus to lose an inch of ground in the recovering times of his 
Churches peace and his own eclipsed and forgotten glory, (if these 
bee such times) until] hee hath won the whole field, and driven the 
Prince of darknesse out of it, who is but a bold usurper of the Lord 
Jesus inheritance, to whom are given the utmost ends of the earth. 
When Charles the Great had broken the chief power of the bar- 
barous and fierce Saxons in Germany, he made this the onely article 
of peace, that they should entertain such a Gospel as good then as 
the degenerate Christian world could affoord, and for that end admit 
of a Monastery among them of such men as might in- 
lib\ nt cii U \ 2 struct them, and this course prevailed, if wee may be- 
' leeve * Crantzius the Historian of those times ; and 
shall wee think that when the Lord Jesus hath set up not a Monas- 
tery of workes but Churches of Saints in these coasts to encourage 
the ministry and this work of Christ, that his blessed Gospel cannot 
or shall not in these dayes take some effect since it hath broke so far ? 
I dare conclude nothing, onely it will be our comfort in the day of 
our accounts, that wee have endeavored something this way ; and it 
may be this very indeavour [p. 31.] shall be our peace. Gildas our 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England. G I 

British Historian observing that one cause why God let loose the 
Saxons to scourge and root out the Britaines y was their deep care- 
lesnesse of communicating unto them the Christian Religion, when 
they had their spirits at fit advantage : but I dare not discourse of 
these matters. 

One thing more I remember concerning Mr. Eliots conference 
with a Narraganset Sachim a sober man this yeer ; after that he 
had taught this Sachim the Law of God, and had shewen him the 
means of salvation by Christ ; he then asked him if he did know 
and understand those things ? and he said, yes. He then asked 
him if he did beleeve them ? but hee could not get any answer from 
him that way, but did seeme to take them into more serious thoughts. 
He theu asked him, why they did not learn of Mr. Williams who 
hath lived among them divers yeers ? and he soberly answered that 
they did not care to learn of him, because hee is no good man but 
goes out and workes upon the Sabbath day ; I name it not to shew 
what glimmerings nature may have concerning the observation of 
the Sabbath, but to shew what the ill example of English may doe, 
and to see what a stumbling block to all Religion the loose observa- 
tion of the Sabbath is, however mans shifting wits may find out eva- 
sions, to get loose from out of that net. 

But this may serve to satisfie your own or others desires concern- 
ing the progresse of the Gospel among the Indians : the Lord Jesus 
seemes at this day to bee turning upside down the whole frame of 
things in the world, Kings, Parliaments, Armies, Kingdomes, Au- 
thorities, Churches, Ministers, and if out of his free grace hee looks 
not upon these hopefull beginnings, these will be so turned also ; for 
opposition there is from men and devils against it, and I have feared 
in my own heart that within these few moneths there hath been 
some coolings among the best of these Indians ; but wee find it so 
also among many people that are English in their first work, but the 
Lord Jesus revives again ; and therefore Mr. Eliot of late having 
told them that hee was afraid that they began to bee weary, they 
took it to heart, and propounded in my hearing at a late Indian Lec- 
ture at JYoonanetum many profitable questions, viz. When they 
[p. 32.] prayed and heard the Word aright ? and how they might 
know when they were weary of them % And what time it might hee 
before the Lord might come and make them know him ? And what 
the first sinne of the Devils was 6 ? (Hee discoursing to them about 
the danger of Apostasie.) At this time they are (as you may per- 
ceive by Mr. Eliots writings) about fencing in their ground and 
Town given them some hundreds of Acres, with a stone fence, for 
which end Mr. Eliot provides them Mattocks, Shovels and Crowes 
of Iron, he. and to encourage their slothfulnesse, promised to give a 
groat or sixpence a rod, if they would thus farre attend their own 
good, and work for themselves : all the poor Indians at JYoonanetum 



62 The chare Sun-shine of the Gospel, 

are generally clad with such cloths as wee can get them, and the 
Wigwams of the meanest of them equallize any Sachims in other 
places, being built not with mats but barks of Trees in good big- 
nesse, the rather that they may have their partitions in them for hus- 
bands and wives togeather, and their children and servants in their 
places also, who formerly were never private in what nature is asham- 
ed of, either for the sun or any man to see. It's some refreshing to 
ihinke that there is (if there was no more but) the name of Christ 
sounding in those darke and despicable Tartarian Tents ; the Lord 
can build them houses in time to pray in, when hee hath given unto 
them better hearts, and when perhaps hee hath cursed and consumed 
theirs who have disdained to give that worship and homage to Christ 
in their seiled houses, which poor Indians rejoyce to give to him in 
their poor Tents and Wigwams : I desire you to gather what stock 
of prayers you can for them. I had almost forgot to tell you of Mr. 
Eliots going up the Country lately with Mr. Flint, Captain Willard 
of Concord, and sundry others, towards Merrimath River unto that 
Indian Sachim Passaconnaway, that old Witch and Powwaw, who 
together with both his sons, fled the presence of the light, and durst 
not stand their ground, nor be at home when he came, pretending 
feare of being killed by a man forsooth that came only with a book in 
his hand, and with a few others without any weapons only to bear 
him company and direct his way in those deserts ; but in it you may 
see the guilt of the man, h that Satan is but a coward in his Lyons 
skin even upon his own dunghill, as also the hatred and [p. 33.] en- 
mity against the Word which is in some, which argues that the atten- 
tion which others give to it, is a power of God, and not meerly to 
flatter and get favour with the English : but the rest of Passaconna- 
waies men attended to the things which were spoken and asked di- 
vers questions, the Indians in our parts accompanying Mr. Eliot 
and giving blessed examples to the others herein, as also in saying 
Grace before and after meat, praying in their Wigwams with them, 
and some of them singing of Psalmes, which they have learnt among 
the English : discoursing also with them about the things of God. 
It is somewhat observable (though the observation bee more cheerfull 
then deep) that the first Text out of which Mr. Eliot preached to 
the Indians was about the dry bones, Ezek. 37. where it's said, 
Vers. 9, 10. that by prophesying to the ivind, the wind came and 
the dry bones lived ; now the Indian word for Wind is Waubon, 
and the most active Indian for stirring up other Indians to seek after 
the knowledg of God in these parts, his name is Waubon, which 
signifies Wind, (the Indians giving names to their children usually 
according to appearances of providences) although they never dreamt 
of this, that this their Waubon should breathe such a spirit of life 
and incouragement into the rest of the Indians, as hee hath indea- 
vored in all parts of the Countrey, both at Concord, Merrimeck and 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England. 63 

elsewhere ; but some of the Indians themselves that were stir'd up 
by him took notice of this his name and that Scripture together, and 
the English also have much observed him herein, who still continues 
the same man, although we thinke there be now many others whom 
he first breathed encouragement into that do farre exceed him in the 
light and life of the things of God : Mr. Eliot also professing that 
he chose that Text without the least thought of any such application 
in respect of Waubon. 

There have been many difficult questions propounded by them, 
which we have been unwilling to engage our selves in any answer 
unto, untill wee have the concurrence of others with us. 

First, suppose a man before hee knew God, hath had two wives, 
the first barren and childlesse, the second fruitfull and bearing him 
many sweet children, the question now propounded was, Which of 
these two wives he is to put away f if hee puts away ; the first who 
hath no children, then hee puts away her whom God and Religion 
undoubtedly binds him unto, there [p. 34.] being no other defect but 
want of children : if hee puts away the other, then he must cast ofF 
all his children with her also as illegitimate, whom hee so exceed- 
ingly loves. This is a case now among them, and they are very 
fearefull to do any thing crosse to Gods will and mind herein. 

Secondly, suppose a man marry a Sqaw, and shee deserts and 
flies from her husband, and commits adultery with other remote In- 
dians, but afterward it come to passe that shee hearing the Word, 
and sorry for what shee hath done, she desires to come to her hus- 
band againe, who remaines still unmarried ; Whether should this 
husband upon her repentance receive her againe ? and whether is he 
not bound thereunto so to doe ? 

At the last Lecture at JVoonanetum this September, there were 
divers questions asked : one was propounded by an old Sqaw, a 
Widow ; viz. If when men know God, God loves them, why then is 
it that any one are afflicted after that they know him . ? I shall men- 
tion no more, but conclude with the solemn speech of a sober and 
hopefull Indian at this Lecture, whose name is Wampooas, who in 
stead of propounding a question fell into these expressions, viz. 
" That because wee pray to God, other Indians abroad in the coun- 
" trey hate us and oppose us, the English on the other side suspect 
"us, and feare us to be still such as doe not pray at all; but (saith 
" he) God who knowes all things, he knowes that wee do pray to him. 
To which speech Mr. Eliot replyed, that it was true indeed, that 
some of the English did so far suspect them for sundry reasons ; but 
I doe not so, and others of us, who know you and speake with you, 
we do not so think of you ; and then gave them gracious and serious 
incouragements to goe forward and make more progresse in the 
things of God. This their own testimony of themselves being pro- 
pounded with much sweetnesse and seriousnesse of affection, may be 



64 The chare Sim-shine of the Gospel, 

the last, although it be the least confirmation of some inward worke 
among them ; which I looked upon as a speciall providence that such 
a speech should be spoken and come to my eare just at such a time 
as this, wherein I was finishing the story, to confirme in some meas- 
ure what hath been written ; the Lord himself I beleeve and no man 
living, putting these words into their own hearts, to give this modest 
testimony concerning themselves. The beginning of this enlarge- 
ment of Christs Kingdome should inlarge our hearts with [p. 35.] 
great joy. If I should gather and summe up together the severall 
gracious impressions of God upon them from what hath been scat- 
tered here and there in the story, I thinke it might make many 
Christians ashamed, who may easily see how farre they are exceeded 
by these naked men in so short a time thus wrought upon by such 
small and despicable means. My brother Eliot who is Preacher to 
them, professing he can as yet but stammer out some peeces of the 
Word of God unto them in their own tongue ; but God is with him, 
and God is wont to be maocimus in minimis, and is most seene in 
doing great things by small meanes. The Sword of Gods Word 
shall and will pierce deep, even when it is half broken, when the 
hand of a mighty Redeemer hath the laying of it on : and the Scrip- 
ture herein is, and must be fulfilled, that as soon as the heathen 
heare Christ they shall submit, Psal. 18. 43, 44. and such nations 
whom Christ knew not shall run unto him, Isai. bb. 5. The fall of 
the unbeleving Jewes was the rising of the Gentiles ; my prayer to 
God therefore for Europe is, that the fall of the Churches, (little 
bettered by the devouring Sword which is still thirsty) may not bee 
the rising of these American Gentiles, never pitied till 
AlstedinApoc. now. 1 wish that Jilsiedius prophesie herein may 
never prove true ; but rather that the rising of these 
may be a provoking and raising up of them, especially of the Eng- 
lish, to lament after that God whom they have forsaken ; and to la- 
ment after him, together with us, for these poor Indians who never 
yet knew him. 

Sir, I had ended these relations once or twice, but the stay of the 
Vessell increaseth new matter ; which because 'tis new and fresh, 
you shall have it as I heard of it from a faithfull hand : There were 
sundry questions propounded at the Indian Lecture at JVoonanetum 
this Octob. 13. by the Indians: the first was propounded to Mr. 
Eliot himself upon occasion of his Sermon out of Ephes. 5. 11. 
Have no fellowship with unfruitfull workers of darknes, viz. What 
English men did thinke of Mr. Eliot because he came among wicked 
Indians to teach them 1 ? 

Secondly, Suppose two men sinne, the oneknowes he sinneth, and 
the other doth not knowe sinne, will God punish both alike ? 

Thirdly, Suppose there should be one wise Indian that teacheth 
good things to other Indians, whether should not he be as a father 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England, 65 

or brother unto [p. 36.] such Indians he so teacheth in the wayes of 
God? This last question seemes to argue some motions stirring in 
some of their hearts to pity and teach their poor Countreymen ; 
and surely then will bee the most hopeful! time of doing good among 
them, when the Lord shall raise up some or other like themselves to 
go among them and preach the Word of life unto them with fatherly 
or brotherly bowels; and yet I limit not the most High, who can 
make use of what Instruments hee pleaseth for this work. I shall 
conclude therefore with a story I had both by writing 
and word of mouth, from a faithfull * man which hee j a f k Zn 
saw with his own eyes this Octob. 7. There was one 
of the Indians at Noonanetum, hath had a child sick of a Con- 
sumption many a day, and at that time died of it ; when it was dead, 
some of the Indians came to an honest man to enquire how they 
should bury their dead ; the man told them how and what the Eng- 
lish did when they buried theirs ; hereupon rejecting all their old 
superstitious observances at such sad times (which are not a few) 
they presently procured a few boards, and buy a few nayles of the 
English, and so make a pretty handsome Coffin, (for they are very 
dextrous at any thing they see once done) and put the child into it, 
and so accompanied it to the grave very solemnly, about 40. Indians 
of them : when the earth was cast upon it and the grave made up, 
they withdrew a little from that place, and went all together and as- 
sembled under a Tree in the Woods, and there they desired one 
Tutaswampe a very hopefull Indian to pray with them ; now although 
the English do not usually meet in companies to pray together after 
such sad occasions, yet it seemes God stird up their hearts thus, to 
doe ; what the substance of their prayer was I cannot certainly learn, 
although I have heard some things that way, which I therefore name 
not, onely I have and shall indeavour to get it, if it bee possible for 
the poor Indian to expresse the substance of it, and so shall send it 
if the ship stayes long, onely this is certaine by him who was occa- 
sionally an eye and eare witnesse of these things, that they continued 
instant with God in prayer for almost half an houre together, and 
this godly mans words to mee (who understands a little of their lan- 
guage) are these; that this Tutaswampe did expresse such zeale in 
prayer with such variety of gracious expressions, and abundance 
[p. 37.] of teares, both of himself and most of the company, that the 
woods rang againe with their sighes and prayers ; and (saith he) I 
was much ashamed of my self and some others, that have had so 
great light, and yet want such affections as they have, who have as 
yet so little knowledge. All this he saw standing at some good dis- 
tance alone from them under a Tree. 

Thus you see (Sir) that these old obdurate sinners are not alto- 
gether senselesse of Gods afflicting hand and humbling providences ; 
and though naturall affection may be much stirring in such times, yet 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 9 



66 The cleare Sun-shine of the Gospel, 

you see how God begins to sanctifie such affections among them : 
and 1 wish that many English were not outstript herein by these 
poor Indians, who have got the start I feare of many English, that 
can passe by such sad providences without laying them in this man- 
ner to heart. I confesse these and many such things which wee see 
in divers of them, do make some to thinke that there is more of God 
and his Spirit in some of their hearts then we yet can discover, and 
which they hope will break out in time. 

Thus you have a true, but somewhat rent and ragged relation of 
these things ; it may be most sutable to the story of naked and rag- 
ged men : my desire is that no mans Spectacles may deceive him, 
so as to look upon these things either as bigger or lesser, better or 
worser then they are ; which all men generally are apt to doe at 
things at so great distance, but that they may judge of diem as in- 
deed they are, by what truth they see here exprest in the things 
themselves. I know that some thinke that all this worke among 
them is done and acted thus by the Indians to please the English, 
and for applause from them ; and it is not unlikely but so 'tis in many, 
who doe but blaze for a time ; but certainly 'tis not so in all, but 
that the power of the Word hath taken place in some, and that in- 
wardly and effectually, but how far savingly time will declare, and 
the reader may judge of, by the story it self of these things. Some 
say that if it be so, yet they are but a few that are thus wrought 
upon ; Be it so, yet so it hath ever been, many called, few chosen: 
and yet withall I beleeve the calling in of a few Indians to Christ is 
the gathering home of many hundreds in one, considering what a 
vast distance there hath been between God and them so long, even 
dayes without number ; considering [p. 38.] also how precious the 
first fruits of America will be to Jesus Christ, and what seeds they 
may be of great harvests in after times ; and yet if there was no 
great matter seen in these of grown yeers, their children notwith- 
standing are of great hopes both from English and Indians them- 
selves, who are therefore trained up to Schoole, where many are 
very apt to learne, and who are also able readily to answer to the 
questions propounded, containing the principles and grounds of all 
Christian Religion in their own tongue. I confesse it passeth my 
skill to tell how the Gospel should be generally received by these 
American Natives, considering the variety of Languages in small 
distances of places ; onely hee that made their eares and tongues 
can raise up some or other to teach them how to heare, and what to 
spake ; and if the Gospel must ride circuit, Christ can and will con- 
quer by weake and despicable meanes, though the conquest perhaps 
may be somewhat long. The beginnings and foundations of the 
Spaniard in the Southerne parts of this vast continent, being laid in 
the blood of nineteene Millions of poor innocent Natives (as Acosta 
the Jesuite a bird of their own nest relates the story) shall certainly 



Breaking forth upon the Indians in New-England. 67 

therefore bee utterly rooted up by some revenging hand ; and when 
he is once dispossest of his Golden Mansions and Silver Mines, it 
may be then the oppressed remnant in those coasts also may come 
in. In the meane while if it bee the good pleasure of Christ to look 
upon any of the worst and meanest of these outcasts in these Coasts 
of New-England, let us not despise this day of small things, but as 
the Jews did of old, so let us now cry mightily to God and say, and 
sing, Let the people praise thee O God, yea let all the people praise 
thee, then shall the earth bring forth her increase, and God even 
our God will blesse us, 

I have sent you two witnesses beside my own of the truth 
of the Indian story printed, you may publish them if 
you please as they have writ, and subscrib'd with their 
own hands. 

Thomas Shephard. 



FINIS. 



THE 



Glorious Progress 

OF THE 

GOSPEL, 

AMONGST THE 

Indians in New England. 

MANIFESTED 

By three Letters, under the Hand of 

that famous Instrument of the Lord Mr. John Eliot, 

And another from Mr. Thomas Mayhew jun : both Preachers of 
the Word, as well to the English as Indians in New England, 

WHEREIN 

The riches of Gods Grace in the effectuall calling of 

many of them is cleared up : As also a manifestation of the hung- 

ring desires of many People in sundry parts of that Country, 

after the more full Revelation of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, 

to the exceeding Consolation of every Christian Reader. 

Together, 

With an Appendix to the foregoing Letters, holding forth 

Conjectures, Observations, and Applications. 
By 1. D. Minister of the Gospell. 

Published by Edward Winslow. 

Mai. 1. 11. From the rising of the Sun. even unto the going down 
of the same, my Name shall be great among the Gentiles, and in 
every place incence shall be offered unto my Name, and a pure 
Offering ; for my Name shall be great among the Heathen, saiih 
the Lord of Hosts. 

LONDON. Printed for Hannah Allen in Popes-head-Mey. 1649. 



TO THE 

RIGHT HONOURABLE 

THE 

Parliament of England 

And the Councell 

OF STATE. 

Right Honourable, 

THat former Narative called, The clear Sunshine of 
the Gospel, breaking forth upon the Indians in JYeic- 
England; dedicated to your Honours by divers Rev- 
erend and eminent Ministers of the Gospell in and about 
the City of London, found such acceptance in your 
House, as it begat a debate amongst your selves, how 
the Parliament of England might be serviceable to the 
Lord Jesus, to help forward such a work begun ; which 
conduced so abundantly to the glory of God, and good 
of men in the salvation of their soules. And in order 
thereunto your Honours were pleased to refer it to the 
Committee of forraign Plantations, to prepare and bring 
in an Ordinance for the encouragement and advancement 
of Learning and Piety in JYew England, as appeareth by 
your Order March 17. 1647. This Honourable Com- 
mittee with great readiness and chearfulness took it into 
their serious consideration, and presented the result of 
their mature debates to this honourable House : But so 
many and weighty have been the occasions and busi- 
nesses of the House, that however the nature of the work 
and my duty (being appointed Agent though unworthy) 
on the behalf of New-England to this Parliament : yet 



72 The Epistle Dedicatory. 

durst not presse too hard to interrupt the great affaires 
your Honours have been in hand withall. Nevertheles, 1 
do now crave leave, humbly to acquaint you, that what 
was then judged deficient in the power granted to the 
Feoffees in that Ordinance, is since corrected and amend- 
ed, and attendeth your Honours leisure for compleating 
and finishing the same. 

Undoubtedly the common enemy of mans salvation 
hath rejoyced that this work so happily begun, hath not 
as yet received that countenance and encouragement 
from hence, which your Honours intended and resolved 
many months since. Nevertheles, I trust the most wise 
God hath turned this appearing losse into gaine, by afford- 
ing your Honours and the Nation a more clear account of 
the reall and glorious Progres of the Gospel among those 
poor Indians in America, by such Intelligence I very 
lately received from thence under the hands of those 
Reverend &, learned Ministers, which are principally em- 
ployed in preaching the Gospel to them in their own 
Language. And as I am daily and earnestly called upon 
to publish the same, that the whole Nation may be ac- 
quainted therewith : So I took it to be my duty to pre- 
sent, it in the first place to this honourable House, and 
the Councel of State ; that your Honours might perceive 
how these poor Creatures cry out for help ; Oh come 
unto us, teach us the knowledge of God, tarry longer 
with us, come and dwell amongst us, at least depart not 
so soon from us. - And others of them whose dwellings 
are near the Habitations of the English, (whose hearts 
God hath touched) calling for and demanding a free and 
full participation of all the Ordinances of Jesus Christ. 
All which, and much more is evidently held forth in the 
following Narrative, which I have with all faithfulnes col- 
lected and transcribed, according as I received the same 
from persons that were Actors therein, and are of known 
Integrity. 

There are two great questions Right Honourable, which 
have much troubled ancient and modern writers, and 
men of greatest depth and ability to resolve : the first, 



The Epistle Dedicatory. 73 

what became of the ten Tribes of Israel, that were car- 
ried into Captivity by the King of Siria, when their own 
Countrey and Cities were planted and filled with stran- 
gers ? The second is, what Family, Tribe, Kindred, or 
people it was that first planted, and afterwards filled that 
vast and long unknown Countrey of America? Now 
however I confesse questions are sooner asked then re- 
solved ; yet let me acquaint your Honors, that a godly 
Minister of this City writing to Rabbi-ben-Israel, a great 
Dr. of the Jewes, now living at Amsterdam, to know 
whether after all their labor, travells, and most diligent 
enquiry, they did yet know what was become of the ten 
Tribes of Israel ? His answer was to this effect, if not 
in these words, That they were certainly transported 
into America, and that they had infallible tokens of their 
being there. Unto which if I may take the boldnesse to 
adde what my self, with many others in New England 
have observed in the practice of the Indians there, in 
relation to some things enjoyned in the ceremoniall Law 
of Moses, about the purification of weomen, which no 
men at this day do observe, nor beside the Jewes were 
ever known in that strictness to observe, as these Indians 
there daily do : As also if the principles of the most grave 
and sober amongst them, not only in reference to a Deity, 
the soule of man, the immortality of the soule, and an 
eternity after death in happines or misery ; but also their 
manifold daily expressions, bewailing the losse of that 
knowledge their Ancestors had about God, and the way 
of his Worship ; the general deluge, and of one man only 
that ever saw God, which they hold forth to be a long 
time since, (even with the greatest expression of length 
of time that may be) which certainly / believe to be 
Moses. As also if many other Circumstances well known 
to many, (but not fit to be at large expressed in any 
Epistle) be duly considered, It is not lesse probable that 
these Indians should come from the Stock of Abraham, 
then any other Nation this day known in the world : Es- 
pecially considering the juncture of time wherein God 
hath opened their hearts to entertain the Gospel, being 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 10 



74 The Epistle Dedicatory. 

so nigh the very years, in which many eminent and learn- 
ed Divines, have from Scripture grounds, according to 
their apprehensions foretold the conversion of the Jewes. 
However Right Honourable, the work so communicating 
and encreasing the light of the Gospel is glorious in ref- 
erence to Jewes &, Gentiles. And as God hath set a 
signall marke- of his presence upon your Assembly, in 
strengthning your hands to redeem and preserve the 
civill Rights of the Common-weale : so doubtlesse may it 
be a comfortable support to your Honours in any future 
difficulties, to contemplate, that as the Lord offered you 
(in this designe) an happy opportunity to enlarge and ad- 
vance the Territories of his Sonnes Kingdom: So he 
hath not denyed you (as I am confident he will not) an 
heart to improve the same ; and in as much as lies in you 
to make all the Nations of the Earth, the Kingdoms of 
the Lord, and of his Christ ; that so your Honours may 
still preserve your interest in his favour, which is and 
shall be the prayers of 

Your Honours most humble Servant, 



EDWARD WINSLOW. 



THE 

GLORIOUS PROGRESSE 

of the Gospel amongst the Indians 

m Jfew-England. 

IN the year of our Lord, 1646. it seemed good to the most high 
God, to stirre up some reverend Ministers of the Gospel in 
JVew-England, to consider how they might be serviceable to the 
Lord Jesus, as well towards the Natives of that Countrey, (as to 
their owne Congregations and Churches, over which the Lord had 
set them^ in bringing them to a right understanding of God and 
themselves ; and so by degrees to hold forth unto them that Salva- 
tion by Jesus Christ to all that should beleeve and obey his Com- 
mands ; perswading themselves, that God might have a select people 
amongst these Heathens, and that for that end amongst many others 
he had planted so many Christian Congregations so neer them. 
And however the English were not wholly negligent this way, but 
had in sundry parts of the Countrey long before brought divers to a 
pretty competency of right understanding in the mystery of salvation, 
who lived orderly, and dyed hopefully ; yet till such time as they 
were more generally acquainted with our conversation amongst our 
selves, and with our demeanor towards them, as well in peace, as in 
such warres they had unavoidably drawn upon themselves ; whereby 
they had such experience of the justice, prudence, valour, temper- 
ance, and righteousnesse of the English, as did not onely remove 
their former jealousies and feares concerning us, and convict them 
of their owne uneven walking; but begat a good opinion of our per- 
sons, and caused them to affect our Laws and Government, [p. 2.] 
Till "now (together with the want of language) we had but some 
few that were wrought upon ; But in this acceptable year of the 
Lord, (being it seems the appointed season for their visitation) God 
having stirred up these Ministers to seek a Blessing upon their 
endeavours, and direct them in a right way ; they found the answer 
of their prayers by the good acceptation they had amongst the poore 
Indians where they first went, he. who soon became in love also 
with our Religion, and mightily hungred and thirsted after the Knowl- 



76 The Glorious Progresse of the Gospel 

edge of God in Christ, as was published and made apparant to this 
Nation by a short Treatise, called, The day-breaking, if not the 
Sun-rising of the Gospel with the Indians in New-England. 

In the year 1647. being here upon some special! service for the 
Countrey, Letters came to my hands with some Papers from Mr. 
Tho. Shepard, Pastor of the Church at Cambridge there, which 
held forth a greater warmth of heavenly heat upon their (former 
frozen) spirits; which I communicated to some eminent Ministers of 
and neere the City of London; viz. Mr. Marshall, Mr. Downham, 
Mr. Thomas Goodwin, Mr. tVMtaker, Mr. Nye, Mr. Case, Mr. Cal- 
amy, Mr. Sydrack Simpson, Mr. Ash, Mr. Greenhill, Mr. Carter, 
and Mr. Bolton : And such was the esteem these reverend men had 
of it, as by two severall Epistles under their hands they recommend- 
ed it to the Parliament of England, as a thing worthy their notice, 
care, and furtherance : And secondly, to the godly and well-affected of 
this Nation, who pray for, and rejoyce in the thrivings of the Gospel 
of our Lord Jesus. This Narrative was also published, and called, 
The clear Sun-shine of the Gospel breaking forth upon the Indians 
in New-England. 

In the year 1648. our Letters miscarried many of them, in that 
the Ship that brought them was taken by the Prince of Wales, to the 
Countries great prejudice, as well as many other Vessels and their 
lading formerly ; by which miscarriage I was wholly hindred from 
giving any further account till this instant, 1649. 

And now having received some Letters, and others brought to me 
by divers of quality here residing at present, that appertaine to New- 
England ; and being exceedingly pressed to publish them by many 
godly and well-affected of the City and parts adjacent, I shall by 
Gods help publish them all, or so many of them as concernes the 
Indian work ; and if any doubt my faithfulnesse herein, (as I hope 
none will that know me) I shall most willingly shew them the Orig- 
inalls themselves. And before I come to this years Letters, I 
received from Mr. [p. 3.] Eliot, shall begin with one came to my 
hands, (dated Nov. .16.47.) after the last Treatise was put out. 
And I the rather take this course, lest the young man should be dis- 
couraged in his labours so hopefully begun ; his name is Mr. May- 
heiv, who teacheth the Word both to English and Indians upon an 
Island called formerly Capawack, by us Morthas Vineyard, by 
which you may see 'tis not one Minister alone that laboureth in this 
great work : His Letter followeth : 



Amongst the Indians in New-England. 77 

SIR, 

J_ He encouragements I met withall touching the Indians conver- 
sion, next unto Gods glory, and his gracious promises __ , 
was, the notable reason, judgement, and capacitie that L e r tter f r ^ ws 
God hath given unto many of them ; as also their zeal- Capawack, 
ous enquiring after true happinesse, together with the r ?pJ« mb ' 18 ' 
knowledge I had of their tongue, besides severall provi- 
dences which hath advantaged my progresse therein ; as for in- 
stance : 

1. There was one Ieogiscat about 60. years of age, who was 
sick of a consuming disease, insomuch as the Indian Pawwawes 
gave him over for a dead man : Upon which resolution 

of all the * Pawwawes in the Island, the sick distressed *Suchascure 
Hea;then upon a Lords day came unto mee (the rest of b y devillish 
the English being then present) to desire me to pray Jo'whomthe 
unto God for him : And so when I had by reasoning devil appeares 
with him convinced him of the weaknesse and wicked- sometimes, 
nesse of the Pawwaws power ; and that if health were 
to be found, it must be had from him that gave life, and^breath, and 
all things; I commended this case unto the Lord, whereof he re- 
joyced, gave me thanks, and he speedily recovered unto his former 
strength. 

2. In this present year 1647. the eldest sonne of one Vakapa- 
nessue, a great Sagamore of the Island, being very sick, took occa- 
sion to send for me to come unto him ; and when I came unto him, 
I found him not more weak in body, then strong in earnest desires, 
that I should pray unto God for him ; so I instructed him, and prayed 
for him : And when I had ended, of his own accord he spake these 
words, Taubot mannit nuh quam Cowin. viz. I thank thee God, I 
am heavy to sleep ; and so I left him holding forth good affections : 
But shortly after he was changed altogether, [p. 4.] and contrary to 
the perswasion of other Indians of severall Townes, sought againe 
unto Witches. The Heathen seeing this, they forsook 

the * Wigwam, saying, We leave the house for the * The Indians 
Devill and them that would tarry. This newes being hoiLes.^ 1 * 
brought me, I much mervailed thereat, yet sent him this 
message, viz. Tell Savl, (for the sick man was by the English so 
called) that when I was with him, I thought as then I told him, that 
he would live, because he sought for life unto the living God, where 
if any where it was to be found : But tell him now, that I think he 
will dye. I also added the example of Ahaziah, who because he 
had the knowledge of the great God, and sought unto an inferiour 
God, God was angry with him and killed him : And so for that this 
Saul was informed of the true God, and is fallen from him to the 
earthen gods here below ; that God will kill him also ; and so it 
shortly came to passe. 



78 The Gloriovs Progresse of the Gospel 

3. Not long after a * Sagamore, called, Towanquattick had his 

eldest sonne, whose name is Sachachanimo, very sick 

* A Prince or f a Feaver ; this young man sent for me to come unto 

them"" 10 " 2 " 1 him 5 and when } came > his father and himself desired 
me to pray for him, the which I did in their owne lan- 
guage, and promised to come againe unto him very shortly, if he 
mended not, and use some other meanes also for his recovery : 
When I came againe unto him, I found him very ill, asked him 
(together with his friends) whether they were willing 1 should let him 
blood ? acquainting them that we used so to do in such cases. After 
some consideration, they consented thereunto, notwithstanding the 
Pawwaws had told them before, that he should dye, because he 
sought not unto them : so I bound his arme, and with my Pen-knife 
let him blood ; he bled freely, but was exceeding faint, which made 
the Heathen very sad; but in a short time, he begun to be very 
cheerfnll, whereat they much rejoyced, &ic. So I left them, and it 
pleased the Lord the man was in a short time after very well. 

In these providences the Lord hath manifested both mercy and 
judgement, and it is, that he may raise up the Tabernacle of David 
that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof, and raise up its 
ruines, and build it as in the dayes of old, that they may possesse 
the Covenant of Edom, and of all the Heathen which are called by 
my Name, saith the Lord that doth this. [p. 5.] 

But I pray you take notice of a speech of Toivanquatticks (being 
the Father of the young man recovered) who lamenting 
An Indian the losse of their knowledge said unto me, * That a 
our e considera- ^ on S ^ me a g on i they had wise men, which in a grave 
tion. manner taught the people knowlege, but they are dead, 

and their wisedome is buried with them : and now men 
live a giddy life in ignorance till they are white headed, and though 
ripe in yeares, yet then they go without wisedom unto their graves. 
He also told me, that he wondred the English shoidd be almost thirty 
yeers in the Country, and the Indians fools still ; but he hoped that 
the time of knowledge was now come ; wherefore himself with others 
desired me to give them an Indian meeting, to make known the 
word of God unto them in their own tongue. And when he came 
to me to accomplish his desire thereabout, he told me, 
The better sort that * J should be to them, as one that stands by a 
of suchYike e^- ru nnmg River, filing many vessels : Even so should 
pressions, af- 1 fill them with everlasting knowledge. So I under- 
fectmg to speak t ook to give them a meeting once a moneth ; but as 
soon as the first exercise w T as ended, they desired it 
oftner then I could well attend : but once a Fortnight is our setled 
course. This I present to your consideration, entreating you to 
present us unto the Lord for wisedom, to preach unto the Heathen 
the unsearchable riches of Christ, that so the root of lesse standing 






Amongst the Indians in New-England. 79 

for an Ensigne of the people, the Gentiles may seek unto it, and his 
rest shall he glorious, Amen. 

Great Harbour in the Vineyard Yours in the best Bonds 

18. ofthe'9. 1647. Tho. Mayheiv, junior. 

In the next place, I shall present you with some Letters of that 
painfull yet unwearied Minister of the Gospel, Mr. John Eliot, who 
notwithstanding his faithfull labours in teaching that Church or 
Congregation of the English, over which the Lord hath set him at 
Roxbury in the Government of the Massachusets, yet taheth all oc- 
casions, (neglecting no opportunity, whether more remote, or ncere 
at hand) to advance the glory of God, in calling those poor heathen 
to the saving knowledge of Jesus Christ, and satisfying those hun- 
gry soules by administring the bread of life unto them. And how- 
ever 1 cannot give you his first large Letter (as he tearmes it) being 
sent by way of Spaine, and by that meanes not yet come to my hands, 
yet take his second in his own words, which will minister abundance 
of sweet consolation to every [p. 6.] Christian Reader, that God 
should in these latter times so magnifie his glorious grace in extend- 
ing his everlasting mercies to those poor naked Indians. His Let- 
ter followeth. 

Worthy Sir, 

¥Our cordiall and faithfull endeavours, he. I am bold now by 
the way of Virginia, to trouble you with a few 
lines, to expresse the thankfulnesse of my heart unto Mr. Eliots 2. 
you, for that one part of your care, love, and labour Letter in 48. 
in furthering this work of preaching Christ to these ^Ste&SS 
poor Indians, and declaring to them the way of eternall Gospel among 
life and salvation ; which work I blesse the Lord goeth the Indians, 
on not without successe, beyond the ability of the In- 
struments : It is the Lord, the Lord only who doth speak to the 
hearts of men, and he can speak to theirs, and doth, (blessed be his 
name) so effectually, that one of them I beleeve verily 
is gone to the Lord ; a * woman, who though she was a precious tes- 
not the first that came into the knowledge of Christ timony of an 
and the Gospel, yet she was the first of ripe yeares conSiveT W 
that hath dyed since I taught them the way of salva- dye a Christian. 
tion by Jesus Christ, and the onely one. And though 
of the living I will not say much, yet of the dead I may freely speak ; 
After I began to preach unto them, her husband and she did quickly 
come in ; and after she came, she was a diligent hearer ; and out of 
desire to live where the word of God was taught, they fetched all 
the corne they spent, sixteen miles upon their backs from the place 
of their planting : She was industrious, and did not goe about to 



80 The Glorious Progresse of the Gospel. 

English houses a begging, as sundry doe, (though it is well reformed 
now with many of them) but kept home, kept her children to labour, 
making baskets to sell, he. She quickly learned to spin well (for I 
got some wheels, but want meanes to supply them and order them.) 
Her life was blamelesse after she submitted to the Gospel, and was 
exemplary : She was the first woman that asked a question (by an- 
other man propounded for her) which was this ; When my Husband 
prayeth in his house, my heart thinketh what he prayeth ; whether is 
this praying to God aright or no°l I thought it a fit question for a 
woman. She dyed of a sicknesse she took in childbed : I severall 
times visited her, prayed with her, asked her about her spiritual! 
estate ? She told me she still loved God, though he made her [p. 7.] 
sick, and was resolved to pray unto him so long as she lived, and to 
refuse poivwawing. She said also, that she beleeved God would 
pardon all her sins, because she beleeved that lesus Christ dyed for 
her ; and that God was well pleaded in him, and that she was wil- 
ling to dye, and beleeved to goe to Heaven, and live happy with God 
and Christ there. 

It may be you may mervell at, and scarce credit such expressions : 
but they are the points of Catechisme which I constantly teach the 
Children ; and the Children can very readily answer me in them ; 
and they be truths now familiarly known by the attentive hearers, 
whereof she was one. And moreover of her own accord, she call- 
ed her children to her, especially two up-grown daughters, which 
she had before she married this man, and said to them, 
A precious dy- 1 shall now dye, and when 1 am dead, your Grand- 
,ing speech of Father and Grand-mother, and Vncles, fyc. will send 
man 11 tocher " f or y ou ^° come ^ ve amongst them, and promise you 
children. great matters, and tell you what pleasant living it is 

among them ; But doe not beleeve them, and I charge 
you never hearken unto them, nor live amongst them; for they pray 
not to God, keep not the Sabbath, commit all manner of sinnes and 
are not punished for it: but I charge you live here, for here they 
pray unto God, the word of God is taught, sins are suppressed and 
punished by Lawes ; And therefore I charge you live here all your 
dayes. And soon after this she dyed, and it fell out indeed as she 
had said, for there was earnest sending and soliciting for the maids 
to live with them : so that the case was propounded to me on a 
Lecture day ; and their Father in law opposed it, not only as ad- 
judging it evill, but because of their mothers charge; and by this 
meanes I came to know the Story. And though they doe, as you 
know, abhor the remembrance of their dead friends ; yet when I 
take occasion to speak of her, and my reasons of hope that she is 
gone to heaven, they entertain it with joy, and sometimes with 
teares : I have been too tedious in this Story, yet I doubt not but it 
will be acceptable unto you. 



Amongst the Indians in New-England. 81 

For the further progresse of the work amongst them, I doe per- 
ceive a great impediment; Sundry in the Country in 
divers places would gladly be taught the knowledge of Note what 
God and Iesus Christ, and would pray unto God, if hinders the 
I could goe unto them, and teach them where they Se^Gospel 
dwell : but to come to live here among or neer to the amongst them. 
English, they are not willing, because they have nei- 
ther [p. 8.] tooles, nor skill, nor heart to fence their grounds ; and 
if it be not well fenced, their Corne is so spoyled by the English 
Cattell, and the English so loath to restore when they want fence, 
that its a very great discouragement to them and me ; so that few 
come to dwell at the neer places where 1 ordinarily teach, onely 
some strangers do come to hear, and away again : So that I plainly 
see, the way to do them good must be this. A place must be found 
(both for this and sundry other reasons I can give) some what 
remote from the English, where they must have the word constantly 
taught, and government constantly exercised, meanes of good sub- 
sistance provided, incouragements for the industrious, meanes of 
instructing them in Letters, Trades, and Labours, as building, 
fishing, Flax and Hemp dressing, planting Orchards, he. Such a 
project in a fit place, would draw many that are well minded to- 
gether : but I feare it will be too chargeable, though I see that 
God delighteth in small beginnings, that his great name may be 
magnified. 

*Few of our Southern Indians incline this way, onely some of 
Tihtacutt. Young Ousamequin is an enemy to praying to God, 
and the old man too wise to look after it. Our Cut- 
shamoquin hath some subjects in Marthas Vineyard, Examples in 
and they hearing of his praying to God, some of them ^ ^fent. Ve)T 
doe the like there, with some other ingenious Indians, 
and I have intreated Mr. Mahew (the young Scholler, son to old 
Mr. Mayhew) who preacheth to the English to teach them ; and 
he doth take pains in their Language, and teacheth them not with- 
out successe, blessed be the Lord. And truly I think all the Min- 
isters that live neer them should do well to do the like, I have 
earnestly solicited many so to do, and 1 hope God will in his time 
bow their hearts thereunto. But I perceive our Western Indians 
up into the Inland do more earnestly embrace the Gospel. Sha- 
wanon the great Sachym of JVashawog doth embrace the Gospel, 
and pray unto God. I have been foure times there this Summer, 
and there be more people by far, then be amongst us ; and sundry 
of them do gladly hear the word of God, but it is neer 40. miles 
off, and I can but seldom goe to them ; wherat they are troubled, 
and desire I should come oftner, and stay longer when I come. 

There is a great fishing place upon one of the Falls of Meri- 
mack [p. 9.] River called Pautucket, where is a great confluence of 

VOL. JV. THIRD SERIES. 1 1 



82 The Glorious Progresse of the Gospel 

Indians every Spring, and thither I have gone these two yeares in 
that season, and intend so to doe the next Spring (if God will.) 
Such confluences are like Faires in England, and a fit season it is 
to come then unto them, to teach them to know God, and Iesus 
Christ, and call upon his name. For whereas there did use to be 
gaming and much evill at those great meetings, now there is praying 
to God, and good conference, and observation of the Sabbath, by 
such as are well minded ; and no open prophanesse suffered as I 
heare of, and my comming amongst them is very acceptable in out- 
ward appearance. This last Spring I did there meet old Papassa- 
connaway, who is a great Sogamore, and hath been a great Witch 
in all mens esteem (as I suppose your self have often heard) and 
a very politick wise man. The last yeare he and all his sonnes fled 
when I came, pretending feare that we would kill him : But this 
yeare it pleased God to bow his heart to heare the word ; I preach- 
ed out of Malachi 1. 11. which I thus render to them ; From the 
rising of the Sun, to the going down of the same, thy name shall be 
great among the Indians, and in every place prayers shall be made 
to thy name, pure prayers, for thy name shall be great among the 
Indians. Whence I shewed them, what mercy God had promised 
to them ; and that the time was now come wherein the Lord did 
begin to call them to repentance, and to beleeve in Christ for the 
remission of their sins, and to give them an heart to call upon his 
name, forsaking their former wayes of pawwawing, and praying to 
the Devill, &c. And when I had done preaching, they began to 
propound questions, and one of them propounded this ; If it be thus 
as you teach, then all the world of Indians are gone to hell to be 
tormented for ever, untill now a few may goe to Heaven and be 
saved ; Is it so ? These principles of a twofold estate after this life, 
for good and bad people, Heaven and Hell, I put amongst the first 
questions that I instruct them in, and catechise the children in; and 
they doe readily embrace it for a truth, themselves by their own 
traditions having some principles of a life after this life, and that 
good or evill, according to their demeanour in this life. After a 
good space, this old Papassaconnaway speak to this purpose, that 
indeed he had never prayed unto God as yet, for he had never 
heard of God before, as [p. 10.] now he doth. And he said fur- 
ther, that he did beleeve what I taught them to be true. And for 
his owne part, he was purposed in his heart from thenceforth to pray 

unto God, and that hee would perswade all his sonnes 
The same sig- to doethe same, pointing at two of them who were there 
Sagamore viz* P resent > an d naming such as were absent. His sonnes 
one bearing rule present, especially his eldest sonne (who is a * Sachim 
among them. a t Wadchuset) gave his willing consent to what his 

father had promised, and so did the other who was but 
a youth. Aud this act of his was not onely a present motion that 



Amongst the Indians in New-England. 83 

soon vanished, but a good while after he spake to Capt. Willard, 
who tradeth with them in those parts for Bever and Otter Skins, 
&c. that he would be glad if I would come and live in some place 
thereabouts to teach them, and that Capt. Willard would live there 
also : And that if any good ground or place that hee had would be 
acceptable to me, he would willingly let me have it. I doe endeav- 
our to engage the Sachims of greatest note to accept the Gospel, 
because that doth greatly animate and encourage such as are well- 
affected, and is a damping to those that are scoffers and opposers ; 
for many such there be, though they dare not appeare so be- 
fore me. 

Thus you see by this short intimation, that the sound of the 
Word is spread a great way ; yea, farther then I will speake of; 
and it appeareth to me, that the Fields begin to look white unto the 
Harvest. Oh that the Lord would be pleased to raise up many 
labourers into this Harvest ! But it is difficult, not only in respect of 
•the language, but also in respect of their barbarous course of life 
and poverty ; there is not so much as meat, drink, or lodging for 
them that go unto them to preach among them, but we must carry 
all things with us, and somewhat to give unto them : So that the 
comming of Jesus Christ into these parts of the world, is not as he 
formerly came amongst the Gentiles, a poore underling, and his ser- 
vants poore, living upon the Gospel where it was accepted among 
the rich Gentiles : But Christ will come unto these, rich, potent, 
above them in learning, riches, and power ; and they shall flock unto 
the Gospel, thereby to receive externall beneficence and advance- 
ment, as well as spirituall grace and blessings. And thus I bend 
my selfe to doe to my poor ability : I never go unto them empty, 
but carry somewhat to distribute among them ; [p. 11.] and so like- 
wise when they come unto my house, I am not willing they should 
go away without some refreshing, neither do I take any gratuity 
from them unrewarded ; and indeed they doe account, that they 
have nothing worth the giving unto me ; onely once 
when I was up in the Countrey, a poore creature came A beade they 
to me as I was about to take Horse, shaking me by Sghly eTteem- 
the hand, and with his other hand thrust somthing into ed among the 
my hand, I looked what it was, and it was a penny- Indians, equal 
worth of * Wampam, upon a strawes end ; I seeing so ^tlTus. 67 
much hearty affection in so small a thing, I kindly ac- 
cepted, onely inviting him to my house, that I might there shew my 
love to him. 

There is another great fishing place about threescore miles from 
us, whether I intend (God willing) to go next Spring, which be- 
longeth to the forenamed Papassaconnaway ; which journey, though 
it be like to be both difficult and chargeable for horse and men, in 
fitting provisions, yet 1 have sundry reasons which bow and draw 



84 The Glorious Progresse of the Gospel 

my heart thereunto. I desire your prayers to the Lord for me and 
for thern, that the Lord would open my mouth to speak in his Name 
to their understandings, that with their hearts they may embrace that 
message which from the Lord I shall bring unto them. 

They have no meanes of Physick at all, onely make use of Paw- 
wawes when they be sick, which makes them loath to give it over : 
But I finde, by Gods blessing, in some meanes used in Physick and 
Chyrurgery, they are already convinced of the folly of Pawwawing, 
and easily perswaded to give it over utterly as a sinfull and diaboli- 
call practise : but 1 much want some wholsome cordialls, and such 
other medicines as I have here mentioned in the in closed. 

The Indians about us which I constantly teach, do still diligently 
and desirously attend, and in a good measure practise (for the out- 
ward part of Religion, both in their families and Sabbaths) accord- 
ing to their knowledge ; and by degrees come on to labour. I 
should be over-tedious and troublesome to you to runne into particu- 
lars, onely let me give you a taste of their knowledge by their 
Questions, a few whereof I did sometimes set downe, though I have 
slipped many, and very materiall ones ; these questions [p. 12.] 
being asked at sundry times, and at sundry meetings of the 
Indians. 

Quest. How many good people were in Sodome when it was 
burnt °l 

1 know not how to pray to Christ and the Spirit, I know a little 
how to pray to God ? 

Doth the Devill dwell in us as we dwell in an house $ 

When God saith, Honour thy Father, doth he mean three Fathers 9 
our Father, and our Suchim, and God. 

When the Soule goes to heaven, what doth it say when it comes 
there ? And what doth a wicked Soule say when it commeth into 
Hem 

If one sleep on the Sabbath at meeting, and another awaketh him, 
and he be angry at it, and say, its because he is angry with him that 
he so doth, Is not this a sinne °l 

If any talk of another mans faults, and tell others of it when hee 
is [not~\ present to answer, is not that a sinne C J 

Why did Christ dye in our stead °l 

Seeing Eve was first in sinne, whether did she dye first °l 

Why must we love our enemies, and how shall we doe it ? 

How doth Christ redeem and deliver us from sinne ? 

When every day my heart thinks 1 must dye, and goe to hell for 
my sins, what shall 1 doe in this case °l 

May a good man sin sometirnes 9 Or may he be a good man, 
and. yet sin sometimes 9 

If a man think a prayer, doth God know it, and will he blesse 
him ! 



Amongst the Indians in New-England, 85 

Who killed Christ °l 

If a man be almost a good man, and dyeth ; whither goeth his 
soule ? 

How long was Mam good before he sinned ? 

Seeing we see not God with our eyes, if a man dream that he seeth 
God, doth his soule then see him °l 

Did Adam see God before he sinned ? 

Shall we see God in Heaven % 

If a wicked man pray, whether doth he make a good prayer °l or 
when doth a wicked man pray a good prayer % 

If a man recent, doth God take away his sinnes, and forgive 
him ? 

Whether did God make hell before Adam sinned? [p. 13.] 

If two families dwell in one house, and one prayeth,. and the other 
not, what shall they that pray do to them that do not ? 

Did Abimeleck know Sarah was Abrahams wife ? 

Did not Abraham sin in saying she is my sister ? 

Seeing God promised Abraham so many children, like the starrer 
for multitude, why did he give him so few ? and was it true °l 

If God made hell in one of the six dayes, why did God make Hell 
before Adam had sinned*! 

Now the Indians desire to goe to Heaven, what shall we do that 
we may go thither when we dye ? 

How shall 1 bring mine heart to> love Prayer 9 

If one man repent, and pray once in a day, another man often in 
a day ; whether doth one of them go to Heaven, the other not °l or 
what difference is there % 

I finde I want wisdome, what shall 1 do to be wise ?< 

Why did Abraham buy a place to bury in °l 

Why doth God make good men sick ? 

How shall the Resurrection be, and when *? 

Doe not Englishmen spoile their soules, to say a thing cost them 
more then it did ? and is it not all one as to steale °l 

You say our body is made of clay, what is the Sunne or Moone 
made of% 

If one be loved of all Indians good and bad, another is hated of all 
saving a few that be good, doth God love both these 1 

I see why I must feare Hell, and do so every day. But why must 
I f ear e God? 

How is the tongue like fire, and like poyson °l 

What if false Witnesses accuse me of murther or some foul sin *? 

What punishment is due to lyars ? 

If I reprove a man for sinne, and he answer, why doe you speak 
thus angerly to me : Mr. Eliot teacheth us to love one another, is this 
well? 

Why is God so angry with murtherers °l 



86 The Glorious Progresse of the Gospel 

If a wife put away her husband because he will pray to God, and 
she will not, what must be done in this case ? 

If there be young women pray to God, may such as pray to God 
marry one that will not pray to God? or what is to bee done in this 
case °l 

[p. 14.] Whether doth God make bad men dream good Dreames ? 

What is Salvation °l 

What is the Kingdome of Heaven °l 

If my wife doe some work in the house on the night before the Sab- 
bath, and some work on the Sabbath night, whether is this a sin ? 

If 1 doe that which is a sinne, and do not know it is a sin, what 
will God say to that ? 

Whether is faith set in my heart, or in my minde *? 

Why did Christ dye for us, and who did kill him *? , 

By these questions you may see they somewhat favour the things 
of God and Christ, and that their soules be in a searching condition 
after the great points of Religion and Salvation. And I will say 
this solemnly, not suddenly, nor lightly, but before the Lord, as I 
apprehend in my conscience, were they but in a setled way of Civil- 
ity and Government cohabiting together, and I called (according to 
God) to live among them, I durst freely joyne into Church-fellowship 
amongst them, and could finde out at least twenty men and women 
in some measure fitted of the Lord for it, and soone would be capa- 
ble thereof: And we doe admit in charity some into our Churches, 
of our owne, of whose spirituall estate I have more cause of feare, 
then of some of them : But that day of grace is not .yet come unto 
them. When Gods time is come, he will make way for it & enable 
us to accomplish it. In the meane time, I desire to wait, pray, and 
beleeve. But I will proceed no further at this time to trouble you 
with these things, though I doubt not but they will be acceptable 
tidings to your heart, and will be an occasion of quickning your 
prayers for them, and for me also, that utterance may be given mee, 
and further knowledge of their language, wherein for want of con- 
verse, I can make but slow progresse. Thus commending you to 
the Grace, guidance and protection of God in Christ, I rest, 

Yours to be commanded in Jesus Christy 
Roxbury this 12. 
of Nov. 1648. Jo. Eliot. 



Amongst the Indians in New-England. 87 

[p. 15.] In the next place I shall offer a second Letter of his, written 
to a Gentleman of New-England, here residing at present, upon his 
urgent occasions ; wherein the Reader may have further light concern- 
ing this great work now begun. Take his Letter as it followeth, 

Sir, 

TOur faithfull and true love to Tesus Christ is expressed evi- 
dently to my heart, among other waies very much in your 
solicitous thoughts and care about the good of these poor Indians, 
and the furtherance of their conversion. God guided your discre- 
tion very seasonably in the Letters and Tokens you were pleased 
to send to those leading men, which reallity of love was very thank- 
fully accepted by them, and they desire thanks to be returned 
for it, &c. 

Your project for their Apparell which you first mention, is very 
fitting, but all the difficulty will be to get so much cloath as you 
speak of: Yet this they doe ; some old things I have gotten and 
given them, and some they buy ; and they carefully keep them till 
meeting times, and many of them at such times are pretty hand- 
some, both men, women, and children also: And whereas some 
good people may think fitting to send some gifts that way for them, 
you shall find directions here inclosed, what will best sute with their 
condition. 

Your next project for imployment of them in planting Orchards 
and Gardens, it suiteth very well with my apprehensions, and I have 
encouraged them that way, and have promised them many hundred 
trees, which I reserve in nurseries for them, & hope they shall set 
them out, or some of them the next Spring. The onely remora the 
fensing in of an Orchard, we yet being upon the fencing in of a great 
Corne field, where they have made (I think) 200. rod of ditching 
already, setting two rayles in the top, and are to stone up the banks 
as they raise stones in planting : And when the field is fenced, then 
they shall fence Orchards, but they are hindred for want of Tooles, 
and by bad Tooles discouraged ; their skill also being weak though 
the tooles were good, but of 30. or 40. I have scarce any left. 
But we must endeavour to get a Magazine for them of all manner 
of Tooles, &cc. They had Sawyers [p. 16.] at work last winter, 
and will have more this winter (I hope) for they saw very good 
board and planke, and could I be amongst them oftner, they would 
both attend it better, and doe things more orderly. 

They are willing to follow my advice in any reasonable thing : 
onely 1 am confident of what you write, they must not be bent too 
hard at first, and I find not many that do so duly consider that point 
as your self; but because they be not in all points of labour as the 
English be, think all is too little or no purpose. Its hard to look 



88 The Glorious Progresse of the Gospel 

upon the day of small things with patience enough. I find it abso- 
lutely necessary to carry on civility with Religion : and that maketh 
me have many thoughts that the way to doe it to the purpose, is to 
live among them in a place distant from the English, for many rea- 
sons ; and bring them to co-habitation, Government, Arts, and 
trades : but this is yet too costly an enterprize for New-England, 
that hath expended it self so far in laying the foundation of a Com- 
mon-weale in this wildernesse. 

For their Schooling, a Gentleman in London (whose name I 
could never learn) did give ten pounds towards it the last yeare, 
which I thus disposed of; five pounds I gave to a grave woman in 
Cambridge, who taught the Indian children last yeare ; And God 
so blessed her labours, that they came on very prettily. The other 
five pounds I gave to the School-master of Dorcester, and thither 
the Children of those Indians that lived thereabout went, with a like 
good successe, if not better, because the children were bigger and 
more capable. This 10. 1. bill Captain Harding paid here, and 
was to take it at London : but I heare nothing from him, nor do I 
know whether the Gentleman will continue his gift : I feare for want 
of meanes both these Schooles will fall ; and the Children like to 
lose all that they have gotten the first yeare, which is a work had 
need be closely followed : because they are to learn our language 
as well as to read ; onely I take my constant course of catechising 
them every Lecture day, and I thank the Lord, they are (many of 
them) very ready in their answers in the principles of Religion. 
And in that exercise I endeavour also to use them to good manners. 

Some of Sudbury Indians, some of Concord Indians, some of 
Mestick Indians, and some of Dedham Indians are ingenious, and 
[p. 17.] pray unto God, and sometimes come to the place where I 
teach to heare the word. Linn Indians are all naught save one, 
who sometimes commeth to heare the word, and telleth me that hee 
prayeth to God : and the reason why they are bad is, 
Bad Gover- partly and principally because their * Sachim is naught, 
nours have an anc [ careln not to pray unto God : But I am overwea- 
upon the U peo- r 'some unto you, and therefore will go no further at this 
pie. time ; onely this one thing more, whereas it hath pleas- 

ed you to allow 40. s. to the payment of a man who 
should direct the Indians about their labour, and in planting of Or- 
chards ; I shall be so bold as to appoint such as have deserved it to 
call for it, and it shall be employed God willing to their best further- 
ance as neer as I can. And thus desiring God, &tc. I remaine. 

Roxbury this 13. of Yours to be commanded any thing in 

the 9. 1649. Christ Jesus John Eliot. 



Amongst the Indians in New-England. 89 

Another Letter Courteous Reader dated in February last, I re- 
ceived also from this our Indian Evangelist (if 1 may so terme 
him) and because it is replenished with many pithy questions of the 
Indians, which imply a further progresse in knowledge ; and sundry 
other considerable passages worthy observation, and very deligh/full 
to a Christian spirit, 1 thought it my duty to publish it to the world, 
that so it might be a meanes to stir up all that are faithfull in 
Christ Jesus by prayer and otherwise to help forward this precious 
work begun, so much conducing to the glory of God, and the good 
of men. His Letter followeth. 

Much respected and longed for in the Lord, 

Ere you not about the Lords businesse, an Instrument in his 
hand to manage some special affaires wherein his glory is 
much concerned, your long absence could not but be imbittered 
with manifold troubles to your own spirit, as it is like to be with 
losses and inconveniences to your outward estate ; but I trust the 
Lord will have a speciall regard to all, &c. I perceive others to be 
silent in giving you information about the progresse of the Lords 
work amongst the poor Indians, and therefore 1 thought it necessary 
to do it, knowing it will add to your comfort to heare that the Lord 
is still at worke, but I have done it more largely already 
[p. 18.] in Letters by Mr. Vsher, by way of * Maligo, * These Let- 
as also by Mr. Bracket of Braintree, by the way of ters and Pas - 
Virginia, in Letters both to your self, and also to Mr. not^etcome 
Pelham, &c. I only write now by this Ship, lest it into England, 
coming in before the other Ships, you should receive 
some discouragement concerning the work, as if it were sunk in 
the beginning; but blessed be the Lord it is not so, although the 
progresse is yet small : It is a day of small things, an Ernbrio 
which the Lord expecteth should be furthered by the prayers of 
the Saints and Churches : And therefore I earnestly begg your 
prayers, that the Lord would thrust forth more Laborers into this 
Harvest; and because the meanes is exceeding small and incon- 
siderable for so vast an enterprize as this is : there is the more 
eminent need of Faith and Prayer, that the Lord himself, by his 
speciall grace, favour, and providence, would appear in this mat- 
ter: for the Lord must raigne in these latter dayes, and more 
eminently, &c observably, overtop all Instruments and meanes : And 
I trust he will mightily appear in this businesse, as in other parts 
of the world. 

I have intimated in my other Letters, what good hopes I have 
of sundry of them, and that they begin to enquire 
after baptisme and Church Ordinances, and the way They shal ask 
of worshipping God as the Churches here do; but I on ^7e?50 5! 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 12 



90 The Glorious Progresse of the Gospel 

shewing them how uncapable they be to be trusted therewith, 
whilst they live so unfixed, confused, and ungoverned a life, unciv- 
ilized and unsubdued to labor and order ; they begin now to en- 
quire after such things. And to that end, I have propounded to 
them that a fit place be found out for Cohabitation, wherewith they 
may subsist by labor, and settle themselves in such a way : And 
then they may have a Church, and all the Ordinances of Christ 
amongst them. These and other things tending that way, I have 
propounded to them, and they seeme to me to accept them gladly, 
and the longer they consider, and the more they confer together 
of them, the more acceptable they are unto them : And I wayt- 
ing to see how the Lord would carry on this work by the wise 

and gracious eye & hands of his providence, I took this 
ftf° to be one speciall and eminent smile of God, upon the work 

that he had stirred up, the Parliament of England, to take 
it into consideration, and to order the Committee of Lords and 
[p. 19.] Commons for forraign Plantations to think of some meet 
way how they might best advance it : And indeed the way you 
mention in your Letter which they have taken, (which 1 trust is 
perfected long before this time,) I conceive to be a way of God, 
and not only very acceptable to me, but honourable to themselves, 
and the Nation, to be engaged in so pious and charitable a work, 
if meanes may hereby be procured to a thorow carrying on the 
same. 

I have also intimated in my other Letters, and sent word again 

in this, what manner of * provisions of all sorts will 

* It would be be necessary to be sent over, and that special care 

neither pleas- ^ e ^ d lh ^ ^j^ f labour of all sorts may be 

ing nor profit- . J 

able to men- ol a good temper and well made ; otherwise they will 
tion them, and be discouraged, &lc. the particulars as well for Phis- 
left^ouT are 1C ^ anc ^ Surgery, as for Cloathing and Instruments for 
labour of all sorts is inclosed therein : But I will trou- 
ble you no further at this time with what I have written in my 
other Letters, hoping the Lord will bring them to your hands : 
onely I shall intimate such things as have occurred since the writ- 
ing of my former Letters. 

There is an Indian living with Mr. Richard Calicott of Dor- 
chester, who was taken in the Pequott Warres, though belonging to 
Long Island ; this Indian is ingenious, can read ; and I taught him 
to write, which he quickly learnt, though 1 know not what use 
he now maketh of it: He was the first that I made use of to 
teach me words, and to be my Interpreter. Now of late, the 
Lord hath stirred up his heart to joyn unto the Church at Dor- 
chester, and this day I am going to the Elders, meeting, to the ex- 
amination and Tryall of this young man, in preparation ior his 
admission into the Church. 



Amongst the Indians in New-England. 91 

Likewise since I purposed to write to you of these matters, I 
have taken care to note such Questions as they propound, and I 
shall here set down such as have been propounded by them since 
my last Letters : For by them you may guesse at the progresse 
they make in knowledge. 



[p- 20 -] Questions. 

WHy have not beasts a soul as man hath, seeing they have 
love, anger, he. as man hath ? 
How is the spirit of God in us °l and where is it The indwel- 
principally present ? ^fitinu^fs 

Why doth God punish in hell for ever I man doth mysterious. 
not so, hut after a time lets them out of prison 
again. And if they repent in hell, why ivill not God let 
them out again % 
What is Faith? 
Whether do you think I have Faith ? » bif\°ooks 

a How shall I know when God accepts my prayers ? ^fi" his° S 
How doth Christ make peace betwixt God and man ? prayers. 

And what is the meaning of that point ? 
Why did the Jewes give the Watchmen money to tell a lye ? 
If 1 heare Gods Word when I am young, and do not believe, but 

when I am old I believe : what will God say ? 
In wicked dreames doth the soule sin ? b b See Eccles. 

Doth the soule in Heaven know things done here on 5. 7. 

earth ? 
Doth the soule in Heaven remember what it did here on earth 

before he dyed? 
Who first gave Lawes to men ? 

What is Law ? c A soft and 

If my heart be full of evil thoughts, c and I repent and s * ri °!* s . s P irit - 

dp i /• • • r ii • I eel Christian 

a tew houres alter it is lull again, and eyes \^ s 

I repent and pray again ; and if after this it be thoughts. 

full of evill thoughts again, what will God say ? 
Why did the earth shake at Christs Resurrection ? 
What meaneth this, That God will not hold him guiltlesse that 

taketh his name in vaine ? 
What force of wicked men is lawfull, and what is not ? 
What if a Minister weare long hayre, as some other men do, what 

will God say? 
If a man will make his Daughter marry a man whom d forced marri- 

she doth not love, what will God say ? d bflnS s P . led 






92 The Glorious Ptogresse of the Gospel, fyc. 

[p. 21.] Why doth Christ compare the Kingdom of heaven to a net ? 
Why doth God so hate them that teach others to commit sin ? 



SIR, 

T Jim noiv streightned in time, and 
must hasten away my Letters : J can 
proceed no further at present, and 
therefore with earnest desires of your 
Prayers, I commit you to the gracious 
protection of the Lord, who hath hith- 
erto helped, and will never faile those 
that trust in him. 

Roxbury this Yours in any service 
2. of the 12. I can in Jesus 

1648. Christ 

John Eliott. 






[p. 22.] A N 

APPENDIX TO THE 

foregoing Letters, holding forth 

Conjectures, Observations, and Appli- 
cations of them. 

THe works of the Lord are great, sought out of all them that love 
them, saith the Psalmist, Psal. 111. 3. The word which we 
render, sought out, hath a mighty Emphasis in it : Tis a word used 
sometimes to Denote the Elaborate care of digging and searching 
into mines. And sometimes its made use of to expresse the accu- 
rate labors of those who comment upon writings. Indeed there is a 
golden mine in every work of God ; and the foregoing Letters to a 
gracious eye, are as a discovery of a far more precious mine in 
America, then those Gold and Silver ones of India : For they 
bring tidings of the unsearchable riches of Christ revealed unto 
poore soules in those parts. 

Or if thou wilt (Reader) thou mayest eye this work of God as a 
full text : affording, matter both for Theoretick and practick con- 
clusions. 

I must professe for my self, I could not passe over so rich a 
mine without digging : nor let passe so full a text (as this work of 
God in America) without some short comment : which the request 
of the worthy Publisher of these precious papers, hath prevailed 
with me to affix, and publish as an Appendix. 

The palpable and present acts of providence, doe more then 
hint the approach of Jesus Christ : And the Generall consent of 
many judicious, and godly Divines, doth induce considering minds 
to beleeve, that the conversion of the Jewes is at hand. Its the 
expectation of some of the wisest Jewes now living, that about the 
year 1650. Either we Christians shall be Mosaick, or else that 
themselves Jewes shall be Christians. The serious con- 
sideration of the preceding Letters, induceth me to Conjectures. 
think, that there may be at least a remnant of the Gen- 
eration of Jacob in America, [p. 23.] (peradventure some of the 10. 
Tribes dispersions.) And that those sometimes poor, now precious 
Indians (mentioned in those Letters) may be as the 
first fruits of the glorious harvest, of Israels redemp- Mr. Shepherd 
tion. The observation is not to be sleighted (though 'sullLneTl-c. 
the observer * modestly said it was more cheerfull then pa g. 33. 
deep) that the first Text out of which Mr. Eliot preach- 






94 An Appendix to the foregoing Letters. 

ed, was about the dry bones, Ezek. 37. 9. 10. TJiat by prophesying 
to the wind, the wind came and the dry hones lived : It may be there 
is not much weight in the observation, that the word which the In- 
dians use for wind, is Waubon : and that an Indian of that name 
is, and hath been very sedulous for their conversion : Yet to me 
there is ground for a very weighty thought ; that, that portion of 
Scripture should be first of all openned to them, which clearly fore- 
told the conversion of Israel, i. e. The 10. Tribes universally 
understood, and peculiarly meant by the name or notion of Israel, 
when distinct from Judah, (as in that prophesy it is) Why may we 
not at least conjecture, that God by a special finger pointed out that 
text to be first openned, which immediately concerned the persons 
to whom it was preached : Especially, if (as some credibly affirme) 
that the Jewes of the Netherlands (being intreated thereunto) in- 
forme that after much inquiry they found some of the ten Tribes to 
be in America. When our Lord came to Nazaret, and standing up 
to read : Its said there was delivered unto him the book of Isaias, 
and he openned the book, and found it written, The spirit of the 
Lord is upon me, fyc. The bringing of that Scripture to our Lords 
hands so providentially, was a hint (at least) that the present hearers 
were in an eminent manner concerned in that prophesie. What 
ever may be in this observation (which I humbly offer to the search- 
ing thoughts of judicious persons) I am much inclined to conjecture, 
that there is a sprinkling at least of Abrahams seed in these parts, 
The reasons of my inclination hereunto are these, 

1 . They have (at least) a traditionall knoivledge of God, as the 
maker of heaven and earth. Its true, they talk of other Gods; but 
yet they hold that the chief God is he, who made all things. Which 
agnition of God, was peculiar to the Jewes, in opposition to the 
Gentiles : Hence it was that when they were Captives in Babylon : 
this was that Character, by which they were taught to distinguish 
the true God (which the Gentiles knew not) that he was the Maker 
of all things, Jer. 10. 16. 

[p. 24.J 2. What ever they attribute unto others, this they pecul- 
iarly attribute unto this God, viz. that all things both good and 
evill, are managed by his Providence, and if they doe but hurt 
themselves, they say 'tis a note of Gods displeasure : Hence 

3. Before ever any of them received any instruction from our 
English, by tradition they were taught, and did upon observation of 
a bad year, or other ill successe, meet and weep as unto God ; ac- 
knowledging it to be his hand of displeasure upon them : And on 
the other side, upon a good year, or good successe in any businesse, 
as of War, fyc. they used to meet and make a kind of acknowledge- 
ment of thanks to God for it. 

4. It is very observable ; that they are carefull to preserve the 
memory of their Families, mentioning Vncles, Grand-Fathers, and 



An Appendix to the foregoing Letters. 95 

Grand-mothers, he. and much studying the advancing of their 
houses and kindred : A thing which had a great tang of, and affini- 
tie to the Jewes care of preserving the memoriall of their Tribes. 

5. Those of them who have been wrought upon, tell of some 
face of Religion, wisedom, and manners which long agoe their An- 
cestors had, but that it was lost. 

6. (To omit other grounds of this conjecture.) The better and 
more sober sort of them, delight much to expresse them- 
selves in parables. * A thing peculiar to the Jewes, as See pag.5. 
those who read their writings, or consider Christs man- 
ner of expressing himself, will easily see. 

These and the like considerations prevaile with me to entertain 
(at least) a Conjecture, that these Indians in America, may be Jewes 
(especially of the ten Tribes.) And therefore to hope that the work 
of Christ among them, may be as a preparatory to his own ap- 
pearing. 

If these reasons prevaile not with thee (Reader) to give quarter 
to my conjecture : yet I cannot but perswade my self, that the for- 
mer Letters soberly & duly weighed, will cause thee to subscribe 
with me to this conclusion, that, the work of God among the Indians 
in America, is glorious, and to be admired by all those, who look 
after and rejoyce in the appearance of our Lord Jesus, Surely the 
Sun of Righteousnesse is risen, with healing vertue under his wings, 
upon those poor hearts, who sate in darknesse, and the shadow of 
death. And [p. 25.] these godly persons who fled into America for 
shelter from Prelaticall persecution, doe now appeare to be carried 
there by a sacred and sweet providence of Christ, to make known 
his name to those poor soules, who have been Captives to Satan 
these many Ages. The Christians when scattered abroad, went to 
and fro preaching the word. And I wish from my soul, that all 
these Ministers of the Dispertion (as I may call them) in New- 
England', would stirre up themselves to this work of the Lord, 
which (now it seems) he intended in his carrying of them thither. 
Surely these tydings as they are grounds of rejoycing to others a far 
off; so they should be much more incouragements of putting to the 
hand of such as are there unto this harvest of the Lord. And so 
much the rather, because the Gospel in its advancement amongst 
these Western Indians, appeares to be not in word 
only (as it was by the Spaniards among their Indians) 1 Thes. l. 
but also in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much 
assurance: Doe not these true reports shew what man- Se e the Wo- 
ner of entrance the Gospel hath among them: and how ™£™ 7 *P eech 
they turn unto God from Idols (from their pawwawes) 
to serve the living and true God, and to look for his sonne from 
Heaven, * &c. 

(Reader) I intreat thee to beare with me, if in Commenting 



96 An Appendix to the foregoing Letters, 

upon this work of God, I offer a few notes to declare that in truth 
this work of God is not only in the Letter, but in the 
Observation. Spirit and power of the Gospel, These things I note 
(and pray doe thou) to this purpose. 

1. The questions which are moved by the Indians comming and 
come in, are such as are of great and weighty concernment ; And 
such as indeed evince a more then common working of the spirit by 
the word on them. Such are those that concerne spirituall joyning 
in prayer, and a knowledge of Gods acceptation thereof. Those 
questions also that relate to the marrying of the godly with the 
wicked : (much like that of the Corinthians to Paul. 1 Cor. 7. 
and 2 Cor. 8.) and those that concern the evill of thoughts and 
dreames, he. See and consider the Questions. 

2. The full casting off their Pawwaws ; and not seeking to them : 
Although they much idolized them, and albeit they know not as 
yet, any meanes of help when sick, but them. 

3. Their sweet and affectionate melting under the word of grace : 

and their exceeding hungring and thirsting after the 
Videpag. 27. enjoyment [p. 26.] thereof. Together with enquiry 

after Syon, and their great joy they declare in their 
hopes thereof. 

4. Lastly, and especially the reall and undenyable evidences of 
the work of grace in power upon some particular persons mention- 
ed : and particular that of the woman in whom I cannot but note 

these things. 
pag. 6,7. I. Her desire to live by the ordinance of the word, 

although with great trouble. 

2. Her Exemplarines of life, after the Lord did work upon her. 

3. Her resolutions to love God, though he made her sick. Oh ! 
could she love God, except he loved her first °l 

4. Her belief that God was well pleased with her in Christ, and 
hereupon her willingnesse to dye, in assurance of going to Heaven. 

5. Her care of her Children upon her first knowing of God : 
and her charging them not to live with their kindred, pressing it 
chiefly with this, that they prayed not, and that they committed sin, 
and were not punished : Oh holy and high attainment ! to see an 
evill in sinning and not being punished. This was the great evill 
threatned. Ho sea 9. 14. 

What doe all these things declare ? but this : That Christ hath 

made the day of his power to arise upon those poor 

Application, soules : In making them a willing people : And what 

improvement should we make of this comment upon 

the work of the Lord, if not this or the like ; 

First, To study and search into the works of the Lord, to see 
how he counterplots the enemy in his designes : In making the late 
Bishops persecuting of the Godly tend to the promoting of the 
Gospel. 



An Appendix to the foregoing Letters. 97 

Secondly, To take heed of dispising the day of small things. It 
being Gods way to lay most glorious workes upon little and despi- 
cable foundations: And to advance the Treasury of the Gospel in 
earthen vessels, even to the ends of the Earth. 

Thirdly, To be ashamed of, and bewaile our want of affection 
to, and estimation of that glorious Gospel, and those great things of 
Christ: which these poor Heathens upon the little Glymmerings 
and tasts so exceedingly value and improve. 

[p. 27.] Fourthly : Doth not the observation of the preceeding re- 
ports, clearly confirme the Doctrine of the Sabboth, and the practise of 
prayer : Oh tremble ye Sabboth-slighters, and duty-dispisers, Christ 
hath witnesses against you in America ! Be ashamed ye pretended- 
Men and fathers in Christ for comming short of Babes and Chil- 
dren! In truth the very light of Nature will condemne you. 
Prayer in all ages (and that not mental], but verball, and expresse) 
hath been that by which the Deity hath been agnized and worship- 
ped. The converted Heathens in New-England, goe beyond you, 
O ye Apostate Christians in England ! 

Lastly, be incouraged to put to your helping hand unto the work 
of the Lord. And to that end, 

1. Arise ye heads of our Tribes in Old England, and extend 
your help to further Christs labourers in JV.-England. Rather 
steal from your sleep an houre, then suffer that good Ordinance to 
lye asleep so long ; which if drawn into an Act, will exceedingly 
further this blessed work. Surely if you were petitioned to in the 
name of Christ, and his Gospel, to give money out of your own 
purse to exalt him in furthering it. Durst you deny it ? How much 
lesse can you deny the passing of an Act to enable some to receive 
and dispose what others would gladly give. The work is so clear, 
that you need not many houres to debate it: And 1 hope you are 
so willing that I shall not need more woids to presse it, only let me 
add this that as Ministers, so Statists do finde personall examples, 
the most powerfull motives to practick doctrines. 

2. Rouze up your selves my Brethren ; ye Preachers of the Gos- 
pel, this work concernes you. Contrive and plot, preach for, and 
presse the advancement hereof. Its cleare you may do much : Let 
not this be your condemnation, that you did nothing. 

3. Come forth ye Masters of money, part with your Gold to 
promote the Gospel; Let the gift of God in temporal things make 
way, for the Indians receipt of spiritualls. If you give any thing 
yearly, remember Christ will be your Pensioner. If you give any 
thing into banke, Christ will keep account thereof, and reward it. You 
hear of what things are necessary in order to the advancement of that 
one thing necessary. Rest assured of this, what eve'r you give will be 
well and wisely improved. And as far as the Gospel is mediately 
advanced by your money, be sure you will be remembred. [p. 28.] 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 13 



98 An Appendix to the foregoing Letters. 

But to winde up all, Fal down O all ye who love the Lord Jesus : 
fy how your knees to his father fy yours in his name, to prosper the 
progresse made of the Gospel among the Indians in JV-England. 
Pray that an effectuall door may be openned there. Remember 
Mr. Eliot. Forget not Mr. Mayhew, and all other that labour in 
the work. Pray for them that Christs work may prosper in their 
hands. Christ calls upon you by these Letters, and saith. The 
harvest is great, but the Labourers are few, pray ye therefore the 
Lord of the harvest to send forth Labourers into his vineyard. If 
you thus heare Christ, and obey his voice, you shall accomplish the 
end of this Appendix, and exceedingly rejoyce the heart of the 
Author thereof, who is 

An unworthy Labourer in Christs 
work here, and an ardent desirer of 
further progresse thereof in New- 
England. 1 

J. D. 



F J N J S 



THe Lord, who is wonderful in Councel, and excel- 
lent in working, hath so wrought, that the scorch- 
ing of some of his people with the Sun of persecution, 
hath been the enlightning of those who were not his 
people, with the San of righieousnesse. This present 
Narrative gives testimony, That our dear Brethren who 
withdraw from the heat of trouble in Old England, have 
been used as Instruments in the Lords hand to draw som 
(I might say many) of the poor Heathens to behold and 
rejoyce in the light of the everlasting Gospel in New- 
England. Surely 'tis cause of greater glorying that any 
of those Heathens have found the way of life and salva- 
tion among our brethren, then that our brethren have 
found place and safety (yea, then though they should 
finde the richest merchandize of gold and silver) among 
those Heathens. And how much doth it become Chris- 
tians to let Heathens see that they seek them more then 
theirs ; That the gaining of them to Christ is more in 
their eye, then any worldly gain. 



Joseph Caryl. 



v\- 



The Light appearing more and more to- 
wards the perfect Day. 

OR, 

A farther Discovery of the present state 
of thelNDIJUYS 

I N 

New-England, 

Concerning the Progresse of the Gospel 
amongst them. 

Manifested by Letters from such as preacht 
to them there. 



Published by Henry Whitfeld, late Pastor to the 
Church of Christ at Gilford in New-England, who 
came late thence. 



Zeph. 2.11. The Lord will famish all the gods of the earth, and men 
shall worship him, every one from his place, even all the lies of the 
Heathen. 



London, Printed by T. R. & E. M. for John Bartlet, and are to be 

sold at the Gilt Cup, neer St. Austins gate in Pauls 

Church-yard. 16 5 1, 



To the Right Honorable 
T H F 

PARLIAMENT 

OF 

England 

And the 

COUNCEL of STATE. 

Right Honorable, 

HOw abundantly the Lord hath enlarged the heartSj 
and raised the resolutions of this present Parlia- 
ment to serve him, the many good things, and great things 
done by you, sufficiently witnesse, and will be acknowl- 
edged, at least in another generation. It is not the smallest 
in the eyes of those that look up to God for you, both in 
Old England and New, that you have so readily contrib- 
uted your power, upon the first notice of the manifestation 
of Gods gracious work upon the Indians, by an Act pub- 
lished by you, for promoving the same* 

In order whereunto I crave leave in all humility to rep- 
resent (having lived some yeers in the Countrey, and lately 
came thence) how happily the Lord carrieth on his work 
there, which I have done in this small Treatise following. 

And for your more full satisfaction, give leave to re- 
move such false surmises and aspersions, suggested on 
purpose to retard the work. Some are heard to question 
the affections of New-England towards the Parliament, 
and present state ; To which I must answer, that the 
Magistrates, Ministers, and generally the people of New- 
England, so farre as I know or have observed, or can 
learn, have been faithful and cordial to the Parliament 



The Epistle Dedicatory* 

from the first, and do own this present Government, and 
Common-wealth, giving in this as a reall argument, in 
being your Honours Remembrancers at the throne of 
grace, both praying to God for you in your straits, and 
praising God for the enlargment of his good hand upon 
you. Others endeavour more directly to prejudice the 
work, by suggesting that the charity of the w el- affected 
hath been abused, in that there is no such work, or that 
there is a greater noise made of it in the world then there 
is cause ; To this I can safely ansiver, that there hath 
been, I beleeve in no mans observation, greater faithful- 
nesse found in any businesse, both for truth oj relation 
in what hath passed, or disposing what hath been contrib- 
uted ; the persons that are concerned in it, whether thty 
be the Corporation established by you, or that have the 
managing of it in New-England, being persons of known 
integrity, and much honoured of all that know them, in 
this very respect ; Most of these accounts I have seen, both 
what monies have been received and disbursed, both what 7 
how, and to whom. These also are ready to give your 
Honours satisfaction about this, if need require, and it 
will be an ease, and an honour to them to be called to 
such an account. 

Jtnd now the way being thus cleared, I proceed to make 
it my humble request to your Honours, that you would be 
pleased to accept of this my humble acknowledgment, and 
thankful remembrance of what you have already done ; and 
that it would not be troublesome to you to be inlreated, 
and stirred up by my meannesse, to proceed in the contin- 
uance of your favour, as to the whole Country, so espe- 
cially towards this ivork, that your hands may be still held 
up to the farther advance, and perfecting these happy be- 
ginnings. And as you have given it feet, so you would 
give it wings, that it may get above al difficulties, which 
may be cast in the way. Truly the work is honorable, and 
worthy your care, and inmost affections, and to be laid in 
your bosomes, that it may feel the warmth and influence of 
your favour, and best respects, it tending so much to the 
good of the souls of these poor wild creatures, multitudes 



The Epistle Dedicatory. 

of them being under the power of Satan, and going up 
and downe with the chains of darknesse ratling at their 
heels. This I may also say for your Honours encourage- 
ment, there is fa) re greater cause of promoting this ivork 
then formerly, there being more persons, and places which 
have received the Gospel amongst them. Our Lord Christ 
and his truth gets ground, and the Devil loseth, they daily 
break from him, and renounce him, and all his cursed 
works of darknesse, as you will find in this following 
Narrative. Jlnd lastly, let me adde but this, The Lord 
hath given the uttermost ends of the earth to Jesus Christ 
for his inheritance, let therefore your hands go on (JYoble 
Worthies) to help him in taking the possession of his own, 
who hath kept you in yours with an out-stretched arme. 
But I shall be no farther troublesome to your Honours ; 
The most wise and strong God, for Christs sake, strength- 
en your hearts and hands, sit amongst you in your daily 
assemblings, and help you to guide the Ship of this Com- 
mon-wealth, under your care, in these tossing and trouble- 
some times, that there may be peace and safety found for 
such as are quiet in the Land; and let me have the favour 
to be looked upon by you, as 



Your Honours to serve you 
in the things of Jesus Christ, 



Henry Whitfield. 



VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 14 



[p !•] Christian Reader. 

Have adventured to put this smal Treatise in thy hand, and 
to give some account of the publishing of it, conceiving it a 
means to advance that common comfort, which all good Christians 
do share in with the Angels of heaven, about the conversion of 
sinners to God. This will appear by shewing th^re is a doore 
of hope opened for the poore Indians, of whom it may be thou hast 
not yet heard ; / thought also by relating the truth of things, as 
they stand at present, concerning the Indians you have heard of, 
and Gods dealing with them, I might undeceive such as are either 
apt, or do beleeve, that things reported of them are but a fable, 
and a device or engine used by some to cheat good people of their 
money, and so discourage them from yeelding any help towards 
this great work. The Lord forgive them this great sinne, that 
have raised these evill reports. 

Understand therefore (good Reader) that my selfe intending 
(by Gods help) my returne into my native Countrey ; It pleased 
the Lord by his providence, before we could come to the place where 
we were to take ship for England, that, by reason of contrary 
winds, we were faine to put in at an Hand called 
Martins Vineyard, which is the most Southerly Hand Some call it 
that lies in that tract of Land called New England, vtnemrd 
where there is a small Plantation, and a Church 
gathered, where we stayed about ten dayes, in which time I had 
the more leasure and opportunity to informe my selfe of the state 
of the Indians there ; having heard formerly that divers of them 
began to taste the knowledge of Christ : For this end 1 had re- 
course to Mr. Mahu, who is the Pastor of the Church, and having 
attained a good understanding in the Indian tongue, and can 
speak it well, hath laid the first foundation of the knowledge of 
Christ amongst the Indians there by preaching unto them ; who 
gave me full information of what I desired. I had also speech 
with some of the Indians (Mr. Mahu being my Interpreter,) 
Move the rest my desire was to speak with the Indian who now 
preacheth unto them every Lords day twice, whose name is Hia- 
coomes, who seemed to me to be a man of a prompt understanding, 
of a sober and moderate spirit, and a [p. 2.] man well reported of 
for his conversation both by the English and Indians. I thought 
him to be about ZOyeers of age; with this man I had of ten speech, 
and I asked him divers questions about Christian Religion, and 



108 A farther Discovery of the present state 

about his own estate before God. 1 remember once 1 asked him 
these questions. 1. Whether he had found sorrow for sin, as sin. 
2. Whether he had sorrowed for his sins as they had pierced 
Christ. 3. Whether he had found the Spirit of God as an inward 
comforter to him ; Vnto all which he gave me a very good satis- 
factory and Christian answer. After this 1 had the opportunity 
to go to a private meeting of the Indians (of which you shall 
understand more in the Letter following) with Mr. Malm, where 
having spent three or foure houres in Questions and Answers, 
which passed too and fro between the Indian? and my self; at our 
parting I desired that one of them would desire a blessing upon 
what they had heard for their edification, ivhich was accordingly 
done ; for they chose out a young man who prayed a quarter of 
an houre, and somewhat more, with great reverence and affection, 
as farre as I could judge by his voyce and outward deportment : 
Master Malm also told me that he had many pertinent and signifi- 
cant expressions in his prayer ; so that God hath poured on some 
of them the gift, and I hop,: the spirit of prayer. 

1 he next day we rode to the Indian Lecture, where Mr. Marm 
preached and catechised their children who answered readily and 
modestly in the Principles of Religion ; some of them answered 
in the English some in the Indian tongue. Thus having seen a 
short model of his way, and of the paines he took, I made some 
enquiry about Mr. Malm himself and about his subsistance, be- 
cause I saw but small and slender appearance of outward conven- 
iences of life, in any comfortable way ; the man himself was mod- 
est, and I could get but little from him ; but after, I understood 
from others how short things went with him, and how he was many 
times forced to labour with his own hands, having a wife and 
three small children which depended upon him, to provide necessa- 
ries for them ; having not halfe so much yeerly coming in, in a 
setled way, as an ordinary labourer gets there amongst them. Yet 
he is chearfull amidst these straits, and none hear him to complain. 
The truth is, he will not leave the work, in ivhich his heart is en- 
gaged ; for upon my knowledge, if he would have left the work, 
and imployed himself otherwhere, he might have had a more com- 
petent and comfortable maintenance. I mention this the rather, 
because I have some hope, thai some pious minde, thai reads this, 
might be inwardly moved to consider his condition, and come to 
his succor for his encouragement in this great ivork. 

[p. 3.] At my parting from this Hand I desired Mr. Mahu that 
he would take the pains to write me the Story of Gods dealing 
with the Indians, from the first time of their coming thither, to this 
present time ; which he accordingly did, and I received before 



of the Indians in New-England. 109 

my going out of the Countrey ; which Letter of his to me, finding 
many remarkable passages in it, I thought fit to publish it, that 
the Lord might have the glory of his free grace, in regard of 
these poor Heathens who seeme to be the dregs and refuse of 
Adams lost posterity ; and to put an edge upon the prayers and 
prayses of Gods people, the fruit of which will returne into their 
owne bosomes. And if there be a right set of spirit in you, you 
will blesse God for such as present such kinde of matter to you, 
and do put an opportunity into your hands, whereby you may any 
way be instrumental to promote the Kingdoms of our Lord Christ. 

The Letter written with his own hand followeth. 

SIR, 

¥Ou being by especial providence of God, brought amongst us, 
and while you were here looking into the present mercy of 
God that these Indians were blessed with, you found an occasion 
farther to enquire what the former dispensations of God have beene 
to bring them hitherto. Now assuring my self that it is from your 
desire that the Lord may be glorified in the salvation of these poor 
Indian souls, I shall, by the assistance of God, declare the truth, 
and that which shall, by his grace, administer also a ground of 
prayer to be put unto the God of all blessings in Jesus Christ for us; 
and I hope, unto any, whom the Lord shall call to the like service, 
a blessed experience of the Lords workings, turning all things, yea 
seeming hinderances, to the furtherance of the work of grace amongst 
them. 

Now for your satisfaction you may please to know that this work 
amongst the Indians had its first rise and beginning in the yeere 
J 643. When the Lord stirred up the heart of an Indian, who then 
lived neer to the English Plantation, whose name is Hiacoomes, a 
man of a sad & a sober spirit, unto whose Wigwam or house some 
of the English repairing, &i speaking to him about the way of the 
English, he came to visit our habitations and publike meetings, 
[p. 4.] thinking that there might be better wayes and means amongst 
the English, for the attaining of the blessings of health and life, then 
could be found amongst themselves : Yet not without some thoughts 
and hopes of a higher good he might possibly gain thereby, at which 
time I took notice of him, and had oft discourse with him, inviting 
him to my house every Lords day at night. About this time it so 
fell out, that this Indian went with some English men to a little 
Hand, where meeting a surly Sagamore whose name 
was Pake Ponesso, who reproached him for his fellow- % this name 
ship with the English, both in their civil and religious ^mgfVrti* 
wayes, railing at him for his being obedient to them : Governors. 



110 ,R farther Discovery of the present state 

Hiacoomes reply ed that be was gladly obedient to the English, nei- 
ther was it for the Indians hurt be did so ; Upon which the Saga- 
more gave him a great blow on the face with his hand ; but there 
being some English men present, they would not suffer the Saga- 
more to strike him again. The poor Indian thus wronged, made 
this use of it, and said, / had one hand for injures, and the other 
for God, while 1 did receive ivrong with the one, the other laid the 
greater hold on God. 

There was a very strange disease this yeare amongst the Indians, 
they did run up and down till they could run no longer, they made 
their faces as black as a coale, snatched up any weapon, spake great 
words, but did no hurt ; I have seen many of them in this case. 
The Indians having many calamities fallen upon them, they laid the 
cause of all their wants, sicknesses, and death, upon their depart- 
ing from their old heathenish ways, only this man held out, and 
continued his care about the things of God : and being desirous to 
read, the English gave him a Primer, which he stil carries about 
with him. 

Now whilst Hiacoomes was feeling after God, he met with an- 
other tryall : for going into an Indian house where there 
1644. were many Indians, they scoffed at him with great 
laughter, saying, Here comes the English man, who by 
their noyse awaked his old enemy Pakeponesso, who was asleep, 
who joyning with the other Indians, told him, I wonder (said he) 
that you that are a young man, having a wife and two children, 
should love the English and their wayes, and forsake the Pawwawes ; 
what would you do if any of you should be sick °l whither would you 
go for help f 1 say, if 1 were in your case there should nothing 
draw me from our gods and Pawwawes. At this lime he replyed 
nothing, but told a friend of his that he then thought in his heart 
that the God in heaven did know and heare [p. 5.] all the evill 
words that Pakeponesso spake. Thus the changing of bis way 
caused much hatred to him, neither was there so much as the least 
appearance of any outward argument amongst us, that might weigh 
against it. 

After this there fell a great judgment of God on this Sagamore; 

for in the night when he and his company were in the 

* An Indian * Wigwam, it beginning to raine, he and a young man 

wamti?nade~ stoocl U P u P on tne ^ oor ** P lanks which lay about two 
with smai foot from the ground, to put a Matt over the Chimnie, 
poles like an there came a great flash of lightning, and after it thun- 

wifamrts*and ^ er not vei T ^ ou< ^' y et ^ °f tne vengeance of God, 
their fire is in which killed the young man out-right, and strook Pake- 
^r^th ° ver P onesso down dead for a long time, and he fell off from 
Teave a place tne floore of planks along upon the ground with one 
for the smoak legge in the fire, and being much burned, it was took 

to go out at. 



of the Indians in New-England. ill 

out by some that lay in the other side of the Indian house. Now 
Hiacoomes (as himself saith) did remember his former thoughts of 
God, and then thought God did answer him, and that he was brought 
more to rejoyce in God, and rest more upon him. 

Now in these times, as I did endeavour the good of these Hea- 
thens by discourse with diverse of them, so in particu- 
lar with Hiacoomes, who did communicate that knowl- 1645. 
edge he had amongst those he could ; for some of them 
could not endure the light he brought ; some were more attentive to 
hear, and more ready to follow the truth, yet they did not well be- 
hold the Majesty of the Lord by these personal particular works ; at 
last the Lord sent an universal sicknes, and it was observed by the 
Indians, that they that did but give the hearing of good counsel, did 
not taste so deeply of it, but Hiacoomes and his family 
in a manner not at all. This put the Indians who dwell 1646. 
about six miles from us, upon serious consideration of 
the thing, being much affected, that he which had exposed himself 
to such reproaches and troubles, should receive more blessings then 
themselves ; hereupon they sent a messenger to Hiacoomes, who 
was with him about the break of day, and delivering his message, 
told him that he was come to pray him to go presently to Myoxeo 
the chief man of that place, and he should have a reward for his 
labour; for the Indians were very desirous to know from him all 
things that he knew, and did, in the wayes of God ; so he being 
glad of the opportunity, went with the messenger, and when he 
came, there were many Indians gathered together, amongst which 
was Towanquatick the Sagamore; [p. 6.] then after many requests 
(the general whereof was this, that he would shew his heart unto 
them, how it stood towards God, and what they must do) he shewed 
unto them all things he knew concerning God the Father, Sonne 
and Holy Ghost ; Myoxeo asking him how many Gods the English 
did worship, he answered one God, whereupon Myoxeo reckoned 
up about 37. principal gods he had, and shall I (said he) throw away 
these 37. gods for one? Hiacoomes replyed, w 7 hat do you think 
of your self? 1 have throwne away all these, and a great many 
more some yeers ago, yet am preserved as you see this day; 
you speak true said Myoxeo ; therefore I will throw away all my 
gods too, and serve that one God with you. Hiacoomes told them 
all, he did fear this great God only, and also in a speciall manner 
that the Son of God did suffer death to satisfie the wrath of God his 
Father, for all those that did trust in him, and forsake their sinnes, 
and that the spirit of God did work these things in the hearts of 
men, and that himself did feare this great God only, was sorry for 
his sinnes, desiring to be redeemed by Iesus Christ, and to walk in 
Gods commandments ; this, with many truths more he shewed unto 
them, As Adams transgression, and the misery of the world by it, 



112 A farther Discovery of the 'present state 

and did conclude, that if they had such hearts as he, they should 
have the same mercies. He reckoned up to them many of their 
sins, as having many gods, going to Pawwawes; and Hiacoomes 
told me himself, that this was the first time that ever he saw the 
Indians sensible of their sins ; formerly they did but hear it as a 
new tiling, but not so nearly concerning them, for they were exceed- 
ing thankful, saying, also now we have seen our sins. Thus it 
pleased the Lord to give both light and courage to this poore Indian ; 
for although formerly he had been a harrnlesse man amongst them, 
yet, as themselves say, not at all accounted of, and therefore they 
often wondered that he which had nothing to say in all their meet- 
ings formerly, is now become the Teacher of them all ; I must 
needs give him this testimony, after some yeers experience of him, 
that he is a man of a sober spirit, and good conversation, and as he 
hath, as I hope, received the Lord Jesus Christ in truth, so also I 
look upon him to be faithful, diligent, and constant in the work of 
the Lord, for the good of his own soul and his neighbours with him. 
Now, after these things it pleased God to move the heart of Tow- 
anquatick, encouraged by some others amongst them, 
Though Ihave to desire me to preach unto them. At my coming, 
parage to iS Mr. this man spake thus unto [p. 7.] me; That a long 
Winslow in my time agon they had wise men, which in a grave manner 
Letter to him, taught the people knowledge ; but they are dead, and 
fed ^etttw riot ^ ar wisdome is buried with them, and now men live a 
so' full a story giddy life, in ignorance, till they are white headed, and 
as here, and though ripe in yeeres, yet then they go without wisdome 
therf ore 1 have . "f • r u . ij .i 1 i j j i 

added it. t° t ' ieir graves. He told me that he wondered the 

English should be almost thirty yeers in the Country 
and the Indians fools still ; but he hoped the time of knowledge was 
now come ; wherefore himself with others desired me to give them 
an Indian meeting, to make known the word of God to them in 
their own tongue ; and when he came to me to accomplish his de- 
sire thereabout, he told me That 1 shoidd be to them as one that 
stands by a running river filling many vessels, even so should I fill 
them with everlasting knowledge ; So I undertook to give them a 
meeting once a moneth ; but as soone as the first Exercise was 
ended, they desired it oftner then I could well attend it, but once in 
a fortnight in our setled course. He hath also since told me the 
reason why he desired me to preach to them, as that he was greatly 
desirous to have the Indians grow more in goodnesse, to have their 
posterity inherit blessings when he was dead ; and himself was de- 
sirous to put the Word of God to his heart, to repent, and throw 
away his sins, and to be better, and after he was dead, to inherit a 
life in heaven. 

Now there be three things in this beginning that were greatly in- 
quired into. 1 . Earthly riches, what they should get. 2. What 



of the Indians in New-England. 113 

approbation they should get from other Sagamores and Governors. 
3. How they should come off from the Pawwawes ; but in neither 
of these could they finde that which might give motion to a carnal 
minde ; for the first kept off many, I have had much discourse with 
several of them about it, wherein they have strongly stood for their 
own meetings, wayes and customes, being in their account more 
profitable then ours, wherein they meet with nothing but talking and 
praying. The second also remaines an obstacle, the Sagamores 
generally are against the way. The third is the strongest cord that 
binds them to their own way, for the Pawwawes by their witchcraft 
keep them in feare, many of the Indians got over the two first diffi- 
culties, and in some measure the third ; now there were about 
twelve which came to the meeting as it were halting between two 
opinions, others came to hear and see what was done, for although 
they had heard and seen something of the one God of heaven, yet 
such was their unspeakable darknesse, [p. S.] their captivity in sin, 
and bondage to the Pawwawes, that they hardly durst for feare take 
the best way, for though a few of them were better enlightned, yet 
the Heathen round about stuck fast in their old brutishnesse. 

We had not long continued the meeting, but the Sagamore Tow~ 
anquotick met with a sad tryal, for he being at a Weare 
where some Indians were a fishing, where also was an 1647. 
English man, as he lay along upon a matt on the ground 
asleep, by a little light fire, the night being very dark, an Indian 
came down, as being ready fitted for the purpose, and being about 
six or eight paces from him, let flie a broad headed arrow, purpos- 
ing by all probability to drench the deadly arrow in his heart blood, 
but the Lord prevented it ; for notwithstanding all the 
advantages he had, instead of the heart he hit the eye- Thismanwhen 
brow, which like a brow of Steele turned the point of (.JJJJ5 % ?S?i 
the arrow, which, glancing away, slit the top ot his saw and spake 
nose to the bottome. A great stirre there was pres- with ^ seeing 
ently, the Sagamore sate up, and bled much, but was ^pon his eye- 
not much hurt through the mercy of God ; the dark- brow and nose, 
nesse of the night hid the murtherer. and he is not dis- 
covered to this day. The next morning I went to see the Saga- 
more, and I found him praising God for his great deliverance, both 
himself and all the Indians, wondering that he was yet alive. The 
cause of his being shot, as the Indians said, was for his walking with 
the English ; and it is also conceived, both by them and us, that his 
forwardnesse for the meeting was one thing, which (with the expe- 
rience I have had of him since) gives me matter of strong perswa- 
sion that he beares in his brow the markes of the Lord Jesus. 

After this, through the mercy of God, we proceeded on with the 
meeting, to the rejoycing of some Indians, and the envie of the rest, 
who derided and scoffed at those that did follow the Lecture, and 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 15 



114 A farther Discovery of the present state 

in their way of wickednesse blaspheming the Name of God, which 
damped the spirits of some of them for a time in the wayes of God, 
and hindering others from looking thitherward, but the Lord gave 
courage and constancy to some of them, especially to Hiacoomes 
and Towanquatick who was hurt with the arrow, who were not 
ashamed of the way of God. 

And hereupon they made farther progresse in the way of God, 

for without any knowledge thereof, they appointed a 
1648. meeting, and there came some younger men, and 

brought with them the ancient men of their kindred 
Jilthough I was arid acquaintance to speak for them, whereof [p. 9.] 

present at this the very old man that your self saw and heard at the 
meeting from . J *> . , 

the beginning meeting, was one, who began the meeting with a rela- 
tothe end, yet tion of the old customes of the ancient Heathen, pre- 
%Sutmypri- ferrin g the . m before those w a y e * of their own they 
vity or putting were now in, yet acknowledging they were farre infe- 
them on upon r ", or ( those wayes of God they had now begun : 
mevl^frTm Tnen twelve °f tlie young men went and took Saco- 
themselvs. chanimo by the hand one by one and told him that 

they did love him, and would go with him in Gods 
This was Tow- waVj a nd some f them made a long speech to him to 
^eldesTs^onne. tms P ur p ose ? an d the old men encouraged them in 
their way, &l desired them never to forget those prom- 
ises they had now made ; then one of the young men told me the 
ground of their meeting, viz. They were sorry to see that the meet- 
ing did go on no more strongly, and that there were no more at it, 
and that they were desirous to strengthen themselves in the way of 
God, to have good hearts, and one heart, and to walk together in 
love in the wayes of God. So after they had eaten together the 
victuals of their own providing, and we had sung part of a Psalrne 
in their own language, and 1 had prayed with them, they returned 
with the manifestation of much joy and thankfulnesse ; and this I 
can say, they are generally constant in the way of God, and I have 
great hopes of some of them, blessed be his name. 

After this it pleased the Lord to stirre up the hearts of the Indi- 
ans to appoint another meeting, and many Indians be- 
1649. ing met, they fell to a great discourse about the Paw- 
wawes power to kill men, and there were many stories 
told of the great hurt they had done by their witchcraft many wayes 
(here you must know, that though the Indians many of them were 
brought by the knowledge they had of God, to renounce the Paw- 
wawes help in time of sicknesse or otherwise, yet they found it hard 
« to get from under the yoake of cruelty that they and their fore- 
fathers had so long groaned under ; for I know some, that then 
groaned under it, acknowledged they did see that in God which 
would free them from it, if they had but confidence to trust in him.) 



of the Indians in New-England. 1 15 

Then the question was asked, Who is there that doth not fear the 
Pawwawes ? answer was made by some who favoured them, there 
is not any man which is not afraid of the Pawwawes ; then looking 
upon Hiacoomes, who was one that protested most against them, 
told him that the Pawwawes could kill him ; he answered they could 
not; they asked him againe, why? he told them, because he did 
beleeve in God and trust in him, and that therefore all the Pawwaws 
could not do him any hurt; [p. 10.] Then they all wondered ex- 
ceedingly when he spake thus so openly. Then divers of them 
said one by one, though before 1 was afraid of the Pawwawes, yet 
now, because 1 hear Hiacoomes his words, I do not fear them, but 
beleeve in God too. Then the meeting at this time was carried on, 
and Hiacoomes is desired by the Indians to reckon up their sins 
unto them ; he presently found 45. or 50. and as many good duties ; 
his work was very well liked, and in the conclusion twenty two 
Indians were found to resolve against those evils, and to 
walk with God, and attend the word of God. But I 1650. 
may not here forget an Indian called Hummanequem, 
who exceeded all the rest, to the wonderment of the Indians ; he 
with much sorrow, hatred, and courage, related about twenty of his 
own sins, and professed to follow the one God against all opposition ; 
He told them he was brought into this condition by Hiacoomes his 
counsel from the Word of God, which at first he said he liked not, 
afterwayes laid it by him as a thing to be considered, not knowing 
well what to do ; at last, looking over things again, he came to this 
resolution which you have now heard ; I confesse this action makes 
me think he spake more then from a natural principle, considering 
that the man hath been since an earnest seeker of more light both 
publike and private ; as also for refusing the help of a Pawwaw 
which lives within a bow shoot of his doore, when his wife was 
three dayes in travel, and waited patiently upon God, till they ob- 
tained a merciful deliverance by prayer. 

And whilst we were making progresse in the work of the Lord 
on a Lecture day, an Indian stood up, and said he had been a sin- 
ner, and committed many evill things, but now was sorry for them, 
and did repent, desired to forsake his sins, and to walk in Gods way. 
Then he went to the Sagamore Towanquetick, and took him by 
the hand, saying, 1 do love you, and do greatly desire to go along 
with you for Gods sake ; the like also he said to some others, and 
then came to me in like manner, saying, 1 pray love me, and 1 
do love you, and am desirous to go with you for Gods sake ; so 
he was received with many thanks, and since I know him to be dili- 
gent and laborious. I confesse I marvelled to see them act with 
such a spirit, but I considered, it was sutable to their own meeting 
in 48. 

Now the Indian accompanied his friend that suddenly lost his two 



116 A farther Discovery of the present state 

sons ; he I say remaining still in his obstinacy, is also found out, and 
feeles the wrath of God, being stricken with a deaa Palsie, all one 
[p. 11.] side of him, but his eye and eare ; The dead Palsie is a 
strange and unwonted disease amongst the Indians ; I have beene 
sometimes with him; when I spake to him, he fetched many sighs; 
he is at this day a living and a dead monument of the Lords dis- 
pleasure, having hurt himself most, and done them most good he 
hated. 

Another thing is a remarkable combate between two Indians and 
a Pawwaw, who, on the Lords day after meeting, came in very 
angry, saying, I know the meeting Indians are lyars ; you say you 
care not for the Pawwawes; then calling two or three of them by 
name, and railing at them, told them that they were deceived, for 
the Pawwawes could kill all the meeting Indians if they did set 
about it ; with that one of the young men replyed with much cour- 
age, saying, it is true, I do not fear the Pawwawes, neither do I 
desire any favour at their hands, pray kill me if you can. And 
Hiacoomes told him also that he would be in the midst of all the 
Pawwawes of the Hand that they could procure, and they should 
do their utmost they could against him, and when they did their 
worst by their witchcrafts to kill him, he would without feare set 
himself against them, by remembring Jehovah; he told him also 
that he did put all the Pawwawes under his heel, pointing unto it ; 
which answers did presently silence the Pawwawes devillish spirit, 
and he had nothing to say, but that none but Hiacoomes was able so 
to do. 

I have observed the wise disposing hand of God in another 
Providence of his ; there have not as I know, any man, woman or 
child died of the meeting Indians since the meeting began, untill 
now of late the Lord took away Hiacoomes his child which was 
about five dayes old ; he was best able to make a good use of it, 
and to carry himself well in it, and so was his wife also ; and truly 
they gave an excellent example in this also, as they have in other 
things; here were no black faces for it as the manner of the Indians 
is, nor goods buried with it, nor hellish bowlings over the dead, but 
a patient resigning of it to him that gave it ; There were some 
English at the burial, and many Indians to whom I spake something 
of the Resurrection, and as we were going away, one of the 
Indians told me he was much refreshed in being freed from their 
old customes, as also to hear of the Resurrection of good men 
and their children to be with God. 

There are now by the grace of God thirty nine Indian men of 
[p. 12.] this meeting, besides women that are looking this way, 
which we suppose to exceed the number of the men, though not 
known by open entrance into Covenant as the men, but are now 
near it. These in general have the knowledge of the fundamental 



of the Indians in New-England. 117 

points of Religion ; your self when you were with us, had some 
tryal of it; it was a great while my maine work to administer light 
in general to them ; and there now, through mercy, appears some 
life, hoping that some of them have received this great mercy of 
God in Christ. This is a great incouragement to me, as also that 
their hearts are engaged in the way of the Lord for the salvation of 
their own souls upon Gods ends. One of these meeting Indians 
said (and I hope feelingly) that if all the world, the riches, plenty, 
and pleasures of it were presented without God, or God without all 
these, 1 would take God. And another said, that if the greatest 
Sagamore in the Land should take him in his armes,. and proffer 
him his love, and riches and gifts to turn from his way, he would 
not go with him from this way of God. I heard one of them of his 
own accord (and to the same purpose) in complaining against head 
knowledge and lip prayers, without heart holinesse, loathing the 
condition of such a man, saying, I desire my heart may taste the 
word of God, repent of my sinnes, and leane upon the Redemption 
of the Lord Jesus Christ. Some of them having a discourse with 
T^zzamequin a great Sachem or Governour on the maine Land 
(coming amongst them) about the wayes of God, he enquired what 
earthly good things came along with them, and demanding of them 
what they had gotten by all they had done this way ? one of them 
replyed, we serve not God for cloathing, nor for any outward thing. 
I have observed many such like passages ; but my occasions at 
present will not permit me to set them down, I only bring you those 
things which are most ready in my minde. 

The last thing that I took* special notice of, is, the receiving of 
the five men when your self was present, into the meeting Indian 
number, one of them (the young man you saw) was sent at first 
about two or three months before by one of the greatest Pawwawes 
upon the Hand to learn and spy what was done at the meeting, and 
carry him word, but at the last he learned so much as he then 
openly profest to hate the Pawwawes and their witchcrafts, and that 
he did repent of his sinnes, and desired to go with the meeting In- 
dians in Gods ways; another said he desired to joy n with the meet- 
ing Indians that he might have a renewed good heart, the [p. 13.] 
other were much like affected, only one of them reckoned up the 
commandments, and as he proceeded he protested against the sins 
forbidden, and professed obedience to the duties commanded ; the 
last answered the question put to him by your self, viz. by what 
power they did think to do this? who answered, First, by his good 
desire ; and secondly, by the help and blessing of Jesus Christ. 

Just, now whilst I am a writing, there comes an Indian unto me, 
and tels me his minde in these words, I shall long for your returne 
back again out of the Bay, that we may hear the good word of God ; 
the former sins of my heart in the time of my youth I now remem- 



118 A farther Discovery of the present state 

ber ; when 1 hear the word of God, and when I walk in the woods 
alone, 1 have much talk with God, and great repentance for my sins, 
and now I throw behind me all my strange gods, and my heart goes 
right to God in prayer. 

The way that 1 am now in (through the grace of God) for the 
carrying on of this great work, is by a Lecture every fortnight, 
whereunto both men women and children do come; and first I pray 
with them, teach them, chatechise their children, sing a Psalm, and 
all in their own language. ] conferre every last day of the week 
with Hiacoomes about his subject matter of preaching to the Indians 
the next day, where 1 furnish him with what spiritual food the Lord 
is pleased to afford me for them, wherein God hath much assisted 
him for his own and their spiritual good and advantage, who is dili- 
gent and conscionable to hold forth the grace of Christ to the In- 
dians. For this purpose your fervent and frequent prayers together 
with all those who rejoyce in advancing the Scepter of Christ, are 
by me earnestly desired, and for me that 1 may preach him amongst 
the Heathen, to the praise of the excellency of his own power, 
and not mine ; and that the Indians in this small beginning, being 
Gods husbandry, and Gods building, may be a fruitful glorious 
spreading Vine, and builded together for an habitation of God 
through the Spirit, unto whom I commend you in Jesus, and in 
him rest 

From Great Harbor Yours in the Lord to 

in Martins Vineyard 

Sept. 7. 1G50. be commanded, 

Thomas Mayhow. 



r \A ll^T^^ i0 s P ea ^ somewhat farther of the proceeding of the 
LP' *J Jj^l things of Christ amongst the Indians o^Mattacusets and 
thereabouts since the last books came forth ; Somewhat I saw and un- 
derstood concerning those Indians which are under the care of Mr. 
Ehot, unto whom! repaired at my coming from Martins Vineyard, 
who acquainted me with the state of things amongst the Indians as 
they were at present ; at which time 1 rode with him to the Water- 
town Indians, and heard him preach to them, and catechize their chil- 
dren in the Indian tongue ; who wrote also by me to Mr. Winslow, 
the Agent of the Countrey ; which Letter, together with some other 
sent since the last publication by the Presse, the Corporation of 
New England desired me that they might be joyned and printed 
with this written by Master Mahu ; which letters here follow. 



of the Indians in New-England. 119 



Much honoured Sir, 

TOur very loving acceptance of my Letters doth engage me 
very much unto you, but especially your cordial rejoycing in 
the progresse of this work of the Lord among these poor Indians. 
Sir, I shall first answer some material things in your Letter. First, 
for that opinion of Rabbi-hen- Israel which you mention, I would 
intreat you to request the same godly Minister (nay I hope he hath 
already done it) to send to him to know his grounds, and how he 
came to that Intelligence, when was it done, which way were they 
transported into America, by whom, and what occasion, how many, 
and to what Parts first, or what steps of intimation of such a thing 
may there be. 1 had some thoughts in my heart to search the 
Original of this People, that I might finde under what Covenant and 
Promise their fore-fathers have been, for the help of my faith ; for 
Jehovah remembers and giveth being to ancient Promises. What 
had become of us sonnes of Japhet, if the Lord had not remem- 
bred that (and such like ancient Promises) God shall perswade Ja- 
phet to dwell in the tents of Shem. If these people be under a 
Covenant and Promise as ancient as Shem and Eber, it is a ground 
of faith to expect mercy for them. 

Now this I have thought, that it seemeth to me as clear in the 
Scripture, that these are the children of Shem as we of Gm 10 
Japhet, and Shem was a great man in the Church, and 
to whom Abraham paid Tythes ; for I beleeve he was Melchise- 
deck ! yea it seemeth to me probable that these people are He- 
brews, of Eber, whose sonnes the [p. 15.] Scripture sends farthest 
East (as it seemeth to me) and learned Brovghton put some of 
them over into America, and certainly this Country was peopled 
Eastward from the place of the Arks resting, seeing the finding of 
them by the West is but of yesterday : Now Eber was also a great 
man in the Church ; Abraham the Hebrew, saith the text; and how 
often in the Scriptures doth the Lord use that blessed word of Grace 
and Covenant, 1 am the God of the Hebrewes? besides there be 
sundry Prophesies in Scripture, unto the goings down of the Sunne ; 
and let it be considered whether America be not to be accounted 
among the places that are the goings down of the Sunne unto those 
places where those Promises were promulgated ; And when the 
Lord inlarged the Promise to Jacob (as the light and extent of grace 
hath ever been encreasing and enlarging) he promised to make him 
a Nation and a multitude of Nations, which so farre as we regard a 
litteral accomplishment, is in part accomplish! in the Nation of the 
Jewes, and the other part remaineth (as it may seem) to be accom- 
plisht in the lost Israelites scattered in the world, principally, if not 



120 A farther Discovery of the present state 

wholly, amongst the sons of Japhet and Shem ; and our God who 
can and will gather the scattered and lost dust of our bodies at the 
Resurrection, can and will finde out these lost and scattered Israel- 
ites, and in finding up them, bring in with them the Nations among 
whom they were scattered, and so shall Jacobs Promise extend to a 
multitude of Nations indeed ; and this is a great ground of faith for 
the conversion of the Easterne Nations, and may be of help to our 
faith for these Indians ; especially if Rabbi-B en-Israel can make it 
appeare that some of the Israelites were brought into America, and 
scattered here, or if the Lord shall by any meanes give us to under- 
stand the same. 

These meditations upon Scripture grounds do minister comfort & 
encouragement to my heart with others also, as, That all Lan- 
guages shall see his Glory, and that all JVations and Kingdoms 
shall become the Kingdoms of the Lord lesus ; and this 1 desire to 
do, to look unto Scripture grounds only; Oh this precious this per- 
fect Word of God ! You intimate also how zealously worthy Mr. 
Owen did prosecute this work ; the Lord reward him, and the Lord 
accept him in all his holy labours. Likewise you intimate how ac- 
ceptable this work is to the Parliament, that blessed Assembly, 
whom the Lord Christ hath delighted to make instrumental to begin 
to set up the longed for, prayed for, and desired Kingdome of the 
Lord [p. 16.] Jesus; for we may see in some measure the accom- 
plishment of that prophesie of Christ, Luke 21. 25. The peacea- 
ble summer beginning to arise out of these distressed times of per- 
plexity, all those signes preceding the glorious coming of Christ are 
accomplishing, and a thick black cloud is gathered, a cloud of blood, 
confusion, Heresies and Errors, and the thickest and most porten- 
tous black part of that cloud is the Toleration of the most grosse 
and convicted impieties under the pretence of conscience, which 
misapplication of the Sword of Authority (if it should awhiie pre- 
vaile) cannot be innocent, and will undoubtedly prolong the storme 
and delay of the reigne of Christ; But notwithstanding all this black 
cloud, who seeth not the glorious coming of the Lord Jesus break- 
ing through this cloud, and coming with power and great glory ? 
He is King of Kings and reigneth over Kings ; for where Justice 
reignes, Christ doth reigne ; and that Antichristian principle for man 
to be above God, whether the Pope in the Church, or Monarches 
in the Common-wealth, is thrown to the ground. He that is above 
the Law, is above the Word ; and he that is above the Word, is 
above Christ; Christ reigneth not over such as be above his Law: 
But behold, now Christ reigneth, and gloriously breaks forth in the 
biightnesse of his coming, and will in his time scatter all this thick 
black cloud, yea the thickest of it. Now this glorious work of 
bringing in and setting up the glorious kingdome of Christ, hath the 
Lord of his free grace and mercy put into the hands of this re- 



of the Indians in New-England. 121 

nowned Parliament and Army ; Lord put it into all their hearts to 
make this designe of Christ their main first and chiefest endeavour, 
according to the Word, Seek first the kingdom of heaven and the 
righteousnesse thereof and all other things shall be added. And 
when the Lord Jesus is about to set up his blessed Kingdome among 
these poore [ndians also, how well doth it become the spirit of such 
instruments in the hand of Christ to promote that work also, being 
the same businesse in some respect which themselves are about by 
the good hand of the Lord. 

Surely Sir, your chief work of this nature now is to follow this 
Indian work which sticks in the birth for want of means. You 
would marvel if I should tell you how they long to come into a way 
of civility by co-habitation, and by forming government among them- 
selves, that so they being in such order might have a Church and the 
Ordinances of Christ among them ; but want of a Magazine of all 
sorts of tools and materials for such a work, is the present impedi- 
ment. 

[p. 17.] The Lord is wiser then man, and his time is best ; I will 
not say any thing now for farther direction about what is requisite for 
the work which the Lord is preparing their hearts unto ; my former 
Letters have said enough that way, partly to you, and partly to Mr. 
Pelham, whose Letters I hope you have seen as containing sundry 
things necessary for your view ; and I doubt not but your wisdome 
will readily adde what is lacking in what I have projected ; only let 
me say this, that I dayly still see more evidence that that is the ve- 
ry way which the Lord would have us take at present. 

Let me, 1 beseech you, trouble you a little farther with some con- 
siderations about this great Indian work which lyeth upon me, as 
my continual care, prayer, desire and endeavour to carry on, name- 
ly for their schooling and education of youth in learning, which is a 
principal means for promoting of it for future times ; If the Lord 
bring us to live in a Towne and Society, we must have special care 
to have Schools for the instruction of the youth in reading, that they 
may be able to read the Scriptures at least. And therefore there 
must be some Annual revenew for the maintaining of such School- 
masters and Dames; Besides, I do very much desire to translate 
some parts of the Scriptures into their language, and to print some 
Primer in their language wherein to initiate and teach them to read, 
which some of the men do much also desire, and printing such a 
thing will be troublesome and chargable, and I having yet but little 
skill in their language (having little leasure to attend it by reason of 
my continual attendance on my Ministry in our own Church) I must 
have some Indians, and it may be other help continually about me 
to try and examine Translations, which I look at as a sacred and 
holy work, and to be regarded with much fear, care, and reverence j 
and all this is chargable ; therefore I look at that as a special matter 

VOL. IV. TH1KD SERIES. 16 



122 A farther Discovery of the present state 

on which cost is to be bestowed, if the Lord provide means, for I 
have not means of my own for it. I have a family of many child- 
ren to educate, and therefore 1 cannot give ovei my Ministry in 
our Church whereby my family is sustained to attend the Indians to 
whom I give, and of whom I receive nothing, nor have they any 
thing to give : so that want of money is the only thing in view that 
doth retard a more full prosecution of this work unto which the Lord 
doth ripen them apace. 

Moreover, there be sundry prompt, pregnant witted youths, not 
vitiously inclined, but well disposed, which I desire may be wholly 
[p. 18.] sequestred to learning and put to Schoole for that purpose, 
had we means ; and I suppose ten pounds per Annum to be paid 
in England, will maintaine one Indian youth at Schoole, and halfe 
ascore such Gifts or Annuities would by the blessing of God greatly 
further this work so farre as concerns that particular. 

I had thought to have set down some of their Questions, wher- 
by you might perceive how these dry bones begin to gather flesh 
and sinnews; but partly I have them not ready, for I have not lea- 
sure to set them down at present, and they soone slip my memory, 
and I did it in all my last Letters, and may do it again, if the Lord 
will, hereafter. And therefore thus much at present, being cald off 
to hasten to seale up my Letters 5 the Lord Jesus blesse you sanctifie 
and keep you in all your labours and travels, and accept you, and 
all your works, and return you again unto us in due season here to 
see Gods blessing with your eyes upon those poore souls, for whose 
sakes you have laboured, and the Lord supply your absense to all 
yours; and so commending you to the Lord and to the word of his 
grace which is able to sanctifie and save you, 1 rest 

Roxburgh this 8. Your Brother and 

of the 5. 49. fellow labourer for the good 

of the poor Indians. 

John Eliot. 



Worthy and much esteemed in the Lord. 

IT is no small encouragement unto my spirit, not only to go on 
unweariably in this enlerprize which the Lord hath set my heart 
upon, but also to expect a great blessing therein ; only I must inti- 
mate two Redundances, one is page 8. where there is a great (I) 
redundant which maketh the sence untrue ; but if left out, the sence 
is both good and true ; for (i) was not the Nominative case or effi- 
cient of that Verb, or Act of iutreating Mr. Malm to teach them, 



of the Indians in New-England. 123 

but it was the Indians Act, and so I said, and so is the sence if that 
(great I) be left out. A second Redundancie is page 17. (though 
misfigured and no matter) where you put the title of Evangelist 
upon me, which all men take, and you seeme to put it for that ex- 
traordinary [p. 19.] office mentioned in the New Testament ; I do 
beseech you to suppresse all such things, if ever you should have 
occasion of doing the like ; let us speak and do, and carry all things 
with all humility ; it is the Lord who hath done what is done, and it 
is most becoming the spirit of Jesus Christ to lift up Christ, and our 
selves lie low ; I wish that that word could be obliterated if any of 
the books remain. 

Now seeing it is so great a comfort to you to hear how the Lord 
is pleased to carry on this work, I shall relate unto you some passa- 
ges, whereby you may see in what frame they be ; I had, and still 
have, a great desire to go to a great fishing place, JVamaske upon 
Merimak ; and because the Indians way lyeth beyond the great 
River which we cannot passe with our horses, nor can we well go 
to it on this side the river, unlesse we go by Nashaway, which is 
about, and bad way, unbeaten, the Indians not using that way ; I 
therefore hired a hardy man of JYashaiuay to beat out a way and 
to mark trees, so that he may Pilot me thither in the spring, and he 
hired Indians with him and did it ; and in the way passed through 
a great people called Sowahagen Indians, some of which had 
heard me at Pautuket and at Nashaway, and had carried home 
such tydings, that they were generally stirred with a desire that I 
would come and teach them ; and when they saw a man come to 
cut out a way for me that way, they were very glad ; and when he 
told them I intended to come that way the next spring, they 
seemed to him full of joy, and made him very welcome. But in 
the Spring, when I should have gone, I was not well, it being a 
very sickly time, so that I saw the Lord prevented me of that 
journey ; yet when I went to Pautuket another fishing place, where 
from all parts about they met together, thither came divers of 
these Sowahegen Indians, and heard me teach, and I had confer- 
ence with them ; and among other things, I asked whether Sowa- 
hegen Indians were desirous to pray to God ; they answered ; yea, 
I asked how many desired it ; they answered wamu, that is, All, 
and with such affection as did much affect those Christian men 
that I had with me in company. 

The chief Sachim of this place Pautuket, and of all Mermak 
is Papassaconnoway, whom I mentioned unto you the last yeere, 
who gave up himself and his sonnes to pray unto God, this man 
did this yeer shew very great affection to me, and to the Word of 
God ; he did exceeding earnestly, importunately invite me to come 
and live there and teach them ; he used many arguments, many 
whereof [p. 20.] I have forgotten : but this was one, that my com- 



124 A farther Discovery of the present state 

ing thither but once in a yeere, did them but little good, because 
they soone had forgotten what I taught, it being so seldome, and so 
long betwixt the times ; further he said, That he had many men, 
and of them many nought, and would not beleeve him that praying 
to God was so good, but if 1 would come and teach them, he hoped 
they would beleeve me ; He farther added, that I did, as if one 
should come and throw a fine thing among them, and they earnestly 
catch at it, and like it well, because it looks finely, but they cannot 
look into it to see what is within it, and what it is within, they can- 
not tell whether something or nothing, it may be a stock or a stone 
is within it, or it may be a precious thing ; but if it be opened, and 
they see what is within it, and see it precious, then they should be- 
leeve it (so said he) you tell us of praying to God, (for so they call 
all Religion) and we like it well at the first sight, and we know not 
what it is within, it may be excellent, or it may be nothing, we can- 
not tell, but if you would come unto us, and open it unto us, and 
shew us what it is within, then we should beleeve that it is so excel- 
lent as you say, when we see it opened ; Such elegant arguments as 
these did he use, with much gravity, wisdome and affection ; and 
truly my heart much yeameth towards them, and I have a great 
desire to make our Indian Towne that way ; yet the Lord by the 
Eye of Providence seemeth not to look thither, partly because 
there is not a competent place of due encouragement for subsist- 
ence ; which would spoyle the work ; and partly because our In- 
dians which are our first and chief materials in present view, are 
loth to go Northward, though they say they will go with me any 
whether ; but it concerneth me much not to lead them into temp- 
tation of scarcity, cold and want, which may damp the progresse of 
the Gospel ; but I rather think where ever I begin the first Towne, 
(if I live) I must begin more townes then one, or oh that the Lord 
would raise up more and more fit labourers into this harvest. 

Another Indian, who lived remote another way, asked me if I 
had any children ? I answered yea ; he asked how many ? I said 
sixe ; he asked how many of them were sonnes ? I told him five ; 
then he asked whether my sonnes should teach the Indians to 
know God as I do ? at which question I was much moved in my 
heart, for I have often in my prayers dedicated all my sonnes 
unto the Lord to serve him in this service, if he will please to 
accept them therein ; and my purpose is to do my uttermost to 
traine them up in learning, whereby they may be fitted in the best 
manner I can to serve the [p. 21.] Lord herein, and better pre- 
ferment I desire not for them then to serve the Lord in this travel ; 
and to that purpose I answered him, and my answer seemed to be 
well pleasing to them, which seemed to minister to my heart some 
encouragement, that the Lords meaning was to improve them that 
way, and he would prepare their hearts to accept the same. 



of the Indians in New-England. 125 

There is another aged Sachem at Quabagud threescore miles 
Westward, and he doth greatly desire that I would come thither 
and teach them, and live there ; and I made a journey thither this 
summer, and 1 went by Nashaway ; but it so fell out that there 
were some stirres betwixt the Nazaganset and Monahegen Indians, 
some murder committed, he. which made our Church doubtful at 
first of my going, which when the Nashaway Sachem heard, he 
commanded twenty armed men (after their manner) to be ready, 
and himself with these twenty men ; besides sundry of our neer 
Indians went along with me to guard me, but I took some English 
along with me also, so that hereby their good affection is manifested 
to me, and to the work I have in hand ; here also I found sundry 
hungry after instruction, but it pleased God to exercise us with such 
tedious raine, and bad weather, that we were extreme wet, inso- 
much that I was not dry night nor day from the third day of the 
week unto the sixth, but so travelled, and at night pull off my boots, 
wring my stockins, and on with them again, and so continued ; the 
rivers also were raised, so as that we were wet in riding through ; 
but that which added to my affliction was, my horse tyred, so that 
I was forced to let my horse go empty, and ride on one of the mens 
horses which I took along with me, yet God stept in and helped ; 
I considered that word of God, 2 Tim. 2, 3. Endure hardship as 
a good Souldier of Christ; with many other such like meditations, 
which I think not meet to mention now. And I thank the Lord, 
neither I nor my company took any hurt, but the Lord brought us 
in safety and health home again. 

Because, both Mr. Pelham and your self do so heartily, and with 
such good affection send commendations and greetings unto our 
Indians which pray unto God, I will tell you what a good occasion 
was ministred unto me, through the goodnesse of God, by a ques- 
tion which one of them propounded the next meeting (as I remem- 
ber) after I had received my Letters, and I must first tell you 
the occasion of the question. 

There had been at that time some strange Indians among them 
[p. 22.] which came to see them who prayed to God, as one 
from Martins Vineyard, who is helpful to Mr. Mahu to tell him 
words, &c. and I think some others, when those strangers came, and 
they perceived them to affect Religion, and had mutual conference 
about the same, there was very great gladnesse of heart among 
them, and they made these strangers exceeding welcome ; Here- 
upon did the Question arise, namely what is the reason, that when 
a strange Indian comes among us whom we never saw before, yet if 
he pray unto God, we do exceedingly love him : But if my own 
Brother, dwelling a great way off, come unto us, he not praying to 
God, though we love him, yet nothing so as we love that other stran- 
ger who doth pray unto God. 



126 A farther Discovery of the present state 

This question did so clearly demonstrate that which the Scrip- 
ture calleth love of the Brethren, that I thought it was useful ; first, 
to try others of them, whether they found the same in their hearts ; 
I therefore asked them, how they found it in their hearts ? And 
they answered, that they all found it so in their hearts, and that it 
had been a matter of discourse among themselves, wondring at it, 
what the reason of it should be, which was no small comfort and 
encouragement unto my spirit ; Then in my answer I asked them 
what should be the reason that the gody people in England, 3000. 
miles off, who never saw them, yet hearing that they pray to God, 
do exceedingly rejoyce at it, and love them, and send them tokens 
of their love, and then I reckoned up what had been sent them, 
and mentioned some names to them, and farther told them that 
their love was so great unto them, that they would send them over 
a great deale more ; and in special, I hoped they would send us 
such materials as be requisite to make a Tovvne, and mentioned 
some such things as I have named in the Catalogue 1 sent to you, 
and asked them if they could tell the reason of it ; they answered 
no ; this being the same with their question ; and then I shewed 
the unity of spirit, &c. And thus you see the occasion and way 
of communicating the good will and love of the Saints in England, 
unto them, so as that they might taste a spiritual blessing, and 
finde some edification of their souls by those outward blessings 
which they received. And whereas some, (as I am informed) 
who came from us to England, are no better friends to this work 
then they should, and may speak slightly of it : I do intreat that 
such may be asked but this question ; Did they so much regard to 
look after it here, as to go three or four miles to some of [p. 23.] 
our meetings, and to observe what was said and done there ? if not, 
how can they tell how things be ? if they say they were, I desire to 
know what they except against ? If they say the Indians be all 
nought because such as come loytering and filtching about in our 
Townes are so; Wish them to consider how unequal that judgment 
is, if all the English should be judged by the worst of them ; and 
any should say they be all such, this were to condemne the right- 
eous with the wicked. Had I leasure, I would insert a few more 
of their questions, that you might perceive how flesh and sinewes 
begin to gather upon these dry bones; but I cannot at this time 
attend it; the present work of God among them is to gather them 
together to bring them to Political life, both in Ecclesiastical society 
and in Civil, for which they earnestly long and enquire, and some 
aged ones say, Oh that God would let me live to see that day ; I 
allude to that in Ezekiel, not because I have any light to perswade 
me these are that people there mentioned, only they be dry and 
scattered bones, if any be in the world ; and the work of God 
upon all such dry bones I beleeve will be in many things Symmet- 



of the Indians in New-England. 127 

ricall; But the work of the day is to civilize them, and it will be 
very chargeable, and because in your Letters to Mr. Cotton, you 
desired that he and I should speak with the Commissioners what 
was fitting to send over for this work, we could not speak with the 
Commissioners of other Colonies, nor write to have any seasonable 
return, nor could we communicate the state of the businesse unto 
them, but what was feasible we have done. 

Now dear Sir, it may be you will desire to know what kinde of 
Civil Government they shall be instructed in ; I acknowledge it to 
be a very weighty consideration ; and I have advised with Mr. 
Cotton and others about it, and this I propound as my general rule 
through the help of the Lord ; they shall be wholly governed by 
the Scriptures in all things both in Church and State ; they shall 
have no other Law-giver ; the Lord shall be their Law-giver, the 
Lord shall be their Judge, ihe Lord shall be their King, and he will 
save them ; and when it is so the Lord reigneth, and unto that 
frame the Lord will bring all the world ere he hath done, but it 
will be more difficult in other Nations who have been adulterate 
with their Antichristian or humane wisdome ; they will be loth to 
lay downe their imperfect own Star-light of excellent Lawes, in 
their conceits, for the perfect Sun-light of the Scripture, which 
through blindnesse they cannot see. 

[p. 24.] England long since had happy experience of it, and it is 
often in my heart to desire they would pitch there in this present great 
change they are about ; this is certaine, that all formes and Lawes 
of mans invention will shake, be unsetled ; and many will doubt of 
subjecting to any way man can devise ; and they will never rest till 
they come up to the Scriptures, and when they produce Scripture 
grounds for all they do, it will answer and satisfie all godly con- 
sciences, and awe the rest, and stop their mouths unlesse they will 
cavill against divine wisdome. It is the very reason why the Lord 
in this houre of temptation will bring Nations into distresse and per- 
plexity, that so they may be forced to the Scriptures ; the light 
whereof hath sole authority to extricate them out of their deep per- 
plexities ; and therefore all Governments are and will be shaken, 
that men may be forced to pitch upon the firme and unshaken 
foundation, the Word of God ; this is doubtlesse the great desiene 
of Christ in these later dayes ; Oh that mens eyes were open to see 
it, and when the world is brought into this frame, then Christ reign- 
eth ; and when this is, Government shall be in the hands of the 
Saints of the most high. 

But I forget my self; this is not my present work, it is my desire 
and prayer ; my work is to endeavour the setting up Christ King- 
dome among the Indians. 

Sir, you tell me of one that will publish reasons to prove (at 
least) some of the ten Tribes are in America, it would be glad ty- 



128 A farther Discovery of the present state 

dings to my heart ; and when Mr. Dudley heard of it, he said that 
Captaine Cromwell, who lately dyed at Boston told him that he 
saw many Indians to the Southward Circumcised, and that he was 
oft conversant among them, and saw it with his eyes, and was un- 
doubtedly certaine of it ; this is Captaine Cromwels testimony, and 
it seemeth to be one of the most probable arguments that ever I 
yet heard of; unlesse the Lord shall please to clear it up that they 
are some of those dry bones which Ezekiel speaketh of. 

Mr. Mahew, who putteth his hand unto this Plough at Martins 
Vineyard, being young, and a beginner here, hath extreme want of 
books ; he needeth Commentaries and Common Places for the body 
of Divinity, that so he might be well grounded and principled ; if 
therefore the Lord bring any meanes into your hand, I desire you 
would (by the help of some godly Divine) send him over such 
books as may be necessary for a young Scholer ; I will name no 
books, he needs all ; I beseech you put some weight upon it, for I 
desire [p. 25.] he might be furnished in that kinde, and other sup- 
plies will be needful for him. 

And for my self I have this request (who also am short enough in 
books) that I might be helped to purchase my brother Weld his 
books, the summe of the purchase (34 li.) I am loth they should 
come back to England when we have so much need of them here, 
and without ready money there I cannot have them ; if therefore so 
much money might be disbursed for me, it would be a blessing to 
me, but it is on condition that all his books here be comprehended, 
else I will not give so much for them. 

One thing more 1 shall mention, viz. if the work go on, and you 
send us means, then this may be considerable, which some have ad- 
vised me, whether it might not be good to send me over a Carpen- 
ter or two young men-servants ; but if you should approve it, 1 
desire they may be godly, and well conditioned, of a good spirit, 
for they must be imployed among the Indians, and if they should 
be naught, and of an ill disposition they might do a great deal of 
hurt, but if they be honest h meek and well spirited, it may be a 
great furtherance of the work, I wholly leave it to your wisdom. 

Having some leasure by the Ships delay I will insert a few ques- 
tions which they have propounded, viz. 

If a man know Gods Word, but beleeve it not ; and he teach 
others, is that good teaching °l and if others beleeve that which he 
teachcth, is that good beleeving, or faith ? upon this question I asked 
them, how they could tell when a man knoweth Gods Word that he 
doth not beleeve it ? They answered me, When he doth not do in 
his practice answerable to that which he knoweth. 

If I teach on the Sabbath that which you have taught us, and for ■- 



of the Indians in New-England. 129 

get some, Is that a sin 9 and some 1 mistake and teach wrong, Is 
that a sin ? 

Do all evill thoughts come from the Devill, and all good ones 
from God 9 

What is watchfulnesse 9 

How shall lfinde happinesse ? 

What should J pray for at night, and what at morning, and what 
on the Sabbath day ? 

What is true Repentance, or how shall 1 know when this is true? 

How must I wait on God ? 

[p. 26.] Shall we see Christ at the day of Judgment? 

Can we see God ? 

When 1 pray for a soft heart, why is it still hard°l 

Can one be saved by reading the book of the creature 9 This ques- 
tion was made when I taught them, That God gave us two books, 
and that in the book of the creature, every creature was a word or 
sentence, he. 

You said God promised Moses to go with him, how doth he go 
with us 9 

When such die as never heard of Christ, whether do they go 9 

When the wicked die, do they first go to heaven to the judgment 
seate of Christ to be judged, and then go away to hell 9 

What is the meaning of the word, Hebrews ? 

Why doth God say, I am the God of the Hebrews ? 

When Christ arose, whence came his soul 9 When I answered 
from heaven ; ft was replied, How then was Christ punished in our 
stead ? Or when did he suffer in our stead, afore death, or after ? 

When I pray every day, why is my heart so hard still, even as a stone? 

How doth God arise, and we worship at his feet, what meaneth 
itl- This was when I preached out of Psal. 132. 

Why did they eate the Passeover, with loynes girt, and shooes on 
their feet 9 

What meaneth, arise O Lord into thy resting place 9 

What meaneth, hunger and thirst after righteousnesse, and the 
blessed 9 

What meaneth, thou shalt not covet any thing that is thy neigh- 
bours ? 

If one purposeth to pray, and yet dieth before that time, whether 
goeth his soul ? 

If I teach on the Sabbath something that some other Englishman 
taught me, the Indians do not like it, if it be not that which you have 
taught, is this well ? 

Why must we be like Salt 9 

If 1 do not love wicked men, nor good men, am 1 good 9 

What meaneth that, love enemies and wicked men ? 

Doth God know who shall repent, and beleeve, and who not ? 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 17 



130 A farther Discovery of the present state 

When I answered in the affirmative, then it was replyed, Why then 
did God use so much meanes with Pharaoh ? 

What meaneth that his wife shall be like a Vine, and his children 
like young plants *? 

[p 27.] What meaneth, that blessed are they that mourn ? 

When 1 see a good example, and know that it is right, why do 1 
not do the same °l 

What meaneth lifting up hands to God °l 

What anger is good, and what is bad L 1 

Do they dwell in severall houses in heaven, or altogether, and 
what do they % 

How do you know what is done in heaven ? 

If a child die before he sinne, whether goeth his soul? By this 
question, it did please the Lord, clearly to convince them of origi- 
nal sin, blessed be bis name. 

If one that pray es to God, sins like him that prayes not, is not he 
worse ? And while they discoursed of this point, and about haling 
of wicked persons one of them shut it up with this, They must love 
the man and do him good, but hate his sin. 

Why do Englishmen so eagerly kill all snakes 9 

May a man have good words and deeds and a bad heart, and 
another have bad words and deeds, and yet a good heart 9 

What is it to eate Christ his flesh and drink his blood, what 
meaneth it *) 

What meaneth a new heaven and a new earth ? 



Much honoured and respected in the Lord Jesus. 

TOur faithful and unwearied paines about the Lords work for 
the good of his dear cbildren here, and for the furtherance of 
the kingclome of Christ among these poor Indians, shall doubtlesse 
be had in remembrance before the Lord, not through merit, but 
mercie. 

By former Letters sent by Mr. Saltonstall ; I informed you of 
the present state of the Indian work, and though I might adde far- 
ther matters, yet I shal forbear, only this, still they continue con- 
stant, and earnestly desire to set upon the way of cohabitation & 
prepare for their enjoyment of that great blessing to gather a Church 
of Christ among them ; and since the writing of my last a JVipnet 
Sachem hath submitted himself to pray unto the Lord, and much 
desireth [p. 28.] one of our chief ones to live with him and teach 
him and those that are with him. 

You wrote (I thank you) much encouraging to lose no time, and 
follow the work, though I borrow materials, but I durst not do so, 



of the Indians in New-England. 131 

the work is great, as I informed you in my former Letters ; and I 
fear, lest it should discourage you, nor would I be too hasty to run 
before the Lord do clearly (by Scripture rules) say go ; nor on the 
other side would I hold them too long in suspence, there may be 
weaknesse that way to their discouragement, but it is the Lords 
work, and he is infinite in wisdome, and he will suit the work in 
such a time and place as shall best attain his appointed ends and his 
great glory. 

Touching the way of their Government, I also intimated the 
purpose of my heart, that I intend to direct them according as the 
Lord shall please to help and assist to set up the Kingdome of Jesus 
Christ fully, so that Christ shall reigne both in Church and Common- 
wealth, both in Civil and Spiritual matters ; we will (through his 
grace) fly to the Scriptures, for every Law, Rule, Direction, Form, 
or what ever we do. And when every thing both Civil & Spirit- 
ual are done by the direction of the word of Christ, then doth 
Christ reigne, and the great Kingdome of Jesus Christ which we 
weight for, is even this that I do now mention ; and by this means 
all Kingdomes and Nations shall become the Kingdomes of Christ, 
because he shall rule them in all things by his holy word ; humane 
wisdome in learned Nations will be loth to yeeld to Christ so farre, 
much lesse will Princes and Monarches readily yeeld so farre to 
stoop to Christ, and therefore the Lord will shake all Nations, and 
put them into distresse and perplexity, and in the conclusion they 
will be glad to stoop to Christ. But as for these poore Indians they 
have no principles of their own, nor yet wisdome of their own (I 
meane as other Nations have) wherein to stick ; and therefore they 
do most readily yeeld to any direction from the Lord, so that there 
will be no such opposition against the rising Kingdome of Jesus 
Christ among them ; yet I foresee a cloud of difficulties in the work, 
and much obscurity and trouble in some such respects, as I think not 
meet to mention, only by faith I do see through this cloud : I beleeve 
the faithful promises of Christ shall be accomplisht among them, and 
the Lord Jesus shall reigne over them gloriously, Oh my heart 
yearneth over distressed perplexed England, and my continual prayer 
unto the Lord for them is, that he would be pleased to open their 
hearts and eyes, and let them see [p. 29.] their opportunity to let 
in Christ, and to advance his Kingdome over them ; yea, my hope 
is, that he will not leave tampering with them untill he hath brought 
it to passe ; Oh the blessed day in England when the Word of God 
shall be their Magna Charta and chief Law Book ; and when all 
Lawyers must be Divines to study the Scriptures ; and should the 
Gentile Nations take up Moses policie so farre as it is morall and 
conscionable, make the Scriptures the foundation of all their Lawes, 
who knoweth what a door would be opened to the Jewes to come in 
to Christ; I wrote likewise by my last to intreat for some encour- 



132 A farther Discovery of the present state 

agement to Master Mahu who preacheth to the Indians, and that 
some monies may be laid out in books for him ; for young Scholars 
in New-England are very poor in books, as he is in extreme want. 
Dear Sir, 

Be helpful in prayer to our work, and above all gatherings, gather 
prayers ; I mean, put the Saints in minde that they pray much about 
it, as they do both there and here. 
Truly Sir, 

The spirit of prayer that is daily going about this matter, is a 
very great encouragement for all our meetings, through mercie ; ring 
of it ; I would intimate some more questions which they have pro- 
pounded since my last, for they are fruitful that way, but partly I 
fear I shall want time, yet my heart saies, it may comfort you, and 
therefore I will set down a few, so many as I have noted down 
since my last. 

If but one parent beleeve, what state are our children in ? 

How doth much sinne make grace abound *? I having made use of 
that Text. 

If so old a man as I repent, may 1 be saved 1 ? The wisdome of 
God drew forth this question next to interpret the former. 

When we come to beleeve, how many of our children doth God 
take with us, whether all only young ones, or at what age °l 

What meaneth that, Let the trees of the Wood rejoyce *? 

What meaneth that, That the Master doth not thank his servant 
for waiting on him ? 

What meaneth that, We cannot serve two masters % 

Can they in Heaven see us here on Earth ? 

Do they see and know each other ? Shall I knoiv you in heaven*? 

Do they know each other in Hell •? 

When English-men choose Magistrates aud Ministers, how do 
they [p. 30.] know who be good men that they dare trust °l 

Seeing the body sinneth, why should the soule be punished, and 
what punishment shall the body have % 

If all the world be burnt up, where shall hell be ? 

What is it to beleeve in Christ ? 

What meaneth, that Christ meriteth eternal life for us 6 ! 

What meaneth that, Covet not thy neighbours house, $-0? 

What meaneth that, The woman brought to Christ a box of Oyle, 
and washt his feet with tears, fyc ? 

What meaneth that of the two debtors, one oweth much, another 
but little ? 

If a luicked man pray eth, and teacheth, doth God accept, or what 
saies God? 

At what age may maids marry $ 

If a man be wise, and his Sachem weak must he yet obey him? 

We are commanded to honour the Sachem, but is the Sachem 
commanded to love us ? 



of the Indians in New-England. 133 

When all the world shall be burnt up, what shall be in the roome 
of it ; an old womans question yester day ? 

What meaneth God, when he sayes, yee shall be my Jeivels 2 This 
was asked from my text last time, Exod. 19. 5. for so I rendred 
the word peculiar treasure. 

You may perceive many of the questions arise out of such texts 
as I handle, and I do endeavour to communicate as much Scripture 
as I can ; The word of the Lord converteth, sanctifieth and maketh 
wise the simple ; sometimes they aske weaker questions then these, 
which 1 mention not, you have the best ; and when I am about 
writing, I am more careful in keeping a remembrance of them ; it 
may be the same question may be again and again asked at several 
places, and by several persons ; The Lord teach them to know 
Christ, whom to know is eternal life; I shall intreat your supplica- 
tions at the throne of grace, under the tender wing whereof 1 leave 
you, being forced by the time, and rest 

Roocbury this 29 of Your respectful and loving 

the 10th 49. brother and fellow-labourer 

in the Indian work. 

John Eliot. 



[p. 31.] Much honoured and beloved in Christ, &,c. 

I Heard of the health and welfare of your family not long since, 
though the sharpnesse and depth of snowes this later part of win- 
ter did more shut up and hinder intercourse than ever 1 knew in 
New-England. 

I shall principally attend to give you intelligence about the In- 
dians, touching whom, I know not that you are like to have intel- 
ligence by others ; The Lord had shewed them a very great testi- 
mony of his mercy this winter, in that when formerly the English 
had the Pox much, they also had the same ; but now though it was 
scattered in all or most of the Townes about them, yet the Lord 
hath preserved them from it ; And that which maketh this favour of 
God the more evident and conspicuous, is this ; That there is a 
company of profane Indians that lately are come to a place near 
Wamouth, not farre from our Indians, who do not onely refuse to pray 
unto God, but oppose and apprehend that they were sent thither, if 
not by the policie of some Pawwaws, yet by the instigation of 
Sathan, on purpose to seduce the younger sort from their profession, 
and discourage others ; and indeed they being so neer, had that 
effect evidently in some of the younger sort. Now it pleased God 



134 A farther Discovery of the present state 

that this company of wicked Indians, were smitten with the Pox, 
and sundry cut off, and those which were cut off, were of the worst 
and mischievous of them all ; which Providences, all the good In- 
dians do take a great notice of, and doth say that the Lord hath 
wrought a wonder for them ; and it seemeth to me that the Lord 
hath blest this good Providence of his to be a strong ingagement of 
their hearts to the Lord. 

The work of the Lord through his grace doth still go on as for- 
merly, and they are still full of questions, and mostly they now be, 
to know the meaning of such Scriptures as I have translated and 
read, and in a poor measure expounded to them, they long for to pro- 
ceed in that work which I have in former Letters mentioned ; 
namely to cohabit in a Towne, to be under the government of the 
Lord, and to have a Church and the Ordinances of Christ among 
them; this Spring the Lord seemed to put some of them upon such 
streights, about a convenient place of planting, as if his Providence 
had meant to call us to a present setting upon the work, but partly 
by reason of the undetermination about the place [p. 32.] where, 
but principally for want of means, wherewith it is yet deferred, 
though I see a necessity to speed it forward, for they have been 
now long in the expectation, and if I should still fail them, it would 
both discourage them, and embolden their adversaries to despise the 
work (for all the Country of Indians are in an expectation of it) 
yea by this delay that hath been, Sathan hath taken this advantage 
to my great grief; That whereas at my first preaching at JVashawog 
sundry did imbrace the word, and called upon God, and Pau-wauing 
was wholly silenced among them all ; yet now, partly being forty 
miles of; and principally by the slow progresse of this work, Sathan 
hath so emboldened the Pawwawes, that this winter, (as I hear to 
my grief) there hath been Paw-wauing again with some of them. 

The reason why there is still a delay of laying the foundation of 
the work is this, because we must see first whether any supply is 
like to be had from England (for our sins and bad times may dis- 
appoint our greatest hopes) and if any, what measure, that we may 
by that be guided what foundation and beginning to make ; their 
condition and the necessary frame of this work requireth a liberall 
stock to begin withall, and liberall supply to carry it on ; And there- 
fore to begin the work before the Lord hath discovered his provid- 
ing providence this way, by the rule of prudence may not be ; nor 
can I manifest unto the Church that God doth call me to that work, 
until I may lay before them, (at least some) present means to begin 
the work, and some probable hopes of supply ; and untill that be 
done, the Church hath no rule to give me up to that work ; nor I 
a rule to require it ; only I do (through the Lords help) continually 
go on to teach them, as for these three yeers and a half I have done, 
instructing them, and preparing them as well as I can against such 



of the Indians in New-England. 135 

time as the Lord, who hath promised to guide us by his eye and 
voyce, shall manifestly call us to go forward with that work which 
we wait to see accomplished. 

I forbear to mention any thing about the materials requisite, and 
manner of proceedings, having done that in my former Letters, by 
the first ship especially, and also by the second ; both which Ves- 
sels 1 trust the Lord hath brought in safe to you long ere this time. 
1 was in great hopes to have heard some encouragement by fishing 
ships, but not one being this yeere come, nor tydings any other way, 
we are put to sad thoughts how it may fare with England, but we 
cease not to pray continually in that behalf, and [p. 33.] this ex- 
pectation of mine is one ingagement of my heart to be the more 
earnest both for England and for your self also. 

Roxbury this 18 of Your loving friend and brother 

the 2d 1650. in our Lord Jesus 

John Eliot. 



Much respected and beloved in our Lord Jesus. 

dTI Od is greatly to be adored in all his Providences, and hath 
^OTevermore wise and holy ends to accomplish that which we are 
not aware of; and therefore although he may seem to crosse our 
ends with disappointments after all our pains and expectations, yet 
he hath farther and better thoughts then we can reach unto, which 
will cause us to admire his love and wisdome, when we see them 
accomplished ; and yet he is gracious to accept of our sincere labours 
for his name, though he disappoint them in our way, and frustrate 
our expectations in our time ; yea, he will fulfill our expectations in 
his way, and in his time, which shall finally appeare to the eye of 
faith, a better way then ours, and a fitter time then ours ; his wis- 
dome is infinite. 

For the work of the Lord among the Indians, I thank his Majes- 
ty he still smile th on it, he favoureth and blesseth it ; through his 
help that strengthneth me, I cease not in my poor measure to instruct 
them ; and I do see that they profit and grow in knowledge of the 
truth, and some of them in the love of it, which appearelh by a 
ready obedience to it ; and to testifie their growth in knowledge, 
I will not (though I could do it if need were) trouble you with their 
questions ; but I will only relate one story which fell out about the 
fifth month of this yeere ; Two of my hearers travelled to Provi~ 
dence and Warwick where Gorton liveth, and there they spent a 
Sabbath, and heard them in some exercises, and had much confer- 






1 36 A farther Discovery of the present state 

ence with them ; for it seemeth they perceiving that they had some 
knowledge in Religion, and were of my hearers ; they endeavour 
to possesse their minds with their opinions. When they came home, 
the next Lecture day, before I began the exercise, the company 
being not fully come together, one of them asked me [p. 34.] this 
question ; What is the reason, that seeing those English people, 
where he had been, had the same Bible that we have, yet do not 
speake the same things ? I asked the reason of his question ; he 
said, Because his brother and he had been at Providence and at 
Warwick, and he perceived by speech with them, that they differ from 
us ; he said he heard their publike exercise, but did not understand 
what they meant, (though the man understandeth the English Lan- 
guage pretty well) But afterwards said he, we had much speech; 
I asked him in what points ; and so much as his brother and he 
could call to minde, he related as followed). 

First, said lie, they said thus, they teach you that there is a 
Heaven and a Hell, but there is no such matter ; I asked him what 
reason they gave ; he answered, that he said there ic no other 
Heaven, then what is in the hearts of good men ; nor no other Hell, 
then what is in the hearts of bad men ; Then I asked, and what 
said you to that ; saith he, / told them, 1 did not beleeve them, be- 
cause Heaven is a place whether good men go after this life is ended ; 
and Hell is a place whether bad men go when they die, and cannot 
be in the hearts of men ; 1 approved of this answer. I asked what 
else they spake ? he answered, they spake of Baptism, and said, that 
they teach you thai infants must be baptized, but that is a very fool- 
ish thing; I asked him what reason they gave ? He said, because 
infants neither know God nor Baptisme, nor what they do, and 
therefore it is a foolish thing to do it; I asked him what he said to 
that f He said, he could not say much, but he thought it was better 
to baptize them while they be young, and then they are hound and 
engaged ; but if you let them alone till they be grown up, it may be 
they will flie off, and neither care for God nor for Baptisme ; I 
approved of this answer also, and asked what else they spake of? 
He said farther, they spake of Ministers, and said, they teach 
you that you must have Ministers, but that is a needlesse 
thing. I asked what reason they gave ? He said, they gave these 
reasons, First, Ministers know nothing but what they learn out of 
Gods book, and we have Gods book as well as they and can tell 
what God saith. Again, Ministers cannot change mens hearts, 
God must do that, and therefore there is no need of Ministers. I 
asked him what he said to that? He said, that he told them, that 
we must do as < God commands us, and if he commands to have 
Ministers, we must have them. And farther I told them, I thought 
it was true, that Ministers cannot change mens hearts ; but when we 
do as God bids us, and hear Ministers preach, then God will change 



of the Indians in New-England. 137 

our hearts. I approved this answer also. [p. 35.] I asked what 
else they spake of? He said, They teach you that you must have 
Magistrates, but that is needlesse, nor ought to be. I asked what 
reason they gave ? He said, That they gave this reason, because 
Magistrates cannot give life, therefore they may not take away life ; 
besides, when a man sinneth, he doth not sinne against Magistrates, 
and therefore why should they punish them ? but they sinne against 
God and therefore we must leave them to God to punish them. I 
asked him what he said to that, he answered, I said to that as to 
the former, we must do as God commands us ; If God command us 
to have Magistrates, and commands them to punish sinners, them we 
must obey. I approved this also. 

I asked farther what they said ; then both of them considered a 
while, and said, they could remember no more, only they said some- 
what of the Parliament of England, which they did not understand. 
And by such time as we had done this conference, the company 
was gathered together, and we went to Prayer, and I did solemnly 
blesse God who had given them so much understanding in his truth, 
and some ability to discerne between Truth and Error, and an heart 
to stand for the Truth, and against Error ; and I cannot but take it 
as a Divine Testimony of Gods blessing upon my poor labours ; I 
afterwards gave him an answer to his first question, viz. Why they 
having the same Bible with us, yet spake not the same things ? And 
I answered him by that Text, 2 Thes. 2. JO, 11. Because they re- 
ceived not the love of the truth that they might be saved, for this 
cause God shall send them strong delusions that they should beleeve 
a lye. This text I opened unto them ; I will adde no more at 
present to manifest their proficiency in knowledge. 

The present work of the Lord that is to be done among them, 
is to gather them together from their scattered kinde of life ; First, 
unto Civil Society, then to Ecclesiastical, and both by the Divine 
direction of the Word of the Lord ; they are still earnestly desirous 
of it \ and this Spring that is past, they were very importunately 
desirous to have been upon that work, and to have planted corne in 
the place intended ; but I did disswade, and was forced to use this 
reason of delay, because I hoped for tools, and meanes from Eng- 
land, whereby to prosecute the work this Summer. But when ships 
came, and no supply, you may easily think what a damping it was ; 
and truly my heart smote me, that I had looked too much at man 
and meanes, in sloping their earnest affections [p. 36.] with that 
barre which proved a Blank. I began without any such respect, 
and I thought that the Lord would have me so to go on, and only 
look to him for help, whose work it is ; and when 1 had thus looked 
up to the Lord, I advised with our Elders and some other of our 
Church, whose hearts consented with me ; then I advised with divers 
of the Elders at Boston Lecture, and Mr. Cottons answer was, my 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 18 



138 A farther Discovery of the present state 

heart sayeth, go on, and look to the Lord onely for help, the rest 
also concuring ; So I commended it to our Church, and we sought 
God in a day of fasting and prayer ahout it, (together with other 
causes) and have been ever since a doing, according to our abilities; 
and this I account a favour of God, that that very night, before we 
came from our place of meeting, we had notice of a Ship from 
England, whereby I received Letters, and some encouragement in 
the work from private friends ; a mercy which God had in store, 
but unknown to some, and so contrived by the Lord, that I should 
receive it as a fruit of prayer. 

The place also is of Gods providing, as a fruit of prayer ; for 
when I, with some that went with me, had rode to a place of some 
hopefull expectation, when we came to it. it was in no wise sutable ; 
J went behind a Rock, and looked to the Lord, and committed the 
matter to him ; and while J was travelling in Woods, Christian 
friends were in prayer at home ; and so it was, that though one of 
our company fell sick in the Woods, so that we were forced home 
with speed ; yet in the way home, the Jndians in our company, upon 
enquiry describing a place to me, and guiding us over some part of 
it, the Lord did both by his providence then, and by after more dili- 
gent search of the place, discover that there it was his pleasure we 
should begin this work. When grasse was fit to cut, J sent some 
Jndians to mow, and others to make some hay at the place, because 
we must oft ride thither in the Autumn when grasse is withered and 
dead, and especially in the Spring before any grasse is come, and 
there is provision for our horses ; this work was performed well, as 
I found when I went up to them with my man to order it. We 
must also of necessity have an house to lodge in, meet in, and lay 
up our provisions and clothes, which cannot be in Wigwams. I set 
them therefore to fell and square timber for an house, and when it 
was ready, I went, and many of them with me, and on their shoul- 
ders carried all the timber together, Stc. These things they chear- 
fully do ; but this also I do, I pay them wages carefully for all such 
works I set them about, which is a good encouragement [p. 37.] to 
labour. I purpose, God willing, to call them together this Autumne 
to break and prepare their own ground against the Spring, and for 
other necessary works, which are not afew, in such an enterprize. 
There is a great river which divideth between their planting grounds 
and dwelling place, through which, though they easily wade in 
Summer, yet in the Spring its deep, and unfit for daily passing over, 
especially of women and children ; therefore I thought it necessary, 
that this Autumne we should make a foot Bridge over, against such 
time in the Spring as they shall have daily use of it ; 1 told them 
my purpose and reason of it, wished them to go with me to do that 
work, which they chearfully did, and with their own hands did build 
a Bridge eighty foot long, and nine foot high in the midst, that it 






of the Indians in New-England. 139 

might stand above the floods ; when we had done, I cald them to- 
gether, prayed, and gave thanks to God, and taught them out of a 
portion of Scripture, and at parting I told them, I was glad of their 
readinesse to labour, when 1 advised them thereunto ; and in as 
much as it hath been hard and tedious labour in the water, if any of 
them desired wages for their work, I would give it them ; yet being 
it is for their owne use, if they should do all this labour in love, I 
should take it well, and as I may have occasion, remember it ; 
they answered me, they were farre from desiring any wages when 
they do their own work ; but on the other side they were thankful 
to me that I had called them, and counselled them in a work so 
needful for them, whereto I replyed, I was very glad to see them so 
ingenuous. 

This businesse of praying to God (for that is their general name 
of Religion) hath hitherto found opposition only from the Pawwawes 
and profane spirits ; but now the Lord hath exercised us with an- 
other and a greater opposition ; for the Sachems of the Country are 
generally set against us, and counter-work the Lord by keeping off 
their men from praying to God as much as they can ; And the reason 
of it is this, They plainly see that Religion will make a great change 
among them, and cut them off from their former tyranny ; for they 
used to hold their people in an absolute servitude, insomuch as what 
ever thej^ had, and themselves too were at his command ', his lan- 
guage was, as one said, (omne meura ;) now they see that Religion 
teaches otherwise, and puts a bridle upon such usurpations ; Besides 
their former manner was, that if they wanted money, or if they de- 
sire any thing from a man, they would take occasion to rage and be 
in a great anger ; which when they [p. 38.] did perceive, they 
would give him all they had to pacifie him ; for else their way was 
to suborne some villain (of which they have no lack) to finde some 
opportunity to kill him ; This keeps them in great awe of their 
Sachems, and is one reason why none of them desire any wealth, 
only from hand to mouth, because they are but servants, and they 
get it not for themselves ; But now if their Sachem so rage, and 
give sharp and cruell language, instead of seeking his favour with 
gifts (as formerly) they will admonish him of his sinne ; tell him 
that is not the right way to get money ; but he must labour, and 
then he may have money, that is Gods command, &c. And as for 
Tribute, some they are willing to pay, but not as formerly. Now 
these are great temptations to the Sachems, and they had need of a 
good measure both of wisdome and grace to swallow this Pill, and 
it hath set them quite off; And I suppose that hence it is, that (I 
having requested the Court of Commissioners for a general way to 
be thought of to instruct all the Indians in all parts, and I told the 
Indians that I did so, which they would soon spread ; and still in 
my prayers, I pray for the Moaohegens, Narragansets, fyc.) the 



140 A farther Discovery of the present state 

Monohegen Indians were much troubled lest the Court of Commis- 
sioners should take some course to teach them to pray to God ; and 
Unkus their Sachem went to Hartford this Court (for there they 
sate) and expressed to Elder Goodwin his feare of such a thing, 
and manifested a great unwillingnesse thereunto ; this one of our 
Commissioners told me at his coming home. 

This temptation hath much troubled Cntshamoquin our Sachem, 
and he was raised in his spirit to such an height, that at a meeting 
after Lecture, he openly contested with me against our proceeding 
to make a Town ; and plainly told me that all the Sachems in the 
Countrey were against it, he. When he did so carry himself, all the 
Indians were filled with fear, their countenances grew pale, and most of 
them slunk away, a few stayed, and I was alone, not any English man 
with me ; But it pleased God (for it was his guidance of me, and 
assistance) to raise up my spirit, not to passion, but to a bold resolu- 
tion, telling him it was Gods work I was about, and he was with 
me, and I feared not him, nor all the Sachems in the Country, and I 
was resolved to go on do what they can, and they nor he should 
hinder that which I had begun, he. And it pleased God that his 
spirit shrunk and fell before me, which when those Indians that tar- 
ried saw, they smiled as they durst, out of his [p. 39.] sight, and 
have been much strengthned ever since ; and since I understand 
that in such conflicts their manner is, that they account him that 
shrinks to be conquered, and the other to conquer ; which alas I 
knew not, nor did I aime at such a matter, but the Lord carried me 
beyond my thoughts and wont ; after this brunt was over, I took my 
leave to go home, and Cutshamoquin went a little way with me, and 
told me that the reason of this trouble was, because the Indians 
that pray to God, since they have so done, do not pay him tribute 
as formerly they have done ; I answered him that once before when 
I heard of his complaint that way, I preached on that text, Give 
unto Ccesar what is Ccesars and unto God what is Gods ; and also 
on Rom. 13. naming him the matter of the texts (not the places of 
which he is ignorant.) But he said its true, I taught them well, but 
they would not in that point do as I taught them ; And further he 
said, this thing are all the Sachems sensible of, and therefore set 
themselves against praying to God ; and then I was troubled, lest 
(if they should be sinfully unjust) they should both hinder and 
blemish the Gospel and Religion ; I did therefore consult with the 
Magistrates and Mr. Cotton and other Elders ; Mr. Cottons text 
by Gods providence, the next Lecture gave him occasion to speak 
to it, which I fore-knowing advised some that understood English 
best, to be there ; and partly by what they heard, and by what I had 
preached to the like purpose, and told them what Mr. Cotton said, 
&lc. they were troubled, and fell to reckon up what they had done 
in two yeers past, a few of them that lived at one of the places I 



of the Indians in New-England. 141 

preached unto ; I took down the particulars in writing, as followeth. 
At one time they gave him twenty bushels of come, at another time 
more than sixe bushels ; two hunting dayes they killed him fifteen 
Deeres ; they brake up for him two Acres of Land, they made for 
him a great house or Wigwam, they made twenty rod of fence for 
him, with a Ditch and two Railes about it, they paid a debt for him 
of 3. li. 10. s. only some others were contributors in this money ; 
one of them gave him a skin of Beaver of two pound, at his returne 
from building, besides many dayes works in planting corne altogether, 
and some severally ; yea they said they would willingly do more if 
they would govern well by justice, and as the word of God taught 
them ; when I heard all this, I wondred, for this cometh to neere 
30. li. and was done by a few, and they thought it not much if he 
had carried matters better ; and yet his complaint was, they do 
nothing ; [p. 40.] But the bottome of it lieth here, he formerly had 
all or what he would ; now he hath but what they will ; and admo- 
nitions also to rule better, and he is provoked by other Sachems, and 
ill counsel, not to suffer this, and yet doth not know how to help it ; 
hence arise his tentations, in which I do very much pity him. Hav- 
ing all this information what they had done, and how causelesse his 
complaint and discontent was, 1 thought it a difficult thing to ease 
his spirit, and yet clear and justifie the people, which I was to en- 
deavour the next day of our meeting after the former contestations, 
therefore I was willing to get some body with me ; And by Gods 
providence, Elder Heath went with me, and when we came there, 
we found him very full of discontent, sighing, sower looks, &c. but 
we took no notice of it. 

I preached that day out of the fourth of Matthew, the temptations 
of Christ; and when I came at that temptation, of the Devils show- 
ing Christ the kingdomes and glories of the world, thereby to tempt 
him from the service of God, to the service of the Devill ; I did 
apply it wholly to his case, shewing him the Devill was now tempting 
him, as he tempted Christ ; and Sathan sheweth him all the delights 
and dignities, and gifts and greatnesse that he was wont to have in 
their sinfull way ; Satan also tels him he shall lose them all if he 
pray to God, but if he will give over praying to God he shall have 
them all again ; then I shewed him how Christ rejected that temp- 
tation, and exhorted him to reject it also, for either he must reject 
the temptation, or else he will reject praying to God ; if he should 
reject praying to God, God would reject him. 

After our exercise was ended, we had conference of the matter, 
and we gave him the best counsel we could (as the Lord was pleased 
to assist) and when we had done, Elder Heath his observation of 
him was, that there was a great change in him, his spirit was very 
much lightned, and it much appeared both in his countenance and 
carriage, and he hath carried all things fairly ever since. 



142 A farther Discovery of the present state 

But the temptation still doth work strongly, in the Countrey, the 
Sachems opposing any that desire to submit themselves to the ser- 
vice of the Lord, as appeareth sundry wayes ; some that began to 
listen, are gone quite back ; I meane Sachems and some people that 
have a mind to it, are kept back ; this last Lecture day one came in 
and submitted himself to call on God, and said he had been kept 
back this half yeer by opposition, but now at last the Lord hath 
helped and emboldned him to break through all opposition. 

[p. 41.] Thus Sathan seeketh to beat off these poore creatures 
from seeking after the Lord by opposing the highest powers they 
have against the Lord and this work of his, knowing that the light 
of the Gospel and kingdome of Jesus Christ (if it once get footing) 
will scatter and dissipate that darknesse whereby his kingdome is 
maintained ; But I beleeve verily that the Lord will bring great good 
out of all these oppositions, nay I see it already, (though I see not 
all, 1 beleeve more then 1 can see ; you who can know the thoughts 
of Gods love to his people, it is yet a secret) but this I see, that by 
this opposition the wicked are kept off from us, and from thrusting 
themselves into our society, at least sundry are, who else might 
croud in among us and trouble us ; besides it is become some tryall 
now, to come into our company and call upon God ; for besides the 
forsaking of their Pau-waus, (which was the first tryall) and their 
old barbarous fashions and liberty to all sinne, and some of their 
friends and kindred, he. Now this is added, they incurre the dis- 
pleasure of their Sachems, all which put together, it cannot but 
appear there is some work of God upon their hearts, which doth 
carry them through all these snares, and adde to this, that if upon 
some competent time of experience, we shall finde them to grow in 
knowledge of the principles of Religion, and to love the wayes of 
the Lord the better, according as they come to understand them, 
and to yeeld obedience to them, and submit to this great change, to 
bridle lust by lavves of chastity, and to mortifie idlenesse by labour, 
and desire to traine up their children accordingly ; I say if we shall 
see these things in some measure in them, what should hinder char- 
ity from hoping that there is grace in their hearts, a spark kindled 
by the Word and Spirit of God that shall never be quenched ; and 
were these in a fixed cohabitation, who could gain-say their gather- 
ing together into a holy Church-Covenant and election of Officers ? 
and who can forbid that they should be baptized ? And I am per- 
swaded that there be sundry such among them, whom the Lord will 
vouchsafe so far to favour and shine upon, that they shall become a 
Church, and a Spouse of Jesus Christ, and among whom the pure 
and holy Kingdome of Christ shall arise, and over whom Christ 
shall reigne, ruling them in all things by his holy word. 

But though this trouble and opposition is turned (and shall be 
more) unto a spiritual gaine, yet it behoveth us not to be secure, 



of the Indians in New-England. 143 

and regardless^ of our safety ; for if the Adversary should discerne 
[p. 42.] us naked and weak, and see an opportunity, who knoweth 
what their rage and Sathans malice may stirre them up unto to work 
us a mischief? Nay, it is our duty to be vigilant, and fortifie our 
selves the best we can, thereby to put the enemy out of hope to 
hurt us, and to prevent them from attempting any evill against us, if 
it be the will of God ; and to that end we purpose (if the Lord will) 
to make a strong Palizado (wanting means of doing better) and if 
we cannot get any Guns, Powder, Shot, Swords, he. we will make 
us Slings, Bowes, and other Engines, the best the Lord will please 
to direct us for our safety ; and when we have used the best meanes 
we can, I hope the Lord will help us to trust in his great name, to 
make that our strong Tower to flie unto. 

I see the Lord delighteth to appear himself in the work, and will 
have us content our selves with little, low, poor things, that all the 
power and praise may be given to his great name ; Our work in 
civilizing them will go on the more slowly for want of tools ; for 
though I have bought a few for them, we can do but little, for alas 
afew will set but afew on work, and they be very dear too ; had I 
store of hoes this Autumne either to lend them or sell them at mo- 
derate prizes, we should prepare (by Gods blessing) good store of 
ground for corne against next yeere ; and had I wherewith to buy 
corne to carry up to the place, and have it in a readinesse to supply 
them, that so they might tarry at their work, and not be shut off 
through necessity to go get food, that also would be a great further- 
ance ; and had we but means to maintaine a discreet diligent man 
to work with them, and guide them in work, that also would much 
further the work ; and many such things 1 could propound as very 
requisite unto the work, but I lay my hand upon my mouth, I will 
say no more, I have left it with the Lord, who hath hitherto appear- 
ed, and he will appear for his own eternal praise in shining upon the 
day of our smal tilings in his due season. 

The blessing of God upon this work doth comfortably, hopefuly, 
& successefuly, appear in the labours of my brother Mahu at Mar- 
tins Vineyard, insomuch that I hope they also will be after awhile 
ripe for this work of Civility and Cohabitation, if once they see a 
successeful pattern of it, and I doubt not but they will (as these do) 
ere long, desire Church-fellowship, and the Ordinances of Gods 
worship ; the cloud increaseth, and the Lord seemeth to be coming 
in among them ; they are very desirous to have their children taught, 
which is one argument that they truly love the knowledge of God ; 
[p. 43.] as on the contrary, it is a great ground of doubt of the 
truth of grace in that mans heart, when he hath not an heart to take 
care to traine up his children in the truth and in the practise of all 
godiinesse, but this care is in them, and it is pity it should not be 
furthered by all meanes ; I have intreated a woman living neer where 



144 S. farther Discovery of the present state 

they dwell, to do that office for their children, and I pay her for it ; 
but when they go to their plantation, we shall be in a streight for 
help that way ; the Indians so well like the parties who performetli 
that service, that they intreat them to go with them, which 1 look at 
as a finger of God ; they are 1 hope a godly couple, and might be 
a blessing to them, had we meanes to encourage them unto so diffi- 
cult an enterprize, for it is a great matter to go and live among such 
a people ; but in that case also, I look up to the Lord, and leave it 
with his holy care and wisdome ; and if the Lord move any hearts 
to help in this work, I desire thai the care of their schooling may be 
among the chiefest cares. 

If the Lord please to prosper our poor beginnings, my purpose is, 
(so far as the Lord shal enable me to give attendance unto the work) 
to have schoole exercises for all the men by daily instructing of them 
to read and write, he. Yea if the Lord affords us fit instruments, 
my desire is, that all the women may be taught to read ; I know the 
matter will be difficult every way, for English people can only teach 
them to read English ; and for their own Language we have no 
book ; my desire therefore is to teach them all to write, and read 
written hand, and thereby with pains taking, they may have some 
of the Scriptures in their own Language ; I have one already who 
can write, so that I can read his writing well, and he (with some 
paines and teaching) can read mine ; I hope the Lord will both 
inlarge his understanding, and others also to do as he doth ; and if 
once I had some of themselves able to spell aright, write and read, 
it might further the work exceedingly, and will be the speediest 
way. 

Sir, When I had gone thus farre in my Letters, by a Ship that 
came in, you wrote unto our Governour touching the two Libraries, 
my brother Welds and Mr. Jenners, and of the willingnesse of the 
Corporation to discharge for them, for which cause Ido humbly 
thank the Worshipful Corporation, all the Christian and much re- 
spected Gentlemen my loving friends. And Sir, I thank you for 
all your faithful pains in this work, and the more I am obliged there- 
unto, because herein I am like to partake of the fruit of your labours, 
[p. 44.] the Lord Jesus give you a full reward. 

Whereas you require the Catalogue of both Libraries, it shall be 
done (if God will) but I am to go into the Countrey to the Indians 
now, and have much businesse, therefore know not whether I can 
do it by this Ship, if I can I will. 

This last Court of Commissioners sate at Hartford Conecticot, so 
that I could not speak with them, but this course 1 took by our Gov- 
ernours advice ; our General Court gave him, with some other, 
power to give instructions to our Commissioners ; therefore all my 
requests 1 did write unto him, and he gave them in his Instructions 
to our Commissioners, so they went strong. 



of the Indians in New-England. 145 

Sir, 
I have done at present, Mr. Whitfield will informe you farther in 
any particulars if need be : The Lord of heaven blesse and assist 
you in all your wayes, and I beg your prayers for me still, and so 
rest. 



Roxbury this 21 ) ^ A 
of the 8th. 5 &U 



Yours in our Lord Jesus. 
John Eliot. 



The Conclusion. 

ANd now (loving Reader) having brought thee along through 
these Divine dispensations of Gods merciful dealing with the 
Indians, I shall briefly acquaint thee with the workings of my own 
thoughts under the apprehension of these things. 

First, I see plainly the fulfilling of that Divine truth and pro- 
mise spoken of by David, PsaL 138. 2. Thou hast mag- 
nified thy Word above all thy Name, i. e. The Word in Vi f n *™ w ' 
the Gospel brought and preached to men. The Lord 
hath made this Word the only outward instrumental means to 
bring home these ivandring sinners ; to this Word they have at- 
tended from the first ; from this they have received their light ; 
unto this they have given up themselves ; without this they will 
not stirre ; from this they will not depart ; from hence they have 
their peace, and have seen good dayes under the Kingdome of our 
Lord Christ. 

Secondly, the Lord hath now declared one great end he had of 
sending [p. 45.] many of his people to those ends of 
the earth ; for besides that the Lord hath made that 
Land a place of rest, and a little sanctuary to them in these trou- 
bleous times, and hath made it a place where many, very many 
have been brought home to Christ, even amongst themselves ; so 
now apparently in the conversion of many of the Heathens, who 
sing and rejoyce in the wayes of the Lord. 

Thi dly when I looked on my dear native Country (in the 
buike and masse of them) there is one above doth know, that my 
heart melteth towards it, desiring the Lord to give me grace to 
sorrow in secret for millions of them, who were never yet acquaint- 
ed with what many of these poore Indians have felt and found of 
the things of Christ, and that multitudes of such woh hold forth a 
profession of Christian Religion, yet fall short of them, in regard 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 19 



146 A farther Discovery of the present state 

of their belief and practise. Here I helped my self by comparing 
the one with the other, and that in divers particulars. 

1. These Indians are found (to speak of such whose hearts the 
Lord hath opened by his Word and Spirit) to prize Ordinances, 
and such as bring the Light to them, even that poor Indian, whose 
best clothing is a simple skin about him, of whom you read in the 

first Letter, yet they honour him for his works sake, and for those 
gifts, piety, and modesty they see in him ; Here Ministers of Christ 
are despised, though many of them are eminent for parts, wisdome, 
and known integrity. 

2. These Indians are plain-hearted seek for Christ to enjoy 
him for himself', they receive the Truth in the love of it, and obey 
it without shifting or gain-saying ; Here men have their own ends 
to tend to in matter of Religion, take up the forme, and let the 
power lie, as not serving their turn, have evasions to get from under 
the authority xf the truth, and the Majesty of the Rules of Christ ; 
here is rending and tearing of wits, whilst we wrangle one another 
out of the truth, till love and peace be lost. 

3. These Indians are industrious and pursue the things of their 
salvation, rest they cannot, have it they must, what ever it cost 
them, bearing up strongly against all opposition : We have weak 
and bed-rid dispositions, sunk doivn into a sottish and sensuall 
way ; in many the kingdome of Hell suffers violence, and none can 
withstand them, but thither they will. 

4. These mourn and weep bitterly, and are pained under the 
sight and sense of their sins, when convinced of them ; that some 
of them have been known to have wet with their teares the places 
where they have [p. 46.] stood. We here for the most part, the 
Lord knowes, live with dry eyes, and hard hearts, and sleight 
spirits. 

5. They are careful and constant in duties of worship, both in 
private and family prayer, hearing the Word, observation of the 
Sabbath, meet often together, and will pray together as occasion 
serves, converse lovingly together, are teachable, patient, and con- 
tented. O that there were such hearts in us ! O that their exam- 
ple did not shame multitudes of us who are fearfully guilty of 
omitting what the very light of nature calls for from us I For this 
my heart is sad, fearing that if the Lord do not mightily step in, 
the next generation will be betrayed to Ignorance of the Truth as 
it is in Jesus, to Delusions and Profanenesse, and be rendered 
odious to all our neighbour Nations ; and that these Indians will 
rise up in judgment against us and our children at the last day. 
Brethren, the Lord hath no need of us, but if it please him, can 
carry his Gospel to the other side of the world, and make it there 



of the Indians in New-England. 147 

to shine forth in its glory, brightnesse, power and purity, and- 
leave us in Indian darknesse. 

And concerning these Indians, who have tasted how gracious 
the Lord, is, though it cannot be expected but that the Devil should 
be like himself, by the counter-working of this blessed work, both 
by himself and his instruments, so as to cause many of them to 
totter, back slide, and fall away from what they have professed ; 
yet I have ground to conceive and hope, that there is such a candle 
lighted amongst the Indians in those parts which shall not be put 
out till Christ comes to judgment, for the accomplishment of which 
he shall not cease to pray, who is 



Your loving friend in 
all Christian duties. 

Henry Whitfeld. 



FINIS. 



STRENGTH 

O UT OF 

WE AKNESSE; 

Or a Glorious 

MANIFESTATION 

Of the further Progresse of 

the Gospel among the Indians I 
in New-England. 

Held forth in Sundry Letters 

from divers Ministers and others to the 

Corporation established by Parliament for 
promoting the Gospel among the Hea- 
then in New-England; and to particular 
Members thereof since the last Trea- 
tise to that effect, Published by 
Mr. Henri/ Whitfield late Pastor 
of Gilford in New-England. 

Cant. 8. 8. 
Wee have a little Sister, and she hath no breasts : what 
shall we doe for our Sister, in the day that she shall 
be spoken for? 

LONDON; 

Printed by M. Simmons for John Blague and 

Samuel Howes, and are to be sold at their 
Shop in Popes-Head- Alley. 16 5 2. 



TO THE 

SUPREAME AUTHORITIE 

OF THIS NATION, 

The Parliament of the Common- 

Wealth of En gland. 



THat the Fathers joy at the returning of a Spend-thrift 
Sonne, ought to have an influence upon the whole 
Family of Heaven and Earth, that is called after his name, 
to worke their suitable affections, and conformity to him- 
selfe, cannot be questioned by any true childe thereof. 
Behold then, Right Honourable, a call thereunto, Poore 
Prodigalls, who have not only with our selves lost that 
rich Treasure of grace and holinesse, wherewith in our 
Common roote and Fountaine we were entrusted, but 
also in a course of Rebellion for many Generations 
wasted the remainder of Natures Riches to the utmost 
degeneracy that an Immortall rationall being is obnox- 
ious unto, not returning a farre off, but rejoycing in the 
imbraces of their Father, and enterteined with his flesh 
and bloud, who was slaine and sacrificed for them. 

The ayme of our walking with God here is to come up 
to some conformitie to them, who behold his face and doe 
his Will in Heaven : amongst them there is joy at the 
Repentance of one Sinner, and shall not wee finde sweet- 
nesse in the first fruits of a barren Wildernesse in the 



152 The Epistle Dedicatorie. 

shining of a beame of light into the darknesse of another 
World, giving hope of a plentifull harvest, and a glorious 
day to ensue. Let men take heed, lest by despising the 
day, and opposing the Worke of the Lord towards those 
poore Sonnes of Mam, notwithstanding all their zealous 
profession, they proclaime themselves to pursue a Carnall 
Interest ; by which they declare the enlargement of the 
Dominion of Jesus Christ is of no Concernment unto 
them. 

Wee are by many Pledges assured better things of you 
Right Honourable, and such as accompany zeale for the 
House of our God, and therefore the ensuing Testimo- 
nialls of the progresse of the Worke of the Gospel being 
sent unto us, wee make bold humbly to present them 
to you ; partly that we may invite you as the friends of 
Jesus Christ, to rejoyce with him that some sheepe of his, 
who were lost, are found ; and partly to lay before you, 
some such fruits of the putting forth of your Authoritie 
for the carrying on this most glorious undertaking, as may 
encourage you to goe on through him who doth enable 
you unto future reall expressions of your love and zeale 
thereunto. Wee shall not need to draw forth any par- 
ticulars from the ensuing Narrative, to give you a taste of 
that Spirit whereinto these poore Creatures are sweetly 
baptized ; Wee hope your delight in the Worke of God 
will inforce a leasure, to view the whole, this in Generall 
wee may say, that in the Wildernesse are waters broken 
out, and streames in the Desert, the parched ground is 
become a Poole, and the thirsty Land-springs of water 
in the Habitation of Dragons, where each lay, there is 
grasse with Reeds and Rushes, the Lord hath powred 
water upon him that is thirstie, and flouds upon the dry 
ground ; He hath powred his Spirit on the seeds of the 
Heathen, &, his blessing on their Off-spring, they spring 
up as among the grasse, as willowes by the water-courses : 
One saves I am the Lords, and another calls himselfe by 
the name of Jacob, and another subscribes with his hand 
unto the Lord, and sirnames himselfe by the name of 
Israel. The Lord hath done a new thing, and wee know 



The Epistle Dedicatory. 153 

it, he hath made a way in the Wildernesse, and Rivers in 
the Desert, the beast of the field doth honour him, the 
Dragons, and the Owles because he gives waters in the 
Wildernes, and Rivers in the Desert, to give drinke to 
his People his chosen, so that upon the Report heere 
read unto us, wee cannot but glorifie God with those 
Primitive beleevers of old, and say, then hath God also 
to the poore naked Indians granted Repentance unto life. 
Their outward wants and streights have often been pre- 
sented unto you ; wee shall not need to repeate them, 
blessed be the Lord, and blessed be you of the Lord that 
your hearts have been stirred up to give encouragement 
unto this Worke, and to open a Doore for the reliefe of 
those Eminent Instruments in the hand of the Lord who 
carry it on, who though they communicate to them Spi- 
rituals, yet are so farre from receiving of their Tempo- 
ralis, that they impart unto them a Portion of their owne 
dayly bread, and provision necessary from their owne 
subsistence. 

The good Lord lay the weight and concernment of this 
Worke upon your Spirits, and wee no way doubt that you 
will in any way be wanting to the Publique improvement 
of this blessed opportunitie, for the enlargement of the 
Kingdome of him whom our Soules doe love : There is 
a vexation of spirit, which through their formalitie and 
unbeliefe, hath encompassed many Professors, that where- 
as they have with much seeming earnestnes cryed out 
for mercies ; when they have been bestowed, they have 
thought scorne of them : so did the Jewes in the busines 
of their Messias, and many at this day amongst our selves 
in the great Workes of the Provinces of God : It is so 
with some to this breaking forth of light amongst the In- 
dians, desiring it before it began, despising it in its very 
beginnings, the Lord lay it not unto their charge, and 
keep all our spirits in an holy admiration and reverence 
of the powerfull efficacy oi his eternall and unchangeable 
purposes, which through so many sinfull Generations 
(falling in their Rebellion) have preserved a seed to him- 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 20 



154 The Epistle Dedicatorie. 

selfe, whereof he will take care that one graine fall not 
to the Ground. 



Your Honors humble Servants ; 

John Owen. Tho : Goodwin. 

Joseph Caryl. Sidrach Simpson. 

Will: Greenhill. Phillip Nye. 

William Bridge. William Strong. 

William Carter. Henry Whitfield. 

George Griffith. Ralph Venning. 



To the Reader. 
Christian Reader ; 

THese ensuing Letters doe represent unto thee, and 
to the Churches, the outgoings of Christ, as a Light 
to the Gentiles, that the grace which brings salvation hath 
appeared unto them also in the furthest parts of the Earth, 
for the accomplishment of that ancient and glorious Pro- 
mise ; / will give thee for a Light to the Gentiles, that 
thou matfst he my Salvation to the Ends of the Earth, 
(Isa. 49. 6.) The People of God have been greatly af- 
fected with the appearances of Christ, when he hath rode 
forth upon a red Horse to the destruction of his Enemies ; 
for he is glorious in his Apparell, even when his garments 
are dipt in hloud, but much more when he rides forth 
upon a white Horse, for the Conversion of Soules, and 
goes on Conquering and to Conquer, 

Wee have therefore thought fit to commend this great 
worke of Christ unto the view of all the Saints, under 
these following Considerations. 

First, Hereby the Kingdome of Christ is enlarged, and 
the promise made unto him in the Covenant Srma diaboli 
between him and his Father accomplished, his henteserant; 
Dominion shall be from Sea to Sea, and from^m^ZerT' 
the floud unto the Worlds end, therefore his *"*> ™P ut q™ d 
designe is upon ail the Kmgdomes oi the Earth, Amb. in p sa i. 
that he may take possession of them for him- 118 - 
selfe, they shall all become the Kingdomes of the Lord and 
of his Christ, Revel. 11. 15. And the Kingdome and 
Dominion under the whole Heaven, being so possessed 
by Christ, shall be given to the Saints of the most High, 
Dan. 7. 18. Our prayer is, Thy Kingdome come, to see 
the promise made unto Christ fulfilled, and the Prayers of 



156 To the Christian Reader. 

the Saints answered, should be matter of great rejoycing 
unto us, and of high Praises unto God. 

Secondly, The glorious Gospel of Christ is hereby 
Propagated, which is the Scepter of his Kingdome, the 
Rod of his Power, which wee pray may run and he glo- 
rified. And when we consider, by how many (even 
amongst us) the Gospel is rejected, for men reject the 
Councell of God against themselves : by how 

1 cor. i6.'9. many it is resisted, for there are many adversa- 
fartitanfi- r ^ anc j j^y \ i0W m any the Gospel is perverted, 

2 rim. 2. 25. being made another Gospel, by strange Inter- 
hpfuxoi, ™ pretations ; one of the ereat acts of Sacriledge 
pUm xki*- of our times, stealing the sence of the Scrip- 
rovns. Nazian. ture f rom fa e words of the Scripture. Now 

to see the Gospel lifted up as an Ensigne to the Nations, 
and they to flow unto it, should be matter of great rejoyc- 
ing to the soules of those who love the Gospel in sin- 
ceritie. 

Thirdly^ Hereby the soules of men are rescued out of the 
snare of the Devill, in which they were before held cap- 
tive at his will ; The Lord hath manifested that there 
is a seed according to the Election of grace, even amongst 
these also as well as other Gentiles, that the Lord hath 
visited them to take out of them a people for his Name, 
yea that even they who in a more immediate manner 
among them worshipped the Devill, their Witches call'd 
in their language Pawwawcs, that even these should be 
deliver'd, Satan falling from Heaven like lightning before 
the Gospel, should greatly exalt free grace in our hearts ; 
the great Love of God, is Love to Soules, and our ten- 
derest compassion should be manifested in pittying of 
Soules, neither know wee any other ordinary way that 
the Lord has appointed but the preaching of the Gospel 
for the winning of Soules to himselfe : That being the 
Power of God to Salvation. 

Fourthly, Hereby the fullnes of the Gentils draws 
neere to be accomplished, that the calling of the Jewes 
may be hastned : the Scripture speaks of a double 
conversion of the Gentiles, the first before the conver- 



To the Christian Reader. 157 

sion of the Jews, they being Branches wilde by nature 
grafted into the True Olive Tree in stead of the naturall 
Branches which are broken off. This fnllnes of the 
Gentiles shall come in before the conversion of the 
Jewes, and till then blindnes hath hapned unto Israel, 
Rom. 11. 25. The second, after the conver- 
sion of the Jewes, as appeares Act. 15. 16, 17. cant.™ T. " 
After this I will returne and ivill build againe ^ ede 7 in A g° c - 
the Tabernacle of David which is fallen down, 
and I will build againe the ruines thereof and I will set it 
up ; that the residue of men might seek after the Lord, 
and all the Gentiles upon whom my JYame is called sayth 
the Lord, Hence it appears that there are some Gen- 
tiles, upon whom the Lords Name is called that are a 
people to him, even whilst the Tabernacle of David lyes 
in its ruines ; and when he hath built againe this Taber- 
nacle of David, that there are a residue of men, the re- 
mainder of the Gentiles that shall enquire after the 
Lord, and worship him, together with those Gentiles 
that were formerly converted, and upon whom his Name 
was called. The first conversion of the Gentiles in its 
fulnesse makes way for the coming in of the Jewes, the 
King of the East, therefore to see this worke goe on, 
should cause the people of God to lift up their heads, 
and expect that the time of the fullfilling that Promise 
is neere. 

Fifthly, That the Lord hath blessed the labours of our 
Brethren, who were driven out from among us : A gra- 
cious heart as he prayes for, so he cannot but rejoyce 
in the successe of other mens labours as well as his 
owne, so the worke which is Gods may prosper, who 
ever be the Instrument, 'tis enough to him. When 
Peter gave an account to the Apostles and Brethren of 
the Conversion of Cornelius and his family, who were, 
as it were the first fruits of the Gentiles, they all glori- 
fied God, saying ; Then hath God also to the Gentiles 
granted Repentance unto life, Act. 11. 18. And if they 
could rejoyce in the Conversion of the Gentiles which 



1 58 To the Christian Reader. 

they knew would be with the rejection of the Jewes, 
how much more should wee rejoyce in this great worke, 
who may grow together upon the same good Olive 
Tree ! That when other Nations who have planted in 
those furthest parts of the Earth, have onely sought 
their owne advantage to possesse their Land, Transport 
their gold, and that with so much covetousnesse and 
cruelty, that they have made the name of Christianitie 
and of Christ an abomination, that the Lord should be 
pleased to make use of our Brethren that went forth 
from us to make manifest the savour of Christ among 
the people, and to winne their soules to him ; How 
should wee rejoyce that the Lord hath so farre pros- 
per'd such an undertaking. It was a holy ambition in 
Paul to preach the Gospel where Christ teas not named, 
that he might not glory in another mans line : It is cer- 
tainly a great honour to be Instrumentall to bring soules 
to Christ, who before never heard of his Name. 

Sixthly, This wee hope may be but the first fruits of 
those great Nations unto Christ, the Lord doth not usu- 
ally cause to bring forth and then shut the ivombe, Isa. 66. 
9. Let no man despise the day of small things, the 
Lord hath opened a great doore, which we hope Satan 
shall never be able any more to shut. 

Such Considerations as these, have filled and affected 
our hearts, in the reading and meditation of this great 
worke of the Lord, and wee hope being communicated, 
may be a good means to awaken the godly and faithfull 
of this Nation, to observe the Presence and appear- 
ances of God amongst his people there, that wee also 
may say ; What shall we doe for our Sister in the day 
that shee shall be spoken for ? Shall we not be abundant 
in Prayer, that the Lord would yet further blesse their 
holy endevours ? Shall wee not labour to strengthen 
their hands by ministering to them of our aboundance ? 
that they may not be discouraged in so eminent a ser- 
vice, one of the greatest workes that hath been upon 
the wheele in this latter age, for to Contribute to the 



To the Christian Reader 



159 



offering up of Soules to Christ, must needs be a Sa- 
crifice of a very sweet smelling savour unto God. This 
wee humbly offer unto all those that love the Lord 
Jesus in sinceritie, and remaine 



Thine in the furtherance of the Gospel. 



William Gouge. 
Tho: Goodwin. 
Lazarus Seaman. 
John Owen. 
Edm: Calamy. 
Joseph Caryl. 
Jer: Whittaker. 
Will: GreenhilL 
George Griffith. 



Henry Whitfield. 
Will: Spur stoic. 
William Mridge. 
Simeon Jlshe. 
Sidrach Simpson. 
William Strong. 
Phillip JYye. 
William Carter. 
Ralph Venning. 



STRENGTH 

O UT OF 

WEAKNESSE; 

Or a Glorious 

MANIFESTATION 

Of the further Progresse of 

the Gospel among the Indians 

in New-England. 

AS every worke of God tending to the rescuing of 
deluded Soules out of the snares of the Devill, so 
even this Glorious worke of Gods grace hath met with 
matty discouragements by various kinds of objections cast 
abroad by divers sorts of people, and even by some that 
came from New-England it selfe,who having lived remote 
from the worke done, and either not affecting the instru- 
ments therein imployed, or not going to the places of their 
Exercise, that they might see and heare the gracious oper- 
ations of the Spirit of God amongst them, may easily mis- 
report the proceedings of Gods goodnesse therein. Yet 
neverthelesse God having called us to be exercised in a 
worke of this Nature, wherein his Glory and the Salvation 
of so many of the lost sonnes of Adam are concerned ; 
wee have taken up a Resolution by his gracious Assistance 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 21 



162 

to improve the power and trust by Authoritie of Parlia- 
ment committed to us to the utmost, hast it be laid to our 
Account amongst others the obstructors of it in the great 
day of the Lord. 

But as wee meete ivith discouragements, so, through mer- 
cy, we are not without incouragements of many sorts, Viz. 

1. This worke of Gods grace growes in New-England, 
not onely in the places where the Gospel was formerly 
preached to the Indians ; But God hath stirred up two 
Eminent Ministers in two other parts of the Countrey, to 
labour in the worke, not without successe answerable ; as 
Mr. William Leveridge neere Sandwich in the Govern- 
ment o/*New Plymouth, sixtie miles from the place where 
Mr. Eliot teacheth, and Mr. Richard Blindman at Pecoat, 
a place formerly subdued by the English, and is a place 
about the same distance from Sandwich another way, an 
account whereof you will have in the following Treatise. 

2. Where the Act of Parliament for the Collection 
meets with Gospel-spirited Ministers and people, there wee 
finde a good account of it comparatively ; God having 
stirred up the hearts of some Eminent Christians to con- 
tribute in a considerable manner ; Some by charging their 
Lands with a y ear ely Revenue to the Corporation for that 
end for ever : and others by sending in good summes of 
money, subscribing to pay yearely so much whilst they live. 
And one Gentleman (leaving two sonnes of tender age) 
having appointed by his Will, in case they dye without 
issue, that an estate of two hundred pound per annum, 
should be setled upon the Corporation for ever, and the 
rest of his estate for the like uses in the foure JYortherne 
Counties of England. 

3. That God hath wrought a resolution in us of the 
Corporation {wherein wee trust hee will inable us to per- 
sist (viz.) to contribute our labour and paines freely to 
this worke, without the least diminution of the Slocke. 
And if any desire to be satisfied what our receipts, dis- 
bursements, or manner of proceedings are, our Bookes are 
open at Coopers Hall, London, betweene the houres of 
Tenne and Twelve every Saturday, where they may with- 



163 

out offence see what is given, and by whom, when brought 
in, and how imployed or improved. 

'Tis very strange to see what a multitude of objections 
are darted against this pure piece of Christianitie, yea by 
some, whom otherwise wee have charitable thoughts of, and 
how exceedingly the worke is impeded thereby, and how- 
ever through mercy wee are able to answer every one of 
them sufficiently, yet wee forbear e to particularize them, 
least wee should reflect too much on some, our Conscien- 
ces telling us, that as the worke is of God, and really such 
as is held forth, so he onely can satisfie the spirits of Men, 
and will doe it in due season, and in the meane time blesse 
his owne worke being able to carry it on, who delighteth 
oft times in small meanes, that his gracious operations 
may the more be seene. s 

This is the fifth Treatise hath been published to the 
world in this kinde (but the first by the Corporation) eve- 
ry one of them exceeding each other, wherein a most appa- 
rant growth and pro gr esse doth appear e amongst the poor e 
JYatives. 

That ivee have now to offer to the publique view is a 
farther account of that living, growing, spreading power 
of Godlinesse amongst them. And first wee shall begin 
with some remarkeable passages of divine providence in a 
Letter received from Mr. John Eliot (ivho was the first 
Minister the Lord s tirred up to promote this worke) bear- 
ing date the 28 th of April 1651. to one of our selves. 



[p i ] Much Honored and 

Beloved in Christ. 



THe Providence ofGoD giving this unexpected opporlunitie of 
sending, I thought it my duty not to omit it, that so the Saints 
and people of God with you, especially your selfe, with the rest of 
the Worshipfnll Corporation, might understand the progresse and 
present state of this worke of the Lord among the Indians, for wee 
meete with changes of providence and tryalls in this our day of 
small things. It hath pleased the Lord to try them, so soone as they 
have but tasted of his holy wayes. For our natures cannot live 
without Physicke, nor grace without affliction, more or lesse, sooner 
or later. The winter before this last past it pleased God to worke 
wonderfully for the Indians, who call upon God in preserving them 
from the small Pox, when their prophane Neighbours were cut off 
by it. This winter it hath pleased God to make lesse difference, 
for some of ours were also visited with that disease, yet this the 
Lord bath done for them, that fewer of them have dyed thereof, 
then of others who call not upon the Lord. Onely three dyed of 
it, (but five more young and old) of other diseases : Now (through 
the Lords mercy) they are well, though not without ordinary infir- 
mities, which befall Mankinde. In matters of Religion they goe on, 
not onely in attendance on such meanes as they have, not onely in 
knowledge, which beginneth to have some clearenesse in the Funda- 
mentall poynts of Salvation ; but also in the practice and power of 
Grace, both in constant care in attendance on the worship of God 
on Sabbath dayes and Lecture-dayes, especially profitting in the 
[p. 2.] gift of prayer, and also in the exercise of love to such as 
be in affliction, either by sicknesse or povertie. I have seene lively 
Actings of Charitie out of Reverence to the Command of the Lord, 
when such as had not that principle were farre from such workes of 
mercy, it pleased God to try them in the time of the Pox, for some 
of them did hazard their owne lives (for to them it is very mortall) 
in obedience to the Command of the Lord, to shew mercy to them 
that were sicke, and some were infected thereby, and fell sicke and 
lay with much chearefullnesse and patience under Gods hand, and 
through the Lords mercy are well againe ; others who did shew 



1 66 Manifestation of the further progresse of the Gospel 

mercy in that case escaped the sicknesse to the praise of God. 
Likewise God is pleased to try their Charitie by an old Paralyticke 
or Palsie sick-man, whose owne Children being prophane and tyred 
with the burthen of him (his retentive power of houlding excrements 
being loosened) and having a loosenesse, sometimes he is very noy- 
some and burthensome) they forsooke him and he had perished, 
but that the Lord stirred up (by the word of his grace) their hearts 
to shew mercy to him, for he was while he was sicke at six shilling 
a weeke charge, for wee offered twelve-pence a night to any to tend 
him, and for meere hyre none would abide it, but out of mercy and 
Charitie some of the Families did take care of him, and gave freely 
some weeks, and others were payd out of their publique money, 
namely, such as hath been taken off', such as have been Transgres- 
sors by Fine or Mulct: and still he is at foure shillings a weeke 
charge being better in health, in so much that all their publique 
money is spent, and much more, and wee have Collections among them 
for the same use. The old man who hath been and still is wise, 
doth wisely testifie that their love is sincere, and that they truely 
pray to God, and I hope so doth he, and shall be saved. I could 
with a word speaking in our Churches have thispoore man relieved, 
but I doe not, because I thinke the Lord hath done it, for the tryall 
of their grace, and exercise of their love, and to traine them up in 
works of Charitie, and in the way of Christ to make Collections for 
the poore. I see how the Lord provideth to further the progresse 
of the Gospel, [p. 3.] by these tryalls and afflictions, yea there be 
more passages of this winters worke, wherein the Lord hath taught 
us by the Crosse. For one of our first and principall men is dead, 
which though it be a great blow and damping to our worke in some 
Respects, yet the Lord hath not left the rest to discouragement 
thereby, nay the worke is greatly furthered, for hee made so gracious 
an end of his life, and imbraced death with such holy submission to 
the Lord, and was so little terrified at it, as that it hath greatly 
strengthened the Faith of the living to be constant, and not to feare 
death, greatly commending of the death of Wamporas, for that was 
his name, I thinke he did more good by his death, then he could 
have done by his life : one of his sayings was, That God giveth us 
three mercies in this world; the first is health and strength; the 
second is food and cloaths ; the third is sicknesse and death ; and 
when wee have had our share in the two first, why should wee not 
be willing to take our part in the third ? for his part he was : 1 heard 
him speake thus, and at other times also, and at his last he so spake, 
and it so tooke with them, that I observe it in their prayers, that 
they so reckon up Gods dispensations to them, his last words which 
he spake in this world were these ; Jehova Aninnumah Jesus Christ, 
(that is) Oh, Lord, give mee Jesus Christ; and when hee could 
speake no more, he continued to lift up his hands to Heaven, ac- 



among the Indians in New-England. 167 

cording as his strength lasted, unto his last breath ; so that they say 
of him he dyed praying ; when I visited him the last time that I saw 
him in this world (not doubting but I shall see him againe with 
Christ in Glory) one of his sayings was this: Foure yeares and a 
Quarter since, I came to your house, and brought some of our 
Children to dwell with the English, now I dye, I strongly intreate 
you (for that is their phrase) that you would strongly intreate Elder 
Heath (with whom his Sonne liveth) and the rest, which have our 
Children, that they may be taught to know God, so as that they may 
teach their Countrymen, because such an example would doe great 
good among them, his heart was much upon our intended worke, 
to gather a Church among them, I told him I greatly desired that 
he might live (if it were Gods will) to [p. 4.] be one in that 
worke, but if he should now dye he should goe to a belter Church, 
where Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and Moses, and all the 
dead Saints were with Jesus Christ in the presence of God in all 
happinesse and Glory ; he said he feared not death, he was willing 
to dye, and turning to the Company which were present, hee spake 
unto them thus ; 1 now shall dye, but Jesus Christ calleth you that 
live to goe to Naticke, that there the Lord might rule over you, that 
you might make a Church, and have the Ordinance of God among 
you, believe in his Word, and doe as hee commandeth you : With 
many such words exhorting them, which they could not heare with- 
out weeping. A little before his death hee spake many gracious 
words unto them, wherein one passage was this; Some delight 
to heare and speake idle and foolish words, but 1 desire to heare and 
speake onely the words of God, exhorting them .so to doe likewise: 
his gracious words were acceptable and affecting, that whereas they 
used to flie and avoyde with terrour such as lye dying, now on the 
contrary they flocked together to heare his dying words, whose 
death and buriall they beheld with many teares ; nor am I able to 
write his Storie without weeping. 

Another affliction and damping to our worke was this, that it hath 
pleased God to take away that Indian who was most active in Car- 
pentrey, and who had framed me an house with a little direction of 
some English, whom I sometime procured to goe with mee to guide 
him, and to set out his worke : hee dyed of the Pox this winter, so 
that our house lyeth, not yet raised, which maketh my aboade 
amongst them more difficult, and my tarriance shorter then else I 
would, but the Lord helpeth me to remember that he hath said, 
Endure thou hardnesse as a good Souldier of Jesus Christ. These 
are some of the gracious tryalls and Corrections the Lord hath ex- 
ercised us withall, yet he hath mingled them with much love and 
favour in other respects ; for it hath pleased God this winter much 
to inlarge the abilitie of him whose helpe I use in translating the 
Scriptures, which 1 account a great furtherance of that which I most 



168 Manifestation of the further progresse of the Gospel 

desire, namely, to communicate unto [p. 5.] them as much of the 
Scriptures in their owne language as i am able. Besides, it hath 
pleased God to stir up the hearts of many of them this winter to 
learn to read and write, wherein they doe very much profit with a 
very little help, especially some of them, for they are very ingenu- 
ous. And whereas I had thought that we must have an English- 
man to be their Schoole-Master, I now hope that the Lord will raise 
up some of themselves, and enable them unto that work, with my 
care to teach them well in the reason of the sounds of Letters and 
spelling, I trust in the Lord that we shall have sundry of them able 
to read and write, who shall write every man for himselfe so much 
of the Bible as the Lord shall please to enable me to Translate. 
Besides those works which concerne Religion and Learning, we are 
also a doing (according to the measure of our day of small things) 
in the civill part of this work, we have set out some part of the 
Town in several streets, measuring out and dividing of Lots, which 
I set them to doe, and teach them how to doe it : many have plant- 
ed Apple-Trees, and they have begun divers Orchards, it's now 
planting-time, and they be full of businesse, yet we are doing some 
publick works ; the last week I appointed our Lecture to be at a 
Water which is a common passage, and where the Fish we call 
Alewives come, there we built a Bridge, and made a wyre to catch 
Fish, and being many of them, some we appointed to one work, 
and some to another, through the blessing of God we brought both 
these works to perfection : we also have begun a Pallizadoe Fort, in 
the midst whereof we intend a meeting-house and a Schoole-house, 
but we are in great want of Tooles, and many necessaries, and 
when we cannot goe we must be content to creep : this present 
week I am going to Pawtucket, the great Fishing place upon Meri- 
mefc, where I hear sundry doe expect my coming, with a purpose to 
submit themselves unto the Lords hand. Sir, I doe earnestly beg 
your prayers both for me and for this work of the Lord which he 
hath set me about, 

Roxbury, the 28th of John Eliott. 

the 2d: 1651. 



among the Indians in New^-England. 1C9 

[p. 6.] The former Letter of Mr. Elliots came to hand about six 
Moneths before the latter, and that's the reason you have another of 
his followeth next after his former, whereby the Reader may see and 
observe the constant goodnesse of God in carrying on his owne ivorke, 
notwithstanding all the opposition of men. Every day bringing 
forth as it were additionall improvements to the praise of God i who 
delighteth so much in this his day of small things, 

Worshipfull and muck Honored in the 

L O R D- 

IT is through the grace of Christ who hath called you into the fel- 
lowship of his Kingdome, that you are willing to take such care 
and paines for the advancement and furtherance of his Kingdome, 
and the Lord fill your hearts with the Consolations of his holy Spirit, 
whose spirit he hath set to seek his glory in promoting the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ, and because the fruit of our Labours coming in with a 
blessing, is a great means to quicken the heart to be constant in that 
work which the Lord delighteth to prosper and blesse. It is my 
duty to let you understand how it pleaseth the Lord to prosper and 
proceed in this work of his among the Indians ; for the promoting 
whereof you travaile with care and paines, that so you may goe on 
with the more Comfort, and the better know how to direct your pray- 
ers unto the Lord in that behalfe. I will not trouble you with re- 
hearsall of such things as I have already this year written about unto 
our honoured Friend Mr. Winslowe, so far as I can call to minde 
what I wrote, hoping in the Lord that the Ships are safely arrived, 
and my Letters come unto his hands. I know not whether I have 
yet mentioned our Schoole, which through the [p. 7.] Lords mercy 
we have begun, though we cannot yet be constant in it, we have two 
men in some measure able to teach the youth with my guidance, and 
inspection. And thus we order the Schoole : The Master daily 
prayeth among his Schollers, and instructeth them in Catechisme, 
for which purpose I have compiled a short Catechisme, and wrote it 
in the Masters Book, which he can read, and teach them ; and also 
all the Coppies he setteth his Schollers when he teacheth them to 
write, are the Questions and Answers of the Catechisme, that so the 
children may be the more prompt and ready therein : we aspire to no 
higher learning yet, but to spell, read, and write, that so they may be 
able to write for themselves such Scriptures as I have already, or 
hereafter may, (by the blessing of God) translate for them ; for I 
have no hope to see the Bible Translated, much lesse Printed in my 
dayes. Therefore my chiefe care is to communicate as much of the 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 22 



170 The further Progresse of the Gospel 

Scriptures as I can by writing : and further, my scope so to train up 
both men and youths, that when they be in some measure instructed 
themselves, they may be sent forth to other parts of the Countrey, 
to traine up, and instruct others, even as they themselves have been 
trained up and instructed. This consideration doth make mee very 
carefull to put on the Schoole, and attend it with what diligence I 
can, although I cannot as yet doe in it, what I desire. There be 
severall providences of God appearing to worke, which make me 
thinke that the most effectuall and generall way of spreading the 
Gospel, will be by themselves, when so instructed as I have above- 
mentioned ; as for my Preaching, though such whose hearts God 
hath bowed to attend, can pick up some knowledge by my broken 
expressions, yet I see that it is not so taking and effectuall to strangers, 
as their owne expressions be, who naturally speak unto them in their 
owne tongue. To the end therefore that they may be the better 
able to teach others, I doe traine them up, and exercise them therein : 
when I am among them on the Lords dayes, appointing two each 
Sabboth to exercise, and when they have done, then I proceed, and 
assuredly I finde a good measure of ability in them, not only in 
prayer (wherein they exceed my expectation) but [p. 8.] in mem- 
ory to rehearse such Scriptures as I have read unto them and Ex- 
pounded ; to Expound them also as they have heard me doe, and 
apply them. And now also the Schoole-Master taking the care of 
Catechising the Children, I leaving that to him doe Catechize the 
men, examining and trying their knowledge, which yet I am wary in 
doing, least I should dampe and discourage the weak. These things 
I attend with the more intention, because it seemeth to me God will 
imploy these first instructed to instruct others, of which I have had 
sundry experiences, some I shall instance ; it pleasd Mr. Winthrop 
(Son unto our late Honored Governour now at rest) to advise me to 
send two discreet men to the greatest and most potent Sachem among 
the JYaragansets, to answer such Questions as they might propound, 
and to stirre them up to call on God. I did accordingly, and sent 
him a Present by them ; but the proud Sachem did little lesse than 
despise the offer, though he tooke the present ; So they thought they 
should have returned without successe ; but when they came among 
the people, especially such as were a little more remote from the 
great and proud ones, they received them with great gladnesse ; one 
Company taking one of ours among them, others taking the other 
of our men amongst them 5 they asked them many Questions, ex- 
pressed their readinesse to call upon God, if they had any to teach 
them : expressing likewise that they did not expect their Sachems 
would pray to God, because they were so proud : by which I doe 
perceive that the Lord is preparing a plentifull Harvest, and not 
onely by this, but by many other Evidences. There is a great 
Countrey lying between Conectacoti and the Massachusets, called 



among the Indians in New-England. 171 

Nipnet, where there be many Indians dispersed, many of which 
have sent to our Indians, desiring that some may be sent unto them 
to teach them to pray unto God. And sometimes some of our 
best men doe goe to severall places for a little while, and returne 
againe, and not without successe. These things being so, the work 
which we now have in hand, will be as a patterne and Copie before 
them, to imitate in all the Countrey, both in civilizing them in their 
Order, Government, Law, and in their Church proceedings and ad- 
ministrations ; and [p. 9.] hence great care Jyeth upon me to set 
them right at first, to lay a sure foundation for such a building, as I 
foresee will be built upon it, and in this matter I greatly need pray : 
The order of proceeding with them, is first to gather them together 
from their scattered course of life, to cohabitation and civill order and 
Government, and then to forme them (the Lord having fitted them) 
into visible Church-state, for the guidance whereof, 1 have instructed 
th'em, that they should look onely into the Scriptures, and out of the 
word of God fetch all their Wisedome, Lawes, and Government, and 
so shall they be the Lords people, and the Lord above shall Reigne 
over them, and governe them in all things by the word of his mouth. 
Sundry of these which pray unto God have formerly subjected them- 
selves unto the English ; so that in this Government among them- 
selves they doe reserve themselves in that poynt to owne them as 
their superiours, to make appeales unto them as need may require, 
and experience for these many yeares shew, that though they have 
so subjected themselves, yet the onely benefit they have is protec- 
tion : as for hearing and determining their causes, the difference of 
language, and paucity of interpreters prohibits, and if their causes 
come, they be so longsome, and yet of small importance, that it is of 
necessity, that either they must have no government, as hitherto it 
hath been, or else they must have it among themselves. Besides, 
all or many of their differences and causes they usually brought to 
me, which was not convenient, and 1 was willing to avoid : them- 
selves also found great need that some should be over them ; to 
judge their causes, and end differences, and much desired it. 
Therefore upon the sixt day of the sixt Moneth of this present year, 
(their Pallizadoe Fort being finished) they had a great meeting, and 
many came together from diverse parts, though sundry were hindred 
and came not at that time, where, with Prayer to God I read and 
Expounded to them the 18 th of Exodus, (which I had done severall 
times before) and finally they did solemnly choose two Rulers among 
themselves, they first chose a Ruler of an Hundred, then they chose 
two Rulers of Fifties, then they chose Ten or Tithing Men (so I call 
them in English) for so [p. 10.] they were called (as is reported) in 
England, when England did flourish happily under that kind of 
Government. And lastly, for that dayes work every man chose who 
should be his Ruler of ten, the Rulers standing in order, and every 






172 The further Progresse o the Gospel 

man going to the man he chose, and it seemed unto me as if I had 
seen scattered bones goe, bone unto his bone, and so lived a civil 
politicall life, and the Lord was pleased to minister no small comfort 
unto my spirit, when I saw it. After this work was ended, they did 
enter into Covenant with God, and each other, to be the Lords 
people, and to be governed by the word of the Lord in all things. 
The words of which Covenant are these in English. We doe give 
our selves and our Children unto God to be his people, he shall rule 
us in all our affaires, not onely in our religion, and affairs of the 
Church (these we desire as soone as we can,, if God will) but also in 
all our works and affaires in this world, God shall rule over us. 
Isa. 33. 22. The Lord is our Judge, the Lord is our Law giver, 
the Lord is our King, He will save us ; the Wisedome which God 
hath taught us in his Booke, that shall guide us and direct us in the 
way. Oh Jehovah, teach us wisedome to finde out thy wisdome in 
thy Scriptures, let the grace of Christ helpe us, because Christ is the 
wisedome of God, send thy spirit into our hearts, and let it teach us, 
Lord take us to be thy people, and let us take thee to be our God. 

This Act of forming themselves into the Government of God, and 
entring into this Government, is the first publique Record among the 
Indians, and for ought I know the first that ever was among them : 
and now our next work is to prepare them for Church-estate, to 
which end I doe instruct them, that the Visible Church of Christ is 
builded upon a lively confession of Christ, and Covenanting to walk 
in all the Administrations of the publique worship of God, under the 
Government and Discipline of Jesus Christ. I doe therefore exhort 
them to try their hearts by the Word of God, to finde out what 
change the Lord hath wrought in their hearts, and this is the present 
work we have in hand. 

Give me leave (much honoured Friends) to goe a little back in 
my relation, that I might be more particular, because these Letters I 
prepared in the sixt month after they had [p. 11.] chosen their Officers, 
as I was propounding and teaching them the above-written Covenant, 
for that 1 did often before we did solemnly accomplish it, that so they 
might doe it as an Act of knowledge and faith. Now let me relate the 
order of our proceeding : Having again and again read this Covenant 
to them, and instructed them in the meaning of it, it pleased God to 
wrack Mr. Webbers Ship at Conahasset, though the Lord dealt fa- 
vourably ; most goods were saved, though much spoyled : this was 
on the first day of the 7 th Moneth, wherefore at a Lecture at JVatik 
on the 10 th of the same Moneth, 1 informed them of the plentifull 
supply which the Lord had made your selves his instruments to send 
unto them for the furtherance of this our work, and also how the 
Lord hath frowned upon it, and undoubtedly it was a fruit of sin, 
and therefore the Lord called them to repentance, and make peace 
with God : besides, we were beginning a great work of civill Coha- 






among the Indians in New-England. 173 

bitation and Government, and they wanted wisdome to carry on 
such a work, and the Lord had promised, If any want wisdome, ask 
it of God, who gives liberally, citing that of James, which 1 had for- 
merly preached on. Moreover, we were in preparation for a 
Church-state, and that was a great matter to seek the Lord in ; and 
lastly, they having chosen Rulers, and intending to enter into a 
Covenant to promise unto God to be his people, and to be ruled in 
all things by his Word. Gods appointment is that such a Covenant 
should be entred into in a solemne day of fasting and prayer, and all 
these causes concurred to put us on unto that work. Now though 
we never yet had kept such a day unto the Lord, yet I had instructed 
them therein ; for in the Spring we had a generall day of Humiliation 
in all the Churches, and thereupon they moved this Question, Why 
the English often fasted and prayed, and I never yet taught them so to 
doe ? To which I did answer by that of Christ unto the Disciples, 
but told them, that when we set upon the great works of God, to be 
his people, governed by his Word, and to gather a Church, then 
they should be called of God unto it, <^c. and now it came to passe, 
my motion they deliberated on with some conference (as their man- 
ner is) and finally did consent unto it ; then I told them it was need- 
full [p. 12.] they should pray and teach that day ; sundry of them 
and we agreed, that all such as were called to be Rulers should exer- 
cise that day, or so many as we had time for their Exercise. Before 
that day came, even then when it was appointed Cutshamoquin, the 
chiefe Sachem, and therefore chosen the chiefe, (for he is constant 
in his profession, though doubtfull in respect of the throughnesse of 
his heart) was in the Countrey near JVarraganset, about appeasing 
some strife among some Sachems. In which Journey some of those 
bad Indians and Cutshamoquin with them did buy much strong wa- 
ter at Gortons Plantation, and had a great drinking, from which the 
wiser sort did withdraw themselves, but Cutshamoquin was in it, 
though not unto drunkennesse, yet his act was scandalous. Before 
we solemnly appeared before God, and made the above written Cove- 
nant, I advised with Mr. Cotton about it, and his Counsell was to 
add these words in the beginning : Wee are the Sonnes of Adam, wee 
and our forefathers have a long time been lost in our sins, but 
now the mercy of the Lord begmneth tofinde us out againe ; therefore 
the grace of Christ helping us, we doe give our selves and our Chil- 
dren, 8fc. 

When the day came, this Act of Cutshamoquin being broken out 
we suffered not him to teach ; onely he began the day with confes- 
sion of his sin, and made a short Prayer, wherein he confessed Satan 
acted in his heart, begged pardon, and that the Spirit of God might 
dwell in him, and act in him for time to come, and so ended. 

Then another of them began with prayer, and for his Text took 
that in the 7 th - of Luke 36. to the end (though they doe not know 



174 The further Progresse of the Gospel 

the Book, Chapter, or Verse, but distinguish my Lectures by the 
first material word in it) Christ being invited by Simon the Pharisee, 
the Woman washt his feet with her teares, &c. At which Simon 
stumbling, Christ spake the Parable of the two Debtors, both freely 
forgiven, with the Application, all which he repeated pretty well, 
and after his teaching he prayed againe and ended. The second 
took for his Text the Lords Prayer, because it is, said he, a day of 
prayer. The third took for his Text the 7 th of Matthew 19. to the 
end, Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit, is cut downe, he. 
And upon that [p-13.] parable of the two Builders, on the rock the first, 
the other on the sand,<^c. By this time the day was well up, then I 
taught out of the 9 th of Ezra 3. & 9. where I described a day of Fast- 
ing, and the right carriage of it ; yet by the parable of a Nut, I shew- 
ed that outward acts are as the shell, which is necessary, but a bro- 
ken and believing heart is the kernell, and so ended the forepart of 
the day. After a little respite (in which time a Question came to 
me, if it were lawfull to take a pipe of Tobacco ?)we met again, the 
first took his Text Job. 3. 16. 22. and his Preface was, 1 read or 
rehearse this, and let every one read it in his owne heart. The se- 
cond took his Text, Matth. 13. 24. to 31. from the Parable of him 
that sowed good seed, and the enemy came and while they slept sowed 
tares, &c. The third took his Text, Luke 3 d , 4, 5. 6. ver. Prepare 
yee the way of the Lord, make his paths straight, he. By this time 
night drew on, then I took for my Text, Deut. 29. and the 1. to 16. 
where Israel entred into Covenant with the Lord : and finally our 
Covenant in the forecited words I expressed, and they joyntly con- 
sented unto ; first the Rulers, then all the people, then was the Col- 
lections for the poor, and by dark night we finished our work. Thus 
have I briefly described that blessed day wherein these poor souls 
solemnly became the people of the Lord : this was on the 24 th day 
of the 7 th Moneth, 1651. 

Upon the S th of the Oct. Moneth, which was our next Lecture 
(for it is in that place but once in a fortnight, I holding a Lecture each 
other week still at any other place) it pleased our Governour with 
many others attending him, to visit our poor works and day of small 
things, where they viewed our House, our Fort, our Bridge, advised 
about a place for a Mill, he.) At the season they came unto our 
Lecture, and observed the carriage and behaviour of things and 
men : among other things one of our Indians did (as we are wont) 
exercise, which they took so much notice of, and were so far affect- 
ed with, as that it pleased the Governour to advise me to write the 
substance of that which he spake, which is as followeth ; his Text was 
Matth. 13. 44,45, 46. Again the Kingdome of Heaven is like 
unto treasure hid in a field, the which when a man hath found, he 
hideth, and for joy thereof goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buy- 
eth [p. 14.] thefeild: 45. Againe, the Kingdome of Heaven is like 



among the Indians in New-England. 175 

unto a Marchant-man seeking goodly Pearles : 46. Who when he 
had found one Pearle of great price, he went and sold all that he had 
and bought it. The substance of these words he did twice rehearse, 
then for instruction he first propounded what is this treasure which is 
hid in a feild ? He answered, it is Repentance for sin, Faith in Christ, 
and pardon of sin, and all grace, as also praying to God, the worship 
of God, and his appointments, which are the means of Grace, on which 
he dilated, shewing what excellent Pearles these are, exhorting all to 
account so of them, and on this point he did much insist : secondly, 
he asked what is the Feild where these Pearles are to be found ? He 
answered, the Church of Christ, which they did desire to constitute in 
this place, and to that end came thither to dwell : thirdly, he asked 
what it is to sell all that a man hath to buy this Feild ? He answered, 
to part with all their sins, and to part with all their old Customes, and 
to part with their Friends and Lands, or any thing which hindereth 
them from coming to that place, where they may gather a Church, 
and enjoy all these Pearles ; and here he insisted much to stir them 
up, that nothing should hinder them from gathering together into 
this place where they might enjoy such a mercy. 

Then he proceeded to the second Parable, and his first Question 
was, Who is the Marchant man that seeketh goodly Pearls ? He an- 
swered, it is all you Indians which pray to God, and repent of sin, 
and come to hear the Word of God, you come to seek for excel- 
lent Pearls ; and here also he insisted : his second Question was, 
What is this Pearle of great Price ? Now in answer to this Question 
he did not pitch it on Christ alone, and shew the worth and price of 
Christ : but he did pitch it on Faith in Jesus Christ, and Repentance 
for sin, and stood upon the excellency and necessity thereof. And 
this was the greatest defect I observed in his Exercise, which seing 
I undertake to relate that which none but my selfe understood, I dare 
not but truly relate, because the Lord heard all, and I^must give an 
account of this relation before him : his next question was, What is 
meant by all the Riches he had ? He answered, his sins, his evill 
Customes, his evill manners, in which [p. 1 5.] he formerly took 
much pleasure ; and here he dilated also : Lastly he asked how did 
he sell them all, and buy the pearle ? He answered, by casting away 
and forsaking all his sins, mourning and repenting of them, praying 
to God, and believing in Jesus Christ. And here he fervently dila- 
ted and so ended ; and this according to the best of my memory and 
observation, is the substance of what he delivered. Whereby you 
may observe the manner of my teaching them, for they imitate me, 
as for our Method of preaching to the English by way of Doctrine, 
Reason, and Use, neither have I liberty of speech for that way of 
teaching, being very unskilfull in their Language, nor have they suf- 
ficient ability of understanding to profit by it, so well as by this way, 
whereof you have herein a little Taste. 

Jo: Eliot. 



176 The further Progresse of the Gospel 

The next Letter good Reader (for we place them ac- 
cording to their sever all dates) is one that came from Mr. 
John Wilson that reverend holy man, who is Pastor of the 
Church of Christ at Boston in New England, who ac- 
companying the Governour, together with Mr. Eliot and 
sundry others, to their new Towne built by the Converted 
Indians, where they purpose by Gods permission to coha- 
bite together, that so they may enjoy all those Ordinances 
the Lord Jesus hath left unto his Church. JYow what 
Mr. Wilson there saw, heard, and observed, that he hath 
written over to us, and we have published for thy informa- 
tion and consolation. 

Honoured and ever deare Sir. 

TOuching the Work of God among the Indians, for ought I heare 
or see from them that are most conversant therein, as Mr. Eliot, 
Mr. Mahew, and Mr. Leverich, with whom I have made diligent en- 
quiry ; It doth prosperously succeed to their great encouragement, 
[p. 16.] and ours in the Lord. There was here some few weeks 
since, the prime Indian at Marthas Vineyard with Mr. Mahewe 
(Humanequinn) a grave and solemn Man, with whom I had serious 
discourse, Mr. Mahewe being present as Interpreter between us, who 
is a great proficient both in knowledge and utterance, and love, and 
practice of the things of Christ, and of Religion, much honoured and 
reverenced, and attended by the rest of the Indians there, who are 
solemnly Covenanted together, I know not how many, but between 
thirty or forty at the least, and receive none into their Fraternity or 
Combination, but those which give good proof of their upright desires 
to their Conscience, in their professions and conversations, who when 
Mr. Mahewe cannot be with them (as at many set times he is) doth in 
the week time instruct himselfe from Mr. Mahewes mouth, and pre- 
pare for their instruction on the Lords day, which they conscionably 
observe, and have their constant solemne meetings together : This 
man where he was, had communion on the Lords day with Mr. 
Eliots Indians neer Dorchester Mill, unto whom he Preached or de- 
clared what he had learned himselfe from the Scripture, some two 
hours together, with solemne prayer before and after, and then ended 
with a Psalme, such as at home is wont to be sung among his usuall 
hearers. The Lords day after he was in our Assembly, the Boat 
then being ready to carry him home by the next opportunity, and truly 
my reverence to him was such, as there being no room I prayed our 
brethren to receive that good Indian into one of their pewes, which 



among the Indians in New England. , 177 

they did forenoon and afternoon, and at meale, I perceived by him 
that he had understanding of what he heard Mr. Leverich being 
lately here and at my house (who also Preached at our new Church) 
I conferred with him about the beginnings and progresse of the 
Lords work, among his neighbouring Indians at Sandwich, and did 
hear from him, what did my heart good. And therefore when he 
took his leave of me I requested him that he would doe me the fa- 
vour at his return home, to send me a brief story of that good hand 
of God which was there upon them, ab origine, which I thank him 
he did soon after, and I thought not amisse to inclose it, as it came 
to me, being written with his own hand, not doubting [p. 17.] but 
it would add unto your rejoycing in the Lord. About a fortnight since 
there was a Lecture to be of Mr. Eliot at Natick, the new Indian 
Towne, where he useth frequently to Preach to them, besides what 
he doth neer home (on either side) and many times doth keep the 
Lords day with them, whereof having some notice, and that the Go- 
vernour Mr. Endicot intended then to be there, my Cousin Rawson 
and I with some other, did prepare to ride thither, the Governour 
and his Sergeants lying at Dedham, which is within seaven or eight 
miles of the Towne, and we at Mr. Jacksons neer Watertown Mill 
(in like distance in the next morning after we had been some hours 
there where we found Mr. Eliot, and by that time we had viewed 
all things, the Governour came with about twenty Horsemen from 
Dedham, and made a like view, after which the Lecture or Sermon 
began in the Fort, which the Indians have made of whole trees very 
handsome and firme. which is neer a faire house which the Indians 
have built after the English manner high and large (no Englishmans 
hand in it, save that one day or two they had an English Carpenter 
with them to direct about the time of rearing, with chimneys in it : 
In which Mr. Eliot and those which accompany him use to lye, and 
the Indian School-Master was there teaching the Children, who doth 
read and spell very well himselfe, and teacheth them to doe the like 
(besides writing) and as there is a large Roome below, so there is a 
like Chamber above, in a Corner whereof Mr. Eliot hath a little 
Room inclosed, and a bed and bed-sted therein, and in the same 
Chamber the Indians doe as in a Wardrobe hang up their skins, 
and things of price, as counting them there to be very safe, as well 
when the doors be open, as when they be locked, they have laid out 3 
fair long streets there, two on this side the River, and one on that, and 
have severall house-lots apportioned severally to every one, which 
doe or be to inhabite there, and in many of them there are fruit-trees 
already planted, and they are building English houses for themselves 
mean while living in Wigwams, whereof there is good store neer the 
hill side, at present there being a goodly plaine from the Towne tow- 
ards Dedham) over the River (that is Charles River) they have 
made a firme high foot-bridge [p. 1 8.] archwise to walk to and 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 23 



178 The farther Progresse of the Gospel 

fro, having heaped on the bottome tymbers huge stones, the more to 
fortifie it, and it was a great encouragement to them, that the last year 
(when a like Bridge made by the English in the new Dedham Vil- 
lage called Medefield some four or five miles from them) was 
throwne downe by the force of the flouds or Ice, yet theirs did stand 
firme and upright. But to returne to the Fort, and to the businesof 
the day, that is Round and Capacious, and they have prepared 
there a large Canopie of Matts upon poles for Mr. Eliot and the 
chief of his Company to sit under, and other sorts for themselves 
and other hearers. The Saneps or men by themselves and the 
Squaes or women by themselves, besides the English then present 
(which were about thirty) there were I think not fewer than a hun- 
dred men women and young ones ; among the Indians there be 
some greater proficients in knowledge, and of better utterance by far 
then their fellowes, grave and serious men, whom Mr. Eliot hath train- 
ed up (or the Lord rather by his instructions and directions) to instruct 
and exhort the rest of the Indians in their Lords day and other 
meetings, when he cannot come to them himselfe. There be some 
five of these, one of them was prepared before we came, and ap- 
pointed to begin this Exercise : the further relation of the manner of 
this Indians behaviour in Preaching, together with the substance of 
that Sermon being before set downe by Mr. Eliot may be never 
omitted : other particulars in order to the exact description of the 
Indian Fort and buildings in Mr. Eliots Letter is defective are here 
supplyed. This man being of middle age, and clad all in English 
apparrell (as most if not all others of them are) sitting in the midst, 
on a stoole, under the shelter, did begin with prayer very solemnly, 
standing up for some halfe quarter of an houre, then sitting downe 
spake unto them of the two Parables, concerning the Feild wherein 
the treasure hid, and the wise Marchant selling all for the Pearl ; 
we understood him not (save Mr. Eliot) excepting now and then a 
word or two, he discoursed to them some three quarters of an hour 
at the least, with great devotion, gravity, decency, readines and affec- 
tion, and gestures very becomming, and sundry mentions he made of 
Jesus Christ, especially in the beginning, and towards [p. 1 9.] the end- 
ing as if he were the scope of all, and the rest of the Indians ; diverse 
old men and women, and the younger did joyne and attend with 
much Reverence, as if much affected therewith ; then he ended with 
Prayer as he beganne. Then Mr. Eliot Prayed and Preached in 
the Indian Language for some hour more, about coming to Christ, 
and bearing his Yoake. This Text was translated by him from the 
Scripture into English, speaking with much authority, and after his 
latter Prayer the Indian School-Master read out of his Book one of 
the Psalmes in meeter, line by line, translated by Mr. Eliot into In- 
dian, all the men and women ,fyc. singing the same together in one 
of our ordinary English tunes melodiously. I should have said that 



among the Indians in New England. 179 

after Mr. Eliots Sermon there were two or three grave Indians that 
propounded to Mr. Eliot each of them a Question, very pertinent to 
the matter he handled about the yoak of Christ, and coming to Christ, 
which he answered, interpreting to us both their Questions, and the 
summe of his owne Answers. After this the Lord did stir up my 
heart to make an Exhortation to the Indians, which Mr. Eliot Ex- 
pounded to them, and also the Governours Speech, which God did 
stir him up too unto the same purpose, declaring our joy to see such 
beginnings, and warning them of the great danger if they should de- 
cline from what they had already come unto, either in their know- 
ledge, affection, or Christian practice, incouraging them against what 
might damp or deter. 

Then all of us taking us to our horses left Mr. Eliot and them to- 
gether, the Governour and his Company to lye at Dedham, and the 
rest of us when we had rid two or three miles with them did returne 
into our own way towards our former lodging, having been every one 
of us much refreshed in our spirits in what we saw h were informed 
of, viz. of God amongst them. Not long before this, travelling with 
Mr.Eliots brother I conferred in the way seriously with him about these 
Indians for he useth to accompany his brother, and is a right godly and 
diligent man, desiring to know what solidity he found by experience in 
them. Who did acquaint me that there was difference between them 
as between the English, some being less serious then others, and 
lesse spirituall ; but that there was a [p. 20.] considerable Company of 
solide ones that were constant and forward in good duties, as well on 
the week dayes as on the Lords. And that he had purposely som- 
times in the dark walked the Round, as it were alone, and found them 
in their severall Families as devout in Prayer, $*c. as if there had 
been any present to observe : and that carried it very modestly, 
utterly refusing to receive any reliefe from Mr. Eliots Table, choos- 
ing rather to live on the provisions at home which came in by their 
owne labour : and when once Mr. Eliots owne provisions failed (he 
being detained among them sundry dayes beyond his intent) they 
soon took notice, and of their own accord did bring unto him variety 
of the best which they had themselves ; and he professed unto me that 
upon all his best observation, there was a very hopefull beginning 
amongst them, of the Grace and Kingdome of our Lord Jesus. The 
Lord vouchsafe to be the Omega among them as well as the Alpha 
of this blessed change. 

Boston : 27 : Sber Your most loving Friend, 

51. 

and Brother in Christ, 

John Wilson, 



f 



180 The further Progresse of the Gospel 

As Mr Wilson was stirred up in himself e to send us the 
Relation of his owne Observations upon his Journey with 
Mr. Eliot, so he having received some precious lines from 
an able Minister of the Gospel, viz. Mr Leverich of Sand- 
wich in the Government of New Plymouth, whom the 
Lord hath stirred up to labour also in the Conversion of 
the Indians : the ears seeming as it were white unto Har- 
vest, and the Labourers but very few, he adventures to put 
in his sickle, not without hopefull successe, as will appear 
in his following lines. And for the discouragements men- 
tioned [p. 21.] in his Letter, know that divers of his people 
having cast off all the Ordinances of God in his Church, 
at last came to be seduced by every idle spirit that came 
amongst them, to be led into such fancies as we are ashamed 
to mention. And so this good man upon this occasion tur- 
ned to the Indians, where he meets with an abundant bles- 
sing upon his endeavours. 



Reverend Sir. 

I Salute you in the Lord, I shall trouble you only with 
two things, first, the moving causes inducing me to set upon this 
worke : Secondly, with what successe I have hitherto been enter- 
tained, by the blessing of God upon my weak endeavours. For the 
first of these, I suppose its not unknown to your selfe: amongst many 
others, what singular exercise I have had in these parts, and what 
singular Conflicts I have met withall in my travails amongst our owne 
Countreymen, divers of them transported with their (though not sin- 
gular) Fancies, to the rejecting of all Churches and Ordinances by a 
new cunning, and I perswade my selfe one of the last but most per- 
nicious plot of the Devill to undermine all Religion, and introduce all 
Atheisme and profanenesse, if it were possible, together with which, 
I have observed a spirit of Pharisaisme and formality too, too evi- 
dently creeping upon and strongly possessing others generally, besides 
other discouragements I shall forbear to mention, which considered 
divers of our brethren, together with my selfe, upon consultation had 
together, were resolved to move together else whether, where we 
might hope for more and better encouragement, as touching our 
Communion, if God so pleased : but were disswaded by divers our 
honoured Friends, both by their Letters and more private Councels, 
unto whom we gave way, at least for the present : not long after hav- 






among the Indians in New-England. 181 

ing an hopefull Indian [p. 22.] in my house, he propounds to me 
a motion of teaching the Indians neer us. And somtimes after Mr. 
Eliot invites me to the same work by his Letters : then I thought 
with my self I must stay, and began to tast the motion with more af- 
fection, resolving, that if God would please to fit up the rooms of 
others with the accesse of such forlorne Creatures, and bring in such 
as wandred in the high wayes, lanes, and hedges ; and Call in the 
lame, and halt, and blind, in stead of those Contemners, it would be 
a mercy ; and by no other respects in this world, was my breast in- 
clined unto this work, and to attend God in it. As touching the se- 
cond, for matter of successe and incouragement, I cannot but reckon 
this one, and that not the least, that though the Indian tongue be 
very difficult, irregular, and anomalous, and wherein I cannot meet 
with a Verb Substantive as yet, nor any such Particles, as Conjunc- 
tions, fyc. which are essentiall to the severall sorts of axioms, and 
consequently to all rationall and perfect discourses, and that though 
their words are generally very long, even sesquipedalia verba, yet I 
find God helping, not onely my selfe to learne and attaine more of it 
in a short time, then I think I could or did of Latine, Greek, or He- 
brew, in the like space of time, when my memory was stronger, and 
when all known rules of Art are helpful! to fasten such notions in the 
mind of the learner ; but also the Indians to understand me fully 
(as they acknowledge) so far as I have gone. I am constrained by 
many ambages and circumlocutions to supply the former defect, to 
expresse my selfe to them as I may. The next encouragement I 
may not without ground omit to mention is this, that it pleaseth God 
to help some of these poor Creatures to look over and beyond the 
Examples of some of our looser sort of English, which I look upon 
as a great stumbling block to many. It's to be lamented that the 
name of God so generally professed by those looser sort of English, 
should be so generally polluted by them, and blasphemed by Hea- 
thens, through the occasion of their loosenes and deniall of the power 
of godlinesse, yet God gives some of theirs a spirit of discerning 
between precious and vile, and a spirit of Conviction, to acknowledge 
(oh that ours would lay it to heart) there is no difference between the 
worst [p. 23.] Indians, and such English, saying they are all one 
Indians, yea and further, to put a like difference between such In- 
dians amongst themselves here and elsewhere, as appear to be more 
serious in their Inquiries after God, and conscientious according to 
their light, and such others that are more slight, and meer pretend- 
ers to Religion. Thirdly, for more particular observations. 1. God 
hath brought some of them to a sence of their shines, and a fear of 
his justice. Here I shall insert an example or two, one of them 
being to repeat such Principles I had begun to train them in, in a 
Catechisticall way (for my penury confines me to this method at pre- 
sent, and I hope it may be never the worse for them) was a good 



182 The further Progresse of the Gospel 

while before he could speak, having his countenance sad before (and 
as I have understood since a week together after our former Exer- 
cise) and in speaking the tears all the while trickling downe his 
Cheekes : After being demanded by me what was the matter of his 
sadnesse, he answers me, he did now understand that God was a 
just God, and for himselfe he had been very wicked, even from a 
child. And another, whom I used as my Interpreter now and then 
in teaching them, falls suddenly and publiquely into a bitter passion, 
crying out, and wringing his hands, out of the like apprehension of 
his Condition, as he told me afterwards, and I find no one of them 
(daring men) to speak of their good hearts, but some more some 
lesse sensible of the contrary. Secondly, God hath brought some of 
them to some Evangelicall Conviction, one acknowledging that though 
he and others leave their former evils, and should keep Gods Com- 
mandements, yet without Christ they must goe to hell. Thirdly, 
Two or three of them have complained of the hardnesse of their 
hearts, and are questioning of Remedies. Fourthly, Speaking to 
them of the mercy of God in Christ, one of them tells publiquely, it 
did him more good to hear of Christ, then to hear of all earthly good 
things, I would fain hope for seeds of faith in such. Fifthly, Two 
of them I deal withall particularly for personall evils, by name for the 
sinne of Fornication, which they were carried away into, which my 
Indian acquainting my selfe with after our Exercise I spake unto, 
shewing them the evills of this sinne [p. 24.] and aggravating of it by 
the knowledge they now had of God, fyc. and exhorting them to Re- 
pentance, and to seek mercy in Christ ; whereupon one of them fell 
into bitter weeping, presently the other though his heart was shut up 
at present, yet not long after, and with longer continuance said, I 
have observed in others a sence of temptations, spirituall bondage, 
which they expressed naturally thus ; one saith that he and the De- 
vill were all one Souldiers, and this in sadnesse of spirit, and speech : 
another laying his hands upon his knees and hams, complains he was 
a man tyed in Cords, and prayes to God to be unloosed, and in ge- 
nerall they are observed divers of them to pray with much affection, 
mourning ; in so much that they are in this respect a wonderment 
to their Companions, who enquired what is the matter why they doe 
so, fyc. 

A fourth encouragement to me is this, I find the Devill bestirring 
himselfe, and betaking of himselfe to his wonted practice of stirring 
up oppositions against this work by his Instruments, as fearing the 
ruine of his Kingdome, their Countreymen manifesting their hatred, 
threatning they shall not plant, hunt, fyc. as before ; yea the Contro- 
versie or enmity rather arises between Parents and Children, <^c. 
Lastly, and not long before I was last with you in the Bay upon a se- 
cond day in the morning before they went away, there came to me to 
the number of twenty of them, voluntarily professing one by one their 



among the Indians in New England. 183 

desire to fear God, promising that they would leave their sins (some 
intermixing acknowledgements of their sins and ignorance : and one 
th^t English and Indians knew she had been very wicked) hereunto 
calling Jehovah to witnes ; and this to doe all their dayes, as long as 
they live : some bringing their Children, and causing them to make 
the like profession ; whereupon I was the more stirred towards them in 
my spirit (though I acknowledge I was loath to make an absolute en- 
gagement) to promise them I would endeavour to be as helpfull to 
them as I could in teaching them : which when I had done, they gave 
me thanks publiquely ; and since this, they living some seaven miles 
from us, have built a Wigwam of purpose neer our Town to receive 
them when they come on the Lords dayes ; and truly Sir, they are so 
attentive in hearing, [p. 25.] that it grieves me I cannot speak to them 
as I desire, they seeming to be hungry, and I wanting bread for them. 
And thus Sir, you have a naked Narration of our proceedings, with 
the events fallen out by Gods providence within not many moneths. 
It is I believe a day of small things, and so lookt at by our English 
many of them, who surely would have perished in their darknesse, 
if all others should have contemned them as they these, I pray God 
they perish not in the light, however I am resolved to bable to them 
as I may, considering that out of the mouths of babes God ordaines 
praise, and found strength to still the Enemy, §-c. the beginnings of 
Gods great works are often in great obscurity, where he appoints the 
end to be glorious. Also I remember one sowes and another reaps, 
which where ever they be such as are faithfull shall rejoyce together. 
I doubt not Sir, of your fervent prayers (which I doe further beg of 
you and others that know how to pity lost ones) for my selfe and 
poor Indians, that the Lord will prosper our indeavours this way, and 
water them with his abundant blessings in Jesus Christ, that the day- 
spring from on high may visit such poor souls as are in darknesse, and 
the shadow of death, and bring them to life in Jesus Christ. 

Sandwich this 22 d of William Leverich. 

the 7 th . 1651. 



The next Letter is a testimoniall from a private hand 
of what Mr. Leverich mentions in his to Mr. Wilson, 
where we may see some fruits of his labours testified by a 
neighbour of his at Sandwich, which isfiftie miles from 
that place, where Mr. Eliot hath taught other Indians for 
divers years : but we doe not a little rejoyce to hear that 
Mr. Leverich is engaged in this worke ; because he is a 
grave learned knowing and a prudent Christian, one in- 



184 The further Progresse of the Gospel 

deed from whom by Gods blessing we may expect much 
good. [p. 26.] 

Concerning the Indians I have seen and heard more this Sum- 
mer then ever I did before, 1 have seene some Indians crave a 
blessing before meat, and returne thanks after meat, pray morning 
and evening, some of them doe frequent our meetings, they come 
constantly eight or ten miles every Saturday, and the Monday they 
returne home againe, while our Exercise doth last, they doe attend 
diligently, but understand but little, but when that is done Mr. Leve- 
rich and they doe put questions one to another, and Mr. Leverich 
hath an Indian that speaks good English, and he is Interpreter. 
There is a man that lives neer us, that comes from an Island that is cal- 
led Martins Vineyard, where is a Minister that speaks good Indian, 
he doth preach to them every week, he hath told me that that Minister 
told him, that there are some of them Indians, that are able to give 
a better reason of their Faith, then some of the Members of their 
Church; some of them will Preach, and they have private meetings, 
and keep very good orders. 

Sandwich 22 d Sep- Anthoney Bessey. 

tember. 1651. 



The next Letter ice present thee loithall good Reader, 
is one jrom Mr. May hew, whom God hath honoured with 
abundant successe in making his labours the instrumentall 
meanes to turne many of the Heathen from their evill 
wayes to the Lord our God. This he not onely wrote to 
Mr. Henry Whitfield, who is a Minister in Winchester, 
but also to a Member of our Corporation, being the same 
JYarrative word for word, for ought we discerne, where- 
in appeareth a mighty progresse in godlines since our last 
Treatise published by Mr.Henry Whitfield upon his com- 
ming hither from New England. God not onely daily ad- 
ding to their number [p. 27.] such sa in Charity we con- 
ceive appertain to his Election : but stirred them up (be- 
ing neer two hundred persons) to enter into a more close 
way of the Gospel, declaring themselves to be the worship- 
pers of the everliving God. With many other things min- 
istring much consolation to every Christian heart, to see 
these very Po wwawes fall off from the ivorship of Devills 
and embrace the glad tidings of Salvation. 



among the Indians in New-England. 185 

Reverend and dearly Beloved in 
Christ Jesus. 

SIR, 

WHat you have done in the Indian busines, and concerning 
my selfe in particular, doe give good testimony of your holy 
desires to further the work of the Lord amongst them. The good 
providence of God in bringing you unto us, and the free engaging 
of your selfe in this work of the Lord, and that upon the best 
ground, did fully perswade my heart of your faithfullnesse therein, 
and of an inward blessing from God upon us thereby ; although I 
should never have seen a return in outward supplies, as now through 
mercy 1 have, as an acceptable and very helpfull fruit of Christian 
goodnes and bounty received from your selfe and Christian Friends, 
that the Lord hath stirred up both to pray earnestly, and contribute 
freely for the promoting of the work of the Lord in my hand 
amongst the poor Indians. Sir, assure your selfe, and let all our 
beloved Friends know, that what is done by you together in this 
behalf, doth not only strengthen my hands, and give me advantage 
to be more helpful to the Indians, but also is a further encourage- 
ment unto my heart from the Lord to do to the utmost of my 
power in this service he hath called me unto, [p. 28.] and wherein 
he hath afforded me his gracious presence unto this day ; and not 
only in supporting me therein, but also in some remarkeable passa- 
ges of his power and mercy amongst the Indians, those miserable 
Captives, something whereof your selfe hath been an eye-witnes 
unto, and have already heard, yet now being further advantaged 
through the grace of God appearing with us, and knowing it will be 
acceptable to your selfe, and our dearly beloved Christian Friends, 
that long for and rejoyce in the gracious appearance of Jesus Christ 
in his Kingly Soveraignty and power, where he hath not formerly 
been known, I shall by the help of God certifie you how the Lord 
hath carried on his own work with us since your departure from us. 
It pleased the Lord who hath drawne the Indians from the Paw- 
waws to worship himselfe, whereat the Pawwaivs were much dis- 
contented, yet now to perswade two of themselves to run after those 
that followed hard after God, desiring that they might goe with them 
in the wayes of that God whose name is Jehovah ; and they came 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 24 






186 The further Progresse of the Gospel 

much convinced of their sinnes that they had lived in, and especi- 
ally of their Pawwawing, saying, I throw it from me witlrhatred of 
it. being sorry that ever I medled with it. And now I have heard 
of Jehovah, by his help 1 put it under my feet, and hope to trample 
it down in the dust with the Devill and Pawwawnomas (or Imps) 
I throw it into the fire, and burn it. Thus they fully made known 
unto all both by word and gesture, and by more such like expres- 
sions they then used, not only their indignation against it, but that 
they would never make use of it more. One of them did then 
discover the bottom of his witchcraft, confessing that at first he came 
to be a Pawwaw by Diabolical Dreams, wherein he saw the Devill 
in the likenesse of four living Creatures ; one was like a man which 
he saw in the Ayre, and this told him that he did know all things 
upon the Island, and what was to be done ; and this he said had its 
residence over his whole body. Another was like a Crow, and did 
look out sharply to discover mischiefs coming towards him, and had 
its residence in his head. The third was like to a Pidgeon, and 
had its place in his breast, and was very cunning about any busi- 
nesse. The [p. 29.] fourth was like a Serpent, very subtile to doe 
mischiefe, and also to doe great cures, and these he said were meer 
Devills, and such as he had trusted to for safety, and did labour to 
raise up for the accomplishment of any thing in his diabolicall 
craft, but now he sailh, that he did desire that the Lord would free 
him from them, and that he did repent in his heart, because of his 
sin. 

The other said his Conscience was much troubled for his sin, and 
they both desired the Lord would teach them bis wayes, have mer- 
cy upon them, and pardon their sins, for Jesus Christ his sake : and 
truly it did give to us who were present a great occasion of praising 
the Lord, to see those poor naked sons of Mam, and slaves to the 
Devil from their birth, to come toward the Lord as they did, with 
their joynts shaking, and their bowels trembling, their spirits troubled, 
and their voices with much fervency, uttering words of sore dis- 
pleasure against sin and Satan, which they had imbraced from their 
Childhood with so much delight, accounting it also now their sin 
that they had not the knowledge of God. 

Secondly, that they had served the Devil, the Enemy both of 
God and Man. 

Thirdly, that they were so hurtfull in their lives, and were also 
thankfull that now through the blessing of God they had an oppor- 
tunity to be delivered out of that dangerous condition. The In- 
dians did all much rejoyce to see the Pawwawes turn from their 
wicked wayes to serve the Lord. Not long after the Pawwaws had 
forsaken their old way, on a Lecture day after Exercise diverse In- 
dians desired to become the servants of the Lord, amongst whom 
was a Pawwaw, called Tequanonim, who was of great esteem and 



among the Indians in New-England. 187 

very notorious ; for he as they said, and in their ignorance conceiv- 
ed, never did hurt 1o any, but alwayes good, endeavouring the good 
and preservation of the Indians ; whereunto also he was accompted 
by them to be strongly provided. And as himself said he had been 
possessed from the crowne of the head to the soal of the foot with 
Pawwawnomas, not onely in the shape of living Creatures, as Fowls, 
Fishes, and creeping things, but Brasse, Iron, and Stone. It was 
therefore the more to be acknowledged the work of God, that he 
should forsake this way, his friends, his gain, to [p. 30.] follow 
tha Lord, whose wayes are so despisable in the eyes of devillish 
minded men. This Pawwaw declaring by what means the Lord 
took him off this devillish Trade, said that he had heard some 
things from my Father, who took occasion to discourse with him 
about the way of true happinesse, that he should never forget, bless- 
ed be God, his Counsell had so good an effect, as I hope it hath on 
many others. It pleased the Lord who will have all the gods of the 
earth to be terrible unto him, for he meeting Mumanequem in the 
wood by accident, told him that he was glad he had an opportunity to 
speak his minde unto him, for he had many searchings of heart 
about his Pawwawing, and did think it was not a good way, and 
that God was angry with him for it ; for said he my Wife hath been 
a long time sick, and the more I Pawwaw for her, the sicker she 
is 5 And this doth agree with an observation of the Indians of this 
Island, viz. that since the Word of God hath been taught unto 
them in this place, the Pawwaws have been much foiled in their 
devillish tasks, and that instead of curing have rather killed many ; 
but in a word, the fruit of this and all other means was a publique 
manifestation of hatred to his former wayes, wondering he was 
yet alive who was so sinfull, and that he desired to be better, and to 
beleeve in Christ, for whose sake onely, he did believe his sinnes 
could be pardoned, and that he did desire to heare the Word of 
God. This man hereby hath made those of his owne house to be 
his Enemies ; his Wife, his Children, and most of his friends and 
kindred, who remain obstinate still, whereby he meets with many 
troubles and temptations : one of his brethren being very sick did 
earnestly desire that he would Pawwaw for him, which he refused, 
his brother told him that he might keep it private, but he still refused, 
telling him that notwithstanding that, if he should answer his desire, 
he should break his Covenant, and sinne against God ; and there- 
fore would not. 

There came pressing in at the same time about fifty Indians, de- 
siring to joyne with the Worshippers of God in his service. It 
would be too long for me to set downe what every one said before 
they entred into Covenant, only this I may not omit, that all of 
them came confessing their sinnes, some in speciall [p. 31.] the 
naughtinesse of their hearts, others in particular, actuall sinnes they 



188 The further Progresse of the Gospel 

had lived in : and also they all desired to be made better, and to 
attend unto the Word of God, to that end looking onely to Christ 
Jesus for salvation. 1 observed also that they generally came in by 
Families, bringing also their Children with them, saying, I have 
brought my Children too, I would have my Children serve God with 
us, I desire that this son and this daughter may worship Jehovah, 
and if they could but speak, their Parents would have them say 
somthing to shew their willingnesse to serve God : And when the 
Commandements were repeated, they all acknowledged them to be 
good ; and made choice of Jehovah to be their God, promising by 
his help to walk according to his Counsels : And when they were 
received by them that were before in this generall Covenant, it was 
by loud voices giving thanks to God that they were met together in 
the wayes of Jehovah : this is all before the end of the year 1650. 

And now through the mercy of God there are an hundred ninetie- 
nine, men, women, and children, that have professed themselves to 
be worshippers of the great and everliving God. There are now 
two meetings kept every Lords day, the one three miles, the other 
about eight miles off my house : Hiacomes teacheth twice a day at 
the nearest, and Mumanequem accordingly at the farthest, the last 
day of the week they come unto me to be informed touching the 
subject they are to handle : And the Lord doth much assist them, 
blessed be the name of the Lord. I have also undertaken to keep 
by the help of God two Lectures amongst them, which will be at 
each once a fortnight : And I hope it will be by the blessing of God 
very profitable unto them. This winter I intend, if the Lord will, 
to set up a School to teach the Indians to read, viz. the children, 
and also any young men that are willing to learne, whereof they are 
very glad. 1 am also endeavouring their Cohabitation with all con- 
venient speed, that so they may be more helpfull one to another ; and 
also the better advantaged to carry on that work they have set upon 
to Gods glory, and their own comfort. And what I have written 
concerning the Pawwawes, and the fifty Indians that were admitted 
to those [p. 32.] that worshipped God in one day : There were 
diverse English both eye and ear witnesses thereof, as well as my 
selfe, and we could not but acknowledge much of the Lords power 
and goodnesse to be visible amongst them, who without being driven 
by power, or allured by gifts, were so strongly carried against those 
wayes they so much loved, to love the way that nature hates. Let 
us therefore magnifie the Lord, who alone doth this, and seek unto 
him to doe more and more still, that so one generation may praise 
his works to another, and that so both we and them may abundantly 
utter the memory of his great goodnesse and power, in that new 
Song, Revelations 5. 9. untill that we all meet together in Heaven, 
and sing glorious praises unto him that sitteth upon the Throne, and 



among the Indians in New-England. 189 

unto the Lamb for ever and ever. In whom I heartily recommend 
you unto God, desiring to be recommended by you, and in him to 
rest. 

From the Vineyard this 16th 

of October. 1651. Yours to be commended in 

and for the Lord Jesus. 

Thomas Mayhew. 



The next Letter you meet withall came from the present 
Governour of the Massachusets, directed to the President 
of our Corporation, and another of the Members thereof 
which wee thought good to publish, that every Christian 
Reader may partake in the same consolation, wherewith he 
and we are comforted ; and joyne with us in prayer to the 
Lord of the Harvest, that he would provide more Labour- 
ers to enter upon this soul-saving worke, and enlarge the 
hearts of all his people in this JYation towards the same. 



[p. 33.] Jfluch honoured and beloved in 
the Lord Jesus. 



IEsteeme it not the least of Gods mercies that hath stirred up 
the hearts of any of the people of God to be instrumentall in 
the inlarging of the Kingdome of his deare Sonne here amongst the 
Heathen Indians, which was one end of our comming hither, and 
it is not frustrated. It was prophesied of old, and now begins to be 
accomplished, Psal. 2. 8. Neither can 1 but acknowledge the un- 
speakable goodnesse of God that gives us favour in the sight of our 
Countreymen to helpe on with so large a hand of bounty, so glori- 
ous a work, provoked thereunto by your worthy selves, the chiefe 
Actors of so good a designe, let me (with leave) say confidently, 
you will never have cause to repent it ; For the work is Gods and 
he doth owne it, the labour there hath been yours, and your Master 



190 The further Progresse of the Gospel 

will reward it. I think Religion and Conscience binde me to seek 
unto God for you, and to praise him with you, for what is already 
begun. The Foundation is laid, and such a one that I verily be- 
leeve the gates of Hell shall never prevaile against. 1 doubt 
not but the building will goe on apace, which I hope will make glad 
the hearts of Thousands. Truly Gentlemen, had you been eare 
and eye-witnesses of what I heard and saw on a Lecture-day 
amongst them about three weeks since, you could not but be affected 
therewith as I was. To speak truly 1 could hardly refrain tears 
from very joy to see their diligent attention to the word first taught 
by one of the Indians, who before his Exercise prayed for the 
manner devoutly and reverently (the matter I did not so well under- 
standing) but it was with such reverence, zeale, good affection, and 
distinct utterance, that I could not but admire it; his Prayer was 
about a quarter of an houre or more, as w T e judged it ; then he took 
his Text, and Mr. Eliot their Teacher told us that were English 
the place [p. 34.] (there were some Ministers and diverse other 
godly men there that attended me thither) his Text was in Matth. 
13. 44, 45, 46. He continued in his Exercise full halfe an houre 
or more, as I judged it, his gravity and utterance was indeed very 
commendable ; which being done Mr. Eliot taught in the Indian 
tongue about three quarters of an hour as neer as I could guesse ; 
the Indians which were in number men and women neer about one 
hundred, seemed the most of them so to attend him, (the men es- 
pecially) as if they would loose nothing of what was taught them, 
which reflected much upon some of our English hearers. After 
all there was a Psalme sung in the Indian tongue, and Indian mee- 
ter, but to an English tune, read by one of themselves, that the rest 
might follow, and he read it very distinctly without missing a word 
as we could judge, and the rest sang chearfully, and prettie tune- 
ablie. I rid on purpose thither being distant from my dwelling about 
thirty eight, or forty miles, and truly I account it one of the best 
Journeyes I made these many years. Some few dayes after I desired 
Mr. Eliot briefly to write me the substance of the Indians Exercise, 
which when he went thither again, namely to Naticke, where the 
Indians dwell, and where the Indian taught, he read what he re- 
membered of it first to their School-Master who is an Indian, and 
teacheth them and their Children to write, and 1 saw him write also 
in English, who doth it true and very legible, and asked him if it 
were right, and he said yea, also he read it unto others, and to the 
man himselfe, who also owned it. To tell you of their industry and 
ingenuitie in building of an house after the English manner, the 
hewing and squaring of their tymber, the sawing of the boards 
themselves, and making of a Chimney in it, making of their ground- 
sells and wall-plates, and mortising, and letting in the studds into 



among the Indians in New-England. 191 

them artificially, there being but one English man a Carpenter to 
shew them, being but two dayes with them, is remarkeable. They 
have also built a Fort there with halfe trees cleft about eight or ten 
inches over, about ten or twelve foot high, besides what is intrencht 
in the ground, which is above a quarter of an acre of ground, as I 
judge. They have also built a loot bridge over Charles Rivers, 
with Groundsells and Spurres to [p. 35.] uphold it against the 
strength, of the Flood and Ice in Winter ; it stood firme last Winter, 
and 1 think it will stand many Winters. They have made Drummes 
of their owne with heads and brases very neatly and artificially, all 
which shews they are industrious and ingenuous. And they intend 
to build a Water-Mill the next Summer, as I was told when I was 
with them. Some of them have learnt to mow grasse very well. I 
shall no further trouble you with any more Relation at this time 
concerning them. But a word or two further with your patience 
concerning other Indians. The work of God amongst the In- 
dians at Martins Vineyard, is very hopefull and prosperous 
also. I mist of Mr Mayhew their Teacher, who was lately at 
Boston, and therefore cannot give you a particular account thereof 
at this present time ; yet J cannot but acquaint you what other 
motions there are touching other Indians. There came to us 
upon the 20th of this instant Moneth, at the Generall Court one 
Pummakummim Sachem of Qunnubbagge, dwelling amongst or 
neer to the Narragansets, who offered himselfe and his Men to 
worship God, and desired that some English may be sent from the 
Massachusets Government to plant his River, that thereby he may 
be pertaker of Government, and may be instructed by the English 
to know God. We shall I hope take some care and course about 
it, and I hope we shall have more help to carry on that work also • 
For there are some Schoilers amongst us who addict themselves to 
the study of the Indian Tongue. The Lord in mercy recompence 
it into your Bosomes, all that labour of love vouchsafed to the poor 
Indians, which are the hearty prayers, and earnest desire of, much 
honoured, 

Boston the 27th of 

the Eight. 1651. Your loving Friend in all 

service of Christ. 

John Endecott. 



192 The further progresse of the Gospel 

[p. 36.] The next thing we present the Reader withall, 
is a private passage from one in New England to his god- 
ly Friend here, who was so much affected therewith, as he 
found out our Treasurer of the Corporation, by name 
Mr. Richard Floyd at the Meremaide in Cheapside, and 
desired it might be published to the world amongst other 
things, when we should publish and print what we receiv- 
ed of like nature. And how ever it is but brief e in it 
selfe, yet full of sweetnesse and plainness e of spirit which 
we offer to thy view. 

THe best News I can write you from New-England is, the Lord 
is indeed converting the Indians, and for the refreshing of your 
heart, and the hearts of all the godly with you ; I have sent you the 
Relation of one Indian of two yeares profession, that I took from 
his owne mouth by an Interpreter, because he cannot speak or un- 
derstand one word of English. 



The first Question 



was 



Q. How did you come first to any sight of sinne ? 

A. His answer was, Before the Lord did ever bring any English 
to us, my Conscience was exceedingly troubled for sin, but after Mr. 
May hew came to preach, and had been here some time, one chief e 
Sagamore did imbrace the Gospel, and 1 hearing of him, I went to 
him, and prayed him to speake something to me concerning God, and 
the more 1 did see of God, the more 1 did see my sinne, and 1 went 
away rejoycing, that 1 knew any thing of God, and also that I saw 
my sinne. 

Q. 1 pray what hurt doe you see in sinne ? 

A. Sin, sayth he, is a continual! sicknesse in my heart. 

Q What further evill doe you see in sinne ? 

A. I see it to be a breach of all Gods Command ements. 

Q. Doe you see any punishment due to man for sinne? 

A. Yea, sayth he, 1 see a righteous punishment from God due to 
man for sinne, which shall be by the Devills in a place like unto 
fire (not [p. 37.] that 1 speake of mater iall fire, (saith he) where 
man shall be for ever dying and never dye. 

Q. Have you any hope to escape this punishment ? 

A. While I went on in the way q/*Indianisme 1 had no hope, but 
did verily believe I should goe to that place, but now I have a little 
hope, and hope 1 shall have more. 

Q. By what meanes doe you look for any hope ? 

A. Sayth he, by the satisfaction of Christ. 



among the Indians in New-England. 193 

I prayed the Interpreter, to tell him from mee that I would have 
him thinke much of the satisfaction of Christ, (and so he told him) 
I prayed him to returne mee his Answer. 

A. 1 thanke him kindly for his good Counsell, it doth my heart 
good, sayd he, to heare any man speake of Christ. 

Q. What would you thinke if the Lord should save you from 
misery ? 

A. If the Lord, said he, would save me from all the sinne that is 
in my heart, and from that misery, 1 should exceedingly love God, 
and saith he, I should love a man that should doe mee any good, 
much more the Lord, if he should doe this for mee. 

Q. Doe you thinke that. God will doe you any good for any good 
that is in you ? 

A. Though I beleeve that God loves man that leaves his sinne, 
yet I beleeve it is for Christs sake. 

Q. Doe you see that at any time God doth answer your prayers ? 

A. Yea, sayth he, I take every thing as an Answer of prayer. 

Q. But what speciall answer, have you taken notice of ? 

A. Once my wife being three dayes and three nights in labour, I 
was resolved never to leave praying till she had deliverance, and at 
last God did it, and gave her a sonne, and I called his name Re- 
turning, because all the while 1 went on in Indianisme 1 was going 
from God, but now the Lord hath brought mee to him backe againe. 

By this time Captaine Gooking came to us, and he asked him 
this Question : 

Q. What he would thinke if he should finde more affliction and 
trouble in Gods wayes, then he did in the way of Indianisme. 

A. His answer was, when the Lord did first turne me to himselfe 
[p. 38.] and his wayes, he stripped mee as bare as my skinne, and 
if the Lord should strip mee as bare as my skinne againe, and so big 
Saggamore should come to mee, and say, I will give you so big 
Wampom, so big Beaver, and leave this way, and turne to us againe : 
1 would say, take your riches to your selfe, I would never forsake 
God and his wayes againe. 

This is a Relation taken by my selfe, William French. 



The last Letter we offer to the Readers view, is a 
Letter directed to one of our selves from Mr Thomas Al- 
len, who came lately from New England, and is now 
setled in the Ministery at Norwitch in Norfolke, wherein 
he beareth witnes to the reallitie and truth of this worke 
of the Lord in New England begun upon the Indians ; 

VOL. JV. THIRD SERIES. 25 



194 The further progresse of the Gospel 

against all such that raise up false reports against the 
same, or such as labour to weaken the same, by lessening 
the number of such as are wrought upon by the power of 
the Gospel preached to them. 



Honored Sir ; 

IT seemes that some of late have been so impudently bold 
(which I cannot sufficiently wonder at) as to report and pub- 
liquely affirme, that there was no such thing as the preaching and 
dispersing of the Gospell amongst the Natives in New England : 
verily Sir, I doe beleeve that the Devill himselfe (who is the Father 
of Lyes) would not, yea durst not have uttered such a notorious 
untruth as that was. Now although I confesse I have not been 
present at the places where the Indians are wont to meete, to heare 
such as doe preach unto them, by reason of my bodily weakness 
and indisposition to travell so farre into the Wildernesse, yet thus 
much I can testifie (if my Testimony may be of any use) being late- 
ly come over from New England ; that there are divers persons in 
severall places, who doe take paines, and [p. 39] labour in that 
Worke there, viz. not onely Mr. Eliot of Roxbury, who hath 
preached among them for many yeares up h downe in the Jurisdic- 
tion of the Massachusets ; and Mr Mahew, who for a good while 
hath taken paines among the Indians at an Island called Martins 
Vineyard ; but of late also Mr. Leveridge in the Jurisdiction of 
Plymouth, and Mr. Blynman who lives now in a new Plantation in 
the Pequotts Countrey. As for the successe of the preaching of 
the Gospel unto the Natives, I have heard Mr Eliot affirme, that he 
is so well perswaded of the Worke of grace in some of them, as 
that he could comfortably joyne in Church fellowship with them : 
Mr. Mahew also (who came to see mee a little before my coming 
from thence)told me that after Mr. Whitfeilds coming thence (for 
he had been upon that Island, as he came to the Bay, and was pre- 
sent also with Mr Mahew amongst the Indians) there were neer upon 
one hundred (I think he said Ninety and odd) persons of them more 
who came in to heare him preach unto them, and some Pawaws 
also, and one of some Eminency amongst them, who did acknowl- 
edge his Evill in such doings, and made a Declaration of the manner 
how he came at first to be a Pawaw, the which also Mr. Mahew did 
relate unto mee. Sir, that there rs such a work in hand in New- 
England as the preaching of the Gospel unto the Natives there, all 
the Magistrates and Ministers and people in that place (who know 
any thing) will be readie to attest, and therefore such as dare af- 



among the Indians in New-England. 195 

firme the contrary, may as well say, that the Sunne doth not shine 
at Noone day, when the skie is cleere, and doe indeed deserve a 
Publique Witnesse to be borne against them, for such a Publique, 
and so notorious an untruth ; The good Lord humble them deeply 
for it, if it be his good will, and pardon it to them through his grace 
in Christ. 

Thus Sir, not having further at this present to be troublesome 
unto you, desiring an Interest in your earnest prayers for mee, be- 
seeching the Lord to let his presence and blessing be with you, and 
upon your great and weighty businesses, I take leave, resting 



Norwich 8d. lira. Your humble Servant in the Lord, 

16 5 1. Thomas Allen. 



r 40 -, r I ^ Hus having presented the Christian Read- 
JL er with a view of those things that God hath 
brought to our hands, which we of the Corporation con- 
ceive our selves bound in duty to publish to the world, 
looking upon it as one meanes to advance the work in the 
hearts of Gods people, and to stir re them, up thereby to 
contribute more freely towards the carrying on the same : 
The reason wherefore we have published so many testi- 
monialls, and shall insert more, is because too many that 
come from thence labour to blast the worke, by reporting 
here that there is no such worke afoote in the Countrey : 
or if it be it is but for the loaves, & if any be truely 
converted, His not above five or seaven at most ? These 
things as they are very grievous to us to heare, so we 
take God to witnes, that as we are in sincerity exercised 
in a great deale of care and travell to carry on the worke : 
so we publish to the world no more then what we have re- 
ceived, and beleeve to be really true. And if these testi- 
monies related in the foregoing discourse, be not sufficient 
to satisfie any still doubting spirit, there are some eminent 
Gentlemen come from thence, who are ready to resolve 



196 The further Progresse of the Gospel fyc. 

them in the truth hereof, as Mr Edward Hopkins, late 
Governour o/'Connectacutt, M>- Francis Willowby, (and 
others) a late Magistrate of the Massachusets. Besides 
if any shall repaire to Coopers Hall, we shall be willing 
to show them the originall Copies we have received, which 
we have transcribed for the Presse : the time for any to 
repaire thither is Saturday every weeke between the houres 
of ten and twelve in the Morning, where our Corporation 
sit, and where we shall gladly take paines to satisfie the 
doubt of any : and thinke nothing too much wherein we 
may be serviceable to the Lord Jesus in a worke having 
so much tendency to his glory in the propagation of his 
Kingdome. 

Signed in the name and by the appointment of the 
said Corporation by William Steele Esquire, President. 



FINIS 



Tears of Repentance: 

Or, A further 

Narrative of the Progress of the Gospel 

Amongst the 

INDIANS 

I N 

NEW-ENGLAND 



Setting forth, not only their present state 

and condition, but sundry Confessions of sin by 
diverse of the said Indians, wrought upon by 
the saving Power of the Gospel ; Together with 
the manifestation of their Faith and Hope in 
Jesus Christ, and the Work of Grace upon their 
Hearts. 

Related by Mr. Eliot and Mr. Mayhew, two Faithful Laborers 
in that work of the Lord. 

Published by the Corporation for propagating the Gospel there, for 
the Satisfaction and Comfort of such as wish well thereunto j 



Isay, 42. 3. A bruised Reed shall he not break, and the smoaking 
Flax, shall he not quench. 



London : Printed by Peter Cole in Leaden-Hall, and are to [be] Sold 
at his Shop, at the Sign of the Printing-Press in Cornhil, 
near the Royal Exchange. 1653. 



T O 

HIS EXCELLENCY 

The Lord General 

CROMWEL. 

\Xr Hat the Jews once said of their Centurion, He lov- 
" ed our Nation, aud built us a Synagogue, the same 
may we affirm upon a more Noble Accompt of Your Lord- 
ship, and of those faithful Centurions and Soldiers under 
Your Conduct ; by how much the Adventure of your Lives 
in the Cause of God, for the Good of your Country, is a 
more infallible Demonstration of your Love to it : foras- 
much as the King of Saints, is also King of Nations, and 
when he shall be the desire of all Nations, will prove their 
safest Interest. Upon consideration whereof, it was but 
equal that Mr. Eliot a faithful Laborer of Christ in spread- 
ing the Everlasting Gospel to the poor Indians, should 
prefix Your Lordships Name to his Relation of the Pro- 
gress of Divine Grace amongst them : And with his Judg- 
ment, We of the Corporation, who are subordinately in- 
trusted, do so far concur, especially moved thereunto by that 
liberal and Exemplary Contribution to this Glorious Work 
lately promoted by Your Lordship, and Your Officers with 
the Army, that we thought not fit either to sever that Nar- 
rative, and this of Mr. Alayhew's or to send them abroad 
under any other Name to the Publick View. 

Coopers-Hall, London, Signed in the Name and by 

March, 26. 1653. the Appointment of the 

said Corporation, by 

William Steel, President. 



To the much Honored Corporation in 
London, Chosen to Place of Pub- 
lick Trust for the promoting of the 
Work of the Lord among the Indians 
in New-England. 



Worthy Sirs, 

IT hath not been from any disrespect to your selves, 
that I have not formerly directed to your Presence, 
and presented into your Hand, what have already 
been let go, which made Relation of the Work of God 
among the Indians in this Island (commonly called Mar- 
tins Vineyard) This year there was an opportunity not 
to be refused, of certifying the Right Worshipful John 
Endicot Esquire, Governor of the Massachussets in New- 
England of what I had to communicate concerning the 
Indians, from whose hand also you will receive it ; but 
yet I may not for several causes, neglect the writing to 
your selves the same things, with more particulars since 
adjoyned, in the conclusion to accompany the former 
unto your Pious and Prudent consideration, to which 
they are committed to be (as I have received them 
from God) the tokens of more Grace in store to be be- 
stowed on Indian souls. 

Highly esteemed in the Lord Jesus, 
"IT^/'Hen the Lord first brought me to these poor In- 
* * dians on the Vinyard, they were mighty zealous 
and earnest in the Worship of False gods and Devils ; 
their False gods were many, both of things in Heaven, 
Earth, and Sea : And there they had their Men-gods, 
Women-gods, and Children-gods, their Companies, and 
Fellowships of gods, or Divine Powers, guiding things 
amongst men, besides innumerable more feigned gods 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 26 



202 Mr. Mayhew's Letter 

belonging to many Creatures, to their Corn, and every 
Colour of it : The Devil also with his Angels had his 
Kingdom among them, in them ; account him they did 
the terror of the Living, the god of the Dead, under 
whose cruel power and into whose deformed likeness 
they conceived themselves to be translated when they 
died ; for the same word they have for Devil, they use 
also for a Dead Man, in their Language : by him they 
were often hurt in their Bodies, distracted in their Minds, 
wherefore they had many meetings with their Pawwaws, 
(who usually had a hand in their hurt) to pacifie the De- 
vil by their sacrifice, and get deliverance from their evil ; 
1 have sometimes marvelled to see the vehemency of 
their Spirits, which they acted with no less bodily vio- 
lence therein. The Pawioaws counted their Imps their 
Preservers, had them treasured up in their bodies, which 
they brought forth to hurt their enemies, and heal their 
friends ; w 7 ho when they had done some notable Cure, 
would shew the Imp in the palm of his Hand to the In- 
dians who with much amazement looking on it, Deified 
them, then at all times seeking to them for cure in all 
sicknesses, and counsel in all cases : This Diabolical 
way they were in, giving heed to a multitude of Hea- 
then Traditions of their gods, and many other things, 
under the observation whereof, they with much slavery 
were held, and abounding with sins, having only an ob- 
scure Notion of a god greater than all, which they call 
Mannit, but they knew not what he was, and therefore 
had no way to worship him. 

What an entrance I had at first amongst these misera- 
ble Heathen, how called thereunto, and what success 
God blessed us with, hath been in some measure already 
published, which will I hope through the dew of Gods 
blessing from Heaven, have such a gracious increase, 
that the blossoming and budding time shal at least be 
acknowledged, and by many more God blessed for it, in 
the growth of the fruit to more maturity ; Since it hath 
pleased God to send his Word to these poor captivated 
men (bondslaves to sin and Satan) he hath through 



to the Corporation. 203 

mercy brought two hundred eighty three Indians (not 
counting yong children in the number) to renounce their 
false gods, Devils, and Pawwaws, and publickly in set 
meetings, before many witnesses, have they disclaimed 
the Divinity of their formerly adored multitude, defied 
their tyrannical Destroyer the Devil, and utterly refused 
the help of the Pawwaws in any case; neither have 
they at any time, either by threatnings or flatteries been 
drawn thereto, although their lives have been in hazard ; 
yea, eight of their Pawwaws have forsaken their Devil- 
ish craft, and profitable trade as they accounted it, for to 
embrace the Word and Way of God. The Indians 
which do pray to God, were not compelled thereto by 
power, neither also could they be allured by gifts, who 
received nothing for about seven years time, much less 
that which counterpoyse their troubles, and exceed to 
the drawing of them from the beloved waies of their 
own Worships : Surely it were great uncharitableness, 
and derogatory from the glory of God, to think that 
none of these are truly changed, and that God himself 
by his Word and Spirit, hath not in mercy prevailed in 
their hearts against these evils ; nay, may we not hope 
and be perswaded by this, and some other appearances 
of God amongst them, that some of them are truly turn- 
ed to God from Idols, to serve the Living and true 
God 1 Serve him, through mercy they do in some hope- 
ful Reformations, walking inoffensively and diligently 
in their way, which 1 hope will more plainly appear 
when they are in a way more hopeful (by the blessing of 
God to their further well-being) which I hope will be in 
the best time. 

I cannot but take notice of this good providence of 
God by the way, That he hath mercifully preserved all 
the Indians which call upon his Name (from the begin- 
ning of the Work unto this day) from all extraordinary 
evil, whereby the Devil and Witches use to torment the 
Bodies and Minds of Men, not one of them or their chil- 
dren (as I know) or have heard have been touched by 
them in this kind (only a Pawwaw or two, have not been 



204 Mr. Mayhew's Letter 

delivered from his Imps presently after his renouncing 
of them, but for some time have had the sence of them 
in his Body with much pain :) The mischief that the 
Pawwaws and Devils usually do to the common Indian 
this way, is both by outward and bodily hurt, or inward 
pain, torture, and distraction of mind, both which I have 
seen my self: To accomplish the first, the Devil doth 
abuse the real body of a Serpent, which comes directly 
towards the man in the house or in the field, looming or 
having a shadow about him like a man, and do shoot a 
bone (as they say) into the Indians Body, which some- 
times killeth him. An instance whereof I can give, 
whereby it may the more plainly appear, that it is a great 
mercy to be delivered therefrom ; and it is of a youth, 
who living with his Parents upon a neck of Land, They 
did not pray unto Jehovah, yet their Neighbours who lived 
there with them, did ; This Youth was hurt after the 
same manner, and then presently his Parents pulled 
down the house they lived in, and fled to an Island near 
by, where I saw the Indian thus hurt in his Thigh, he 
was grievously tormented, and his Kindred about him 
mourning, not knowing where to find any comfort, or 
help, for cure could not be had from their gods or Paw- 
waws : I then took the opportunity to reason with them 
about their way, with the best wisdom God gave me, 
but all in vain, for they would not hear to seek the true 
God, notwithstanding he had shewn his displeasure so 
apparently against them for their former refusing of Him, 
but they still followed on their wonted Serpentine Mach- 
inations : The Pawwaws, and their devillish train, with 
their horrible outcries, hollow bleatings, painful wrest- 
lings, and smiting their own bodies, sought deliverance, 
but all in vain, for he died miserably. Hereby, and by 
several other things, I perceive that they are not (in a 
manner) indifferent, whether they serve their own gods 
or not, or change them (as some think) for they are na- 
turally like the Heathens of Chittim and Kedar, which 
would not change their gods, which yet are no gods; 
when God blames his people for changing their glory 



to the Corporation. 205 

for that which doth not profit ; I hope therefore that it 
is something of Grace, that many chuse to worship the 
true God. But touching the former vexing mischiefs, 
A Sachem, and no good friend to the work, could not but 
acknowledg the blessing of God among the Praying In- 
dians ; When I came over (said he) at the further end 
of the Island, there was a storm (mentioning the afore- 
said evils, with some more) but when I came to this end I 
found a calm, the Praying indians were all well, they 
arose in the morning, Prayed to God, and went about 
their business, and they are not hurt nor troubled like 
the other Indians : And the Pawwaws themselves, some 
of them do say, That they cannot make their power seize 
on any of them : Questionless they have tried their Skill 
and Satan hath not been wanting to assist them, who is 
so unwilling to fall down from his Rule, and to be driven 
from his old Possessions. A Pawwaw told me, who was 
of no small note among the Heathen formerly, and also 
with the best, now he hath forsaken his Pawwawing, 
That after he had been brought by the Word of God to 
hate the Devil, and to renounce his Imps (which he did 
publickly) that yet his Imps remained still in him for 
some months tormenting of his flesh, and troubling of his 
mind, that he could never be at rest, either sleeping or 
waking : At length one time when I went down to keep 
the farthest Lecture about seven miles off, he asked me 
some Questions, whereof this was one, viz. That if a 
Pawwaw had his Imps gone from him, what he should 
have instead of them to preserve him ? Whereunto it 
was Answered, That if he did beleeve in Christ Jesus, 
he should have the Spirit of Christ dwelling in him, 
which is a good and a strong Spirit, and will keep him so 
safe, that all the Devils in Hell, and Pawwaws on Earth, 
should not be able to do him any hurt ;" and that if he did 
set himself against his Imps, by the strength of God they 
should all flee away like Muskeetoes : He told me, That 
he did much desire the Lord, it might be so with him. 
He further said, That ever since that very time God hath 
in mercy delivered him from them, he is not troubled with 



206 Mr. Mayhew's Letter 

any pain (as formerly) in his Bed, nor dreadful visions 
of the night, but through the blessing of God, he doth lie 
down in ease, sleeps quietly, wakes in Peace, and walks 
in safety, for which he is very glad, and praises God. 

This last spring, the Indians of their own accord made 
a motion to me they might have some way ordered 
amongst them, as a means whereby they might Walk in 
good Subjection to the Law of God, wherunto they de- 
sired to enter into Covenant ; they told me that they were 
very desirous to have their sins suppressed which God 
did forbid, and the duties performed, which he hath 
Commanded in his Word ; and thereunto they desired 
me to inform them, what punishment the Lord did ap- 
point to be inflicted on those which did break any part 
of his Law, for they were very willing to submit them- 
selves to what the will of the Lord is in this kind. I was 
not willing on the sudden to draw forth in writing an An- 
swer to their desire, but rather chose to take a longer time 
of Consideration in a Work of so great Concernment, and 
refer them to the Word of God, shewing them many 
places for their information, most whereof they had heard 
of formerly : They also further desired, That they might 
have some men Chosen amongst them with my Father 
and my self, to see that the Indians did walk orderly, 
and that such might be incouraged, but that those which 
did not, might be dealt with according to the word of the 
Lord ; I could not but approve and incourage the mo- 
tion, seeing they spake not as those in Psal. 2. 3. Let us 
break their bands asunder and cast away their cords from 
us, but sought totall subjection and strict obedience to 
God : yet I told them that it was a matter of great weight, 
shewing them many things which I thought necessary for 
them to know, but needless now to relate. A day of 
fasting and prayer to repent of our sins, and seek the 
gracious help of our God for Christ Jesus sake, we ap- 
pointed ; and another shortly'after to finish the work in : 
Some of the Indians spake somthing for their benefit; 
and about ten or twelve of them prayed, not with any 
set Form like Children, but like Men indued with a good 



to the Corporation. 207 

measure of the knowledg of God, their own wants and 
the wants of others, with much affection, and many Spi- 
ritual Petitions, savoring of a Heavenly mind ; and so 
are they streitned in respect of help from man, that it 
appears the more plainly to be the Dictates of Gods Spi- 
rit. A Platform of the Covenant in Answer to their de- 
sires, I drew forth the same morning in the Indian Lan- 
guage, which I have here sent in English. 

Wee the distressed Indians of the Vineyard (or Nope 
the Indian name of the Island) That beyond all memory 
have been without the True God, without a Teacher, and 
without a Law, the very Servants of Sin and Satan, and 
without Peace, for God did justly vex us for our sins ; hav- 
ing lately through his mercy heard of the JYame of the True 
God, the JYame of his Son Christ Jesus, with the holy Ghost 
the Comforter, three Persons, but one most Glorious God, 
whose JYame is JEHOVAH: We do praise His Glo- 
rious Greatness, and in the sorrow of our hearts, and 
shame of our faces, we do acknowledg and renounce our 
great and many sins, that we and our Fathers have lived 
in, do run unto him for mercy, and pardon for Christ Jesus 
sake ; and we do this day through the blessing of God up- 
on us, and trusting to his gracious help, give up our selves 
in this Covenant, Wee, our Wives, and Children, to serve 
Jehovah : And we do this day chuse Jehovah to 
be our God in Christ Jesus, our Teacher, our Law -giver 
in his Word, our King, our Judg, our Ruler by his Magis- 
trates and Ministers ; to fear God Himself, and to trust 
in Him alone for Salvation, both of Soul and Body, in this 
present Life, and the Everlasting Life to come, through his 
mercy in Christ Jesus our Savior, and Redeemer, and by 
the might of his Holy Spirit ; to whom with the Father and 
Son, be all Glory everlasting. Amen. 

After I had often read this Covenant and expounded 
it unto them, they all with free Consent willingly and 
thankfully joyned therein, and desired Jehovah his bles- 
sing for Jesus Christ hi* sake, the Lord be gracious to 
our beginnings. 



208 Mr. Mayhew's Letter 

Within two or three weeks there came an Indian to 
me in business, and by the way he told me, that "some 
Indians had lately kept a day of Repentance to humble 
themselves before God in prayer, and that the word of 
God which one of them spake unto, for their Instruction, 
was Psal. 66. 7. He ruleth by his Power for ever, his eyes 
behold the nations, let not the rebellious exalt themselves. 
I asked him what their end was in keeping such a day 1 
He told me those six things : First, they desired, That 
God would slay the rebellion of their hearts. Secondly, 
That they might love God, and one another. Thirdly, 
That they might withstand the evil words and tempta- 
tions^ wicked men, and not to be drawn back from God. 
Fourthly, That they might be obedient to the good 
Words and Commands of their Rulers. Fiftly, That they 
might have their sins done away by the Redemption of 
Jesus Christ. And Lastly, That they might walk in 
Christs way. 

Now for the state of things with us, we are by the 
help of God about to begin a Town that they may Co- 
habit and carry on things in a Civil and Religious way 
the better ; The praying Indians are constant attenders 
to the word of the Lord, and some of them (I hope) con- 
scionable seekers after the knowledg of God, and them- 
selves, and not without obtaining (by the grace of God) 
some saving benefit to their own Souls, which will by his 
own blessing, in the best time, more plainly appear. 
About 30. Indian Children are now at School, which be- 
gan the Eleventh day of the Eleventh month. 1651. 
they are apt to learn, and more and more are now send- 
ing in unto them. The Barbarous Indians, both men 
and women, do often come on the Lecture dayes, and 
complaining of their ignorance, disliking their sinful li- 
berty, and refusing the helps, and hopes of their own 
power, seek Subjection to Jehovah, to be taught, gover- 
ned, and saved by him, for Christs sake. The Name of 
the Lord alone be praised for what is begun ; What is 
further needfull, I earnestly desire may be fervently pray- 
ed for, and expected by faith, to be effected and finished 



to the Corporation. 209 

by the gracious hand of God, who have laid the founda- 
tion, and will not leave his own works unperfect, which 
is the comfort of an unworthy Laborer in the Lords Vin- 
yard, and an earnest desirer to be remembred at the 
Throne of Grace. 

Having a little more liberty, I shall certifie you of som- 
thing more, which I have taken notice of amongst the 
poor Indians. 

I observed that the Indians when they chose their 
Rulers, made choyce of such as were best approved for 
their godliness, and most likely to suppress sin, and en- 
courage holiness, and since they have been forward up- 
on all occasions, to shew their earnest desire thereof. 
There was an Indian that was well approved for his Re- 
formation, that was suspected to have told a plain Lye 
for his Gain ; the business was brought to the publick 
Meeting, and there it was notably sifted with zeal and 
good affection ; but at length the Indian defending him- 
self with great disdain, and hatred of such an evil, prov- 
ed himself clear, and praised God for it. The same 
Indian was a little before, very sick, and he told me that 
when he thought he should die, he did so love God, that 
he was not unwilling to die, and leave his wife, and chil- 
dren, or any thing else, but that he was only desirous to 
live for this cause, That he might be more taught by the 
Word of God, and be helpful to teach the Indians the 
Way of God. 

I have also observed how God is pleased to uphold 
some of these poor Indians against opposition. I was 
once down towards the further end of the Island, and 
lodged at an Indians house, who was accounted a great 
man among the Islanders, being the friend of a great 
Sachem on the Mayn ; this Sachem is a great Enemy to 
our Reformation on the Island : At this mans house when 
I had sate a while, his son being about thirty years old, 
earnestly desired me in his Language, to relate unto him 
some of the ancient Stories of God ; I then spent a 
great part of the night (in such discourse as I thought fit- 
test for them) as I usually do when I lodg in their houses, 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES 27 



210 Mr. Mayhew's Letter 

what he then heard (as he expressed) did much affect 
him: And shortly after he came and desired to joyn 
with the praying Indians to serve Jehovah, but it was to 
,the great discontentment of the Sachems on the Mayn, 
and those Indians about him : News was often brought 
to him that his life was laid in wait for, by those that 
would surely take it from him, they desired him therfore 
with speed to turn back again ; The man came to 
me once or twice, and I perceived that he was trou- 
bled, he asked my counsel about removing his Habita- 
tion, yet told me, That if they should stand with a sharp 
weapon against his breast, and tell him that they would, 
kill him presently, if he did not turn to them, but if he 
would, they would love him, yet he had rather lose his 
life than keep it on such terms ; for (said he) when I 
look back on my life as it was before I did pray to God, 
I see it to be wholly naught, and do wholly dislike it, 
and hate those naughty waies ; but when I look on that 
way which God doth teach me in his Word, I see it to 
be wholly good ; and do wholly love it. Blessed be 
God that he is not overcome by these temptations. 

The next thing 1 judg also worthy to be observed, My 
Father and I were lately talking with an Indian, who had 
not long before almost lost his life by a wound his Ene- 
mies gave him in a secret hidden way, the mark where- 
of he had upon him and will carry it to his grave : This 
man understanding of a secret Plot that was to take away 
his Enemies life, told my Father and I, That he did free- 
ly forgive him for the sake of God, and did tell this Plot 
to us that the mans life might be preserved : This is a 
singular thing, and who among the Heathen will do 
so? 

I observe also that the Indians themselves do indeav- 
or to propagate the knowledg of God, to the Glory of 
God and the good of others : I heard an Indian (after I 
had some discourse with the Indians in the night) ask 
the Sachem, and many others together, how they did like 
that counsel they heard from the word of God : They 
answered, very wel ; then said he why do you not take 



to the Corporation. 211 

it ? why do you not do according to it 1 He further ad- 
ded, I can tell you why it is, Because you do not see 
your sins, and because you do love your sins ; for as long 
as it was so with me, I did not care for the Way of God; 
but when God did shew me my sins, and made me hate 
them, then I was glad to take Gods Counsel: this I re- 
member he spake, with some other things, with such 
Gravity and truth, that the Sachem and all the company 
was not able to gain-say. 

Mijoxeo also lately met with an Indian, which came 
from the Mayn who was of some note among them ; 
I heard that he told them of the great things of God, and 
of 'Christ Jesus, the sinfulness and folly of the Indians, 
the Pardon of sin by Christ, and of a good life ; and so 
were they both affected, that they continued this dis- 
course tw r o half nights, and a day, until their strength 
was spent : He told him in particular, how a Beleever 
did live above the world, that he did keep worldly things 
alwaies at his feet (as he shewed him by a sign) That 
when they were deminished, or increased, it was neither 
the cause of his Sorrow, or joy, that he should stoop to 
regard them, but he stood upright w 7 ith his heart Heav- 
enward, and his whol desire was after God, and his joy 
in him. Now Much honored in the Lord, and all that 
love Christ Jesus in truth, let me prevail with you that 
we may be presented by you at the Throne of Grace in 
his worthiness to obtain those blessings, that concerns 
his Kingdom and Glory ; our Comfort and Salvation : 
And you are, and shall also be, ever humbly so prayed 
for, by him, who is 



From the Vinyard the 
22. of October, 1652 



Yours obliged^ and ever 

to be commanded in the 
Work of the Lord Jesus 

Thomas Mayhew. 



To His Excellency, the Lord General 
Cromwel ; Grace, Mercy, and Peace, 
be Multiplied. 

Right Honorable 

EJYvy it self cannot deny that the Lord hath raised 
and improved You in an Eminent manner to over- 
throw Antichrist, and to accomplish, in part, the Prophe- 
sies and Promises of the Churches Deliverance from that 
Bondage : In all which Service, the Lord hath not only 
kept Your Honor unsteined, but also caused the Lustre of 
those precious Graces of Humility, Faith, Love of Truth, 
and Love to the Saints, Sec, with which, through His Free 
Grace, He hath enriched You, to shine forth abundantly, 
beyond all exception of any that are> or have been Adver- 
saries to Your Proceedings. Mow as the design of Christ 
in these daies is double, namely, First, To overthrow Anti- 
christ by the Wars of the Lamb ; and Secondly, To raise 
up His own Kingdom in the room of all Earthly Powers 
which He doth cast down, and to bring all the World sub- 
ject to be ruled in all things by the Word of His mouth. 
And as the Lord hath raised and improved You, to accom- 
plish (so far as the Work hath proceeded) the first part of 
His Design, so I trust that the Lord will yet further im- 
prove You, to set upon the accomplishment of the second 
part of the design of Christ ; not only by indeavoring to 
put Government into the hands of Saints, which the Lord 
hath made You eminently careful to do, but also by promo- 
ting Scripture Government and Laws, that so the Word of 
Christ might rule all In which great Services unto the 
JYame of Christ, I doubt not, but it will be some Comfort 
to Your heart to see the Kingdom of Christ rising up in 
these Western Parts of the World ; and some confirmation 
it will be, that the Lords time is come to advance and 
spread His Blessed Kingdom, which shall (in his season) 






213 

fill all the Earth : and some incouragernent to your heart 
to prosecute that part of the Design of Christ, namely, 
That Christ might Reign, Such Considerations, together 
with the Favorable Respect You have alwaies shelved to 
poor New-England, hath imboldened me to present unto 
Your Hand, these first Confessions of that Grace which 
the Lord hath bestowed upon these poor JYatives, and to 
publish them under the protection of Your JVame, begging 
earnestly the continuance of Your Prayers for the further 
proceeding of this gracious Work : Jlnd so committing your 
Honor to the Lord, and to the Word of His Grace, and 
all Your weighty Affairs to His Heavenly Direction, I 
rest 

Your Honors to serve You, 
in the service of Christ 

John Eliot. 



To the READER. 



Christian Reader, 

I Know thy Soul longeth to hear Tydings of Gods grace 
powred out upon these goings down of the Sun, because 
}he Spirit of God by the Word of Prophesie, useth to 
raise up and draw forth such actings of Faith, as ac- 
cord with the accomplishment of those Prophesies, when the 
time of their accomplishment is come. When Israel was to 
return from Babylon, the Spirit by the word of Prophesie, 
raised up such actings of Faith, as were put forth in the 
exercise of all gifts necessary for the accomplishment there- 
of Daniel prayeth. Zerubbabel hath a Spirit of Ruling 
the peoples affections are loose from their dwellings, and 
have a Spirit of Traveling. Ezra, Nehemiah ? and all the 
rest of the Worthies of the Lord, are raised at that time to 
accomplish what is Prophesied. In these times the Prophe- 
sies of Antichrist his downfall are accomplishing. Jtnd 
do we not see that the Spirit of the Lord, by the word of 
Prophesie, hath raised up men, instruments in the Lords 
hand, to accomplish what is written herein. And the Spir- 
it of Prayer, and expectation of Faith is raised generally 
in all Saints, by the same word of Prophesie. In like man- 
ner the Lord having said, That the Gospel shall spread 
over all the Earth, even to all the ends of the Earth ; 
and from the riseing to the setting Sun ; all Nations shal 
become the Nations, and Kingdoms of the Lord and of 
his Christ, Such words of Prophesie hath the Spirit used 
to stir up the servants of the Lord to make out after the ac- 
complishment thereof: and hath stirred up a mighty Spirit 
of Prayer, and expectation of Faith for the Conversion 
both of the Jewes, (yea all Israel) and of the Gentiles also 
over all the world. For this Cause I know every beleeving 



To the Reader. 215 

neart, awakened by such Scriptures, longeth to hear of the 
Conversion of our poor Indians, whereby such Prophesies 
are in part begun to be accomplished. Yea, the Design of 
Christ being to erect his own Kingdom, in the room of all 
those Dominions, which he doth, and is about to overturn : 
You shall see a Spirit by such ivords of Frophesie powred 
forth upon the Saints (into whose hands Christ will com- 
mit the manageing of his Kingdom on Earth) that shall 
carry them forth to advance Christ to rule over men in all 
affairs, by the word of his mouth, and make him their only 
Law-giver, and supream Judge, and King. 

It is a day of small things with us : and that is Gods 
season to make the single beauty of his humbling Grace, to 
shine in them, that are the veriest mines of mankind that 
are known on earth ; as Mr. Hooker was wont to describe 
the forlorn condition of these poor Indians. / see evident 
demonstrations that Gods Spirit by his word hath taught 
them, because their expressions, both in Prayer, and in the 
Confessions which I have now published, are far more, and 
more full, and spiritual, and various, then ever I was able 
to express unto them ; in that poor broken manner of Teach- 
ing which I have used among them. Their turning doctrins 
into their own experience, which you may observe in their 
Confessions, doth also demonstrate the Teachings of Gods 
Spirit, whose first special work is Application. Their dif- 
ferent Gifts likewise, is a thing observable in their Confes- 
sions, wherein it is not to be expected that they should be 
all Eminent, it is not so in any Society of men ; but in that 
there be some among them that are more eminent, it is a 
sign of Gods favor, who is raising up among themselves, 
such as shall be his instruments to conveigh a blessing un- 
to the rest. Their frequent phrase of Praying to God, is 
not to be understood of that Ordinance and Duty of Prayer 
only, but of all Religion, and comprehendeth the same mean- 
ing, with them, as the word [Religion] doth with us : And 
it is observable, because it seemeth to me, That the Lord 
will make them a Praying people : and indeed, there is a 
great Spirit of Prayer powred out upon them, to my won- 
derment ; andtjoumay easily apprehend, That they who 



216 To the Reader. 

are assisted to express such Confessions before men, are 
not without a good measure of inlargement of Spirit before 
the Lord, 

The points of Doctrine that are here and there dropped 
in their Confessions, may suffice at present for a little taste 
to the Godly discerning Saints, That they are in some mea- 
sure instructed in the chief points of Salvation, though 
there be no Doctrinal Confession on purpose set down to 
declare what they have learned, and do beleeve. 

If any should conceive that that word which they so often 
use [I thought, or I think] should need explication, as a 
godly Brother did intimate to me on the Fast day, let this 
suffice, That it is to be Construed by the present Matter : 
For sometimes it is a thought of Faith ; sometime of fear : 
sometime of Unbelief; sometime of Carnal Reason ; and 
sometime of Ignorance. 

Lastly, It is plainly to be observed, That one end of Gods 
sending so many Saints to New-England, teas the Con- 
version of these Indians. For the Godly Counsels, and Ex- 
amples they have had in all our Christian Families, have 
been of great use, both to prepare them for the Gospel, and 
edso to further the Lords work in them, as you may evi- 
dently discern in most of their Confessions. 

Beloved Reader, 1 have no more to say as necessary to 
Prepare for the following Matter, only to beg, yea earnest- 
ly to beg the continuance of all your Prayers ; by the pow- 
er whereof (through the Grace and Intercession of Christ) 
I beleeve this wheele of Conversion of these Indians, is tur- 
ned : and my Heart hath been alwayes thereby encouraged 
to follow on to do that poor little I can, to help forward 
this blessed Work of Spreading and Exalting the Kingdom 
of our dear Savior Jesus Christ, under the direction and 
protection of whose Word and Grace, by Faith committing 
you; I rest, 

Your unworthy Brother, 

in our dear Savior, 

John Eliot* 






To the Christian Eeader. 



THE Amplitude and large extent of the Kingdom of 
Jesus Christ upon Earth, when the Heathen shall be 
his Inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the Earth his 
Possession; and when all Kings shall fall down unto him, 
and all JYations do him service, all contrary Kingdoms and 
Powers being broken in pieces and destroyed, is a thing 
plainly and plentifully foretold and promised in the Holy 
Scriptures ; Psal. 2. 8. and 22. 27. and 72. 11. and 86. 9. 
Dan. 2. 35. 44, 45. and 7. 26, 27. Zech. 14. 9. And al- 
though as yet our Eyes have never seen it so, nor our 
Fathers afore us, many Nations and People having hith- 
erto been overspread, and overwhelmed in Pagan 
Blindness and Ignorance, having scarce ever heard of 
Christ, or of His Name; and many others that in some 
sort have heard of Him, having no more Grace but to 
make and maintain Opposition against Him, and against 
His Kingdom, some more professedly, and others more 
covertly and under fairer pretence, as in the great Do- 
minions of the Turk, and of the Pope, is apparent ; 
yet the time is coming, when things shall not thus continue 
but be greatly changed and altered, because the Lord hath 
spoken this Word, and it cannot be that his Word should 
not take effect : And if the Lord have spoken it, his Peo- 
ple have good ground and reason to beleeve it, and to say 
as the holy Apostle in another case, I beleeve God that it 
shall be even as it was told me, Act. 27. 25. Yea, to be- 
leeve it and wait for it, as for that which in Gods appoint- 
ed and due time shall surely come to pass, and not fail, 
as Bab. 2. 3. And not only so, but heartily to desire it, 
and fervently to pray for it, as a thing wherein the Glo- 

VOL. IV. THIRC SERIES. 28 



218 To the Christian Reader. 

ry of God, and of Jesus Christ is not a little concerned 
and interessed ; for if the multitude of People be the 
Kings Honor, Prov. 14. 28. it must needs be the Hon- 
or of Christ Jesus the King of Sion, when multitudes of 
People do submit unto Him as to their King; and therefore 
it should be earnestly craved of God by all his Saints in 
their Prayers, that so it may be, according as the Sanc- 
tifying of Gods Name, and the coming of his Kingdom 
are the two first Petitions in that Rule and Pattern of 
Prayer commanded and taught by our Savior to his 
Disciples, Matth. 6. 9, 10. And no man needs to doubt 
but that those things which are matter for Faith and 
Prayer to be exercised about their accomplishment, are 
matters of Thanksgiving when once they come to pass. 
Which being so, the godly Christian, who shall read 
or hear this ensuing Relation concerning the workings of 
Gods Grace towards these Indians in Jfew-England, and 
the Confessions of sundry amongst them, will, I doubt 
not, see abundant cause of thanksgiving to the Lord 
therein. For hereby it will appear, That the Kingdom 
of the Lord Jesus which every faithful soul, doth so much 
desire to see enlarged, is now beginning to be set up 
where it never was before, even amongst a poor people, 
forlorn kind of Creatures in times past, who have been 
without Christ, and without God in the world, they and 
their Fathers, for I know not how many Generations ; 
yea, so far from knowing and acknowledging God in 
Christ, that they have been little better than the beasts 
that perish. But now they that were far off, the Lord 
is at work to make them neer unto himself by the blood 
of Jesus, as Eph. 2. 13. that they which in time past 
were not a People, might ere long become the People 
of God ; and they be called Beloved, which were not 
Beloved ; and in the place where it was said unto them, 
Ye are not my People, that there ere long, they might be 
called, The Children of the Living God, as 1 Pet 2. 10. 
Rom. 9. 25, 26. which is the Lords doing, and it ought 
to be marvelous in our eyes. And the truth is, there 
are many marvels in it ; marvelous free-grace, and riches 



To the Christian Reader. 219 

thereof, to look upon a People so wretched and unwor- 
thy; yea, it were marvelous Grace so much as once 
to offer the Salvation of God in Christ to any such 
as they are, being not only the poor and maimed, halt 
and blind, but also, as it is in Luk. 14. 21. ranging and 
roving in the High-waies, and Hedges ; and yet behold, 
even these are not only invited, but their hearts inclined 
to come in. Marvelous Y/isdom and Power is in it also 
that of matter so rugged, and unlikely the Lord should 
ever frame and fashion any gracious and holy building 
to Himself, which I hope he is now a doing. And to 
say no more, His mervelous Sovereignty and Liberty is 
therein to be observed also, who till now of late hath 
seen meet never to look after this People, but hath suf- 
fered them all this while to walk in their own waies, 
waies of Sin, and waies of Death : yea, and though there 
hath been Plantations of the English in the Country now 
20. years and more, yea, some matter of 30. years :or 
thereabout, yet of all this time (except some little work- 
ings in a few) no considerable work of Grace hath ap- 
peared amongst the Indians till now of late ; so true is 
that saying, The times and seasons, the Father hath pat 
them in his own Power, Act, 1. 7. 

If any shall say, Oh but, we are doubtful whether any 
sound and saving work be yet wrought in them or no : 
Such an one I would wish seriously to weigh and consid- 
er the ensuing Confessions, and then perhaps he will 
be better satisfied touching this Point ; for there he shall 
find many expressions savoring of their clear sight and 
sence of sin, and that not only of gross and external sins, 
but also of such as are more inward in the Heart and 
Soul : Also he shall find expressions tending to shew 
their expecting all righteousness and salvation by Christ 
alone. Nov/ considering how the Work of the Spirit of 
God is said by Christ Himself to consist in great part in 
convincing of sin, and of righteousness ; of sin in mens 
selves, and of righteousness in Christ, Joh. 16. 9. And 
considering also, how the least beginnings of Grace are 
accepted of him that would not break the bruised Reed, 



220 To the Christian Reader. 

nor quench the smoaking Flax, Matth. 12. 20. And last- 
ly, considering how it were not reasonable to expect such 
ripeness in these people, as might be expected and found 
in others, who have had more time and means, and bet- 
ter help and breeding than these have had: If these 
things I say be considered, it may be an Inducement to 
hope the best in charity concerning the Work of Grace 
in their Souls, as Charity hopeth all things, beleeveth all 
things, 1 Cor. 13. But thus much at the least I conceive 
is cleer, and cannot be denied that since the Word of God 
hath been taught and preached among them, the Spirit 
of the Lord hath been working thereby in the hearts of 
many of them such Illumination, such Conviction, &c, as 
may justly be looked at (if not as a full and through Con- 
version, yet) as an hopeful beginning and preparation 
thereto, if the Lord be pleased to go on with what he 
hath begun, as I hope he will. And if there were no 
more but only a hopeful beginning, and preparative to 
Conversion, yet even this were matter of much comfort 
to the Saints, and of thanksgiving to the Lord ; as it was 
in Israel at the building of the Temple, when no more 
was yet done, but only the foundation laid,i?2r. 3. 10, 11. 
yet even then they sung for joy, giving praise and thanks- 
giving to the Lord : How much more should it be so, 
if the Work of Regeneration be already truly wrought 
in any of them, as I hope it is in sundry ; In such case, 
how ever it be with men on Earth, sure there is joy in 
Heaven amongst the Angels of God, when there is so 
much as one sinner that is truly brought home to God 
by Repentance, Luke 15. 7. 10. 

But how shall we know that the Confessions here re- 
lated, being spoken in their Tongue, were indeed utter- 
ed by them in such words, as have the same signification 
and meaning with these that are here expressed, for we 
have only the testimony of one man to assure us of it ? 
It is true, we have only the testimony of one man for it; 
but yet it is such an one, as is unwillingly alone in this 
matter, having seriously endeavored to have had divers 
other Interpreters present at JYatick that day, but could 



To the Christian Reader. 221 

not obtain what he did desire and endeavor herein ; a 
man whose pious and painful labors amongst this People 
have rendred him approved and highly honored in the 
eyes of his Brethren about him, for indefatigable dili- 
gence, and earnest love to the Lord Jesus, and their poor 
souls ; a man whose integrity and faithfulness is so well 
known in these Parts, as giveth sufficient satisfaction to 
beleev that he would not wittingly utter a falshood in 
any matter whatever, and much less so many falshoods, 
&, that in such a publick manner, in the view of God &, 
the World, as he must needs have done if he have coyn- 
ed these Confessions of his own head, and have not to 
his best understanding truly related them in our Tongue, 
according as they were uttered by them in theirs. 

If any shall then ask, If there be such a Work of God 
amongst them, Why were they not combined and united 
into Church- Estate, when there was that great Assembly 
at JYatick, on the thirteenth of Octob. last 1 Such an one 
may do well to consider, that the material Temple was 
many yeers in building, even in the daies of Solomon, 
who wanted no helps and furtherances thereunto, but 
was abundantly furnished therewith, and longer in Re- 
edifying after the Captivity ; and therefore no marvel if 
the building of a Spiritual Temple, an holy Church to 
Christ, and a Church out of such rubbish as amongst 
Indians, be not begun and ended on a sudden ; It is ra- 
ther to be wondered at, that in so short a time, the thing 
is in so much forwardness as it is. Besides, It is a greater 
matter to have Indians accepted and owned as a Church 
amongst themselves, and so to be invested with all 
Church-power as a Church, when yet they are not fur- 
nished with any to be an able Pastor and Elder over 
them, by whom they might be directed and guided in 
all the Affairs of the Church, and Administrations of the 
House of God : this I conceive is a far greater matter 
than the admitting of them as Members into any Church 
or Churches of the English already so furnished ; which 
latter (for ought I know) might speedily be done, and 
with much satisfaction, if it were suitable in regard of 



22*2 To the Christian Reader. 

their different Language, and the remoteness of their 
Habitations, whereas to the former there seems to be a 
great necessity, or expediency at the least, that they 
should first be provided of some to be afterward set over 
them in the Lord. Even amongst the English, when any 
company amongst us have united themselves into Church- 
Estate, it hath been usual that they have had one or other 
amongst them upon whom their eyes have been set, as 
intending them to be Pastors or Teachers to them; af- 
terward, when once they should be combined as a 
Church, and where it hath so been, they have found the 
Comfort and benefit of it; whereas those few that have 
proceeded otherwise, have found trouble and inconven- 
iency therein. And if it be so amongst the English, who 
usually have better abilities, how much more amongst the 
Indians, whose knowledg and parts must needs be far 
less? Not to insist upon the Rehearsal of those two Rea- 
sons mentioned by the Reverend Author of this Rela- 
tion, viz. The shortness of the time to furnish the 
Work that day, and the want of Interpreters, of whom 
there was not any present but himself. Concerning 
w T hich Reasons, I can freely ad my testimony,that those 
two were the principal, if not the only Reasons which 
that day were insisted on, and publickly rendred for de- 
ferring the Inchurching of them to another time. 

It may be some have thought, and I hear some have 
spoken little less, That this whol business of the Indians 
of which there have been so many speeches in Old Eng- 
land and New, is but a devise and design to get money, 
and that there is indeed no such matter as any Work of 
Gods grace amongst that People. But if there were any 
truth in this saying or Surmise, I marvel why the Magis- 
trates and Elders then present at JYatick, did upon the 
reasons rendred, advise the deferring of the inchurching 
of the Indians that day, and why they did not rather has- 
ten forward the Work without any more ado, or longer 
delay. For the report of a Church of Indians would in 
all likelihood have more prevailed for the end alledged, 
than all that hath been reported hitherto. But our attend- 



To the Christian Reader, 223 

ing in this business to the Honor of Jesus Christ, and 
the good of these poor peoples souls, and so to that which 
Rule and right Reason required, rather than to what 
might seem conducible for worldly advantage, may be a 
sufficient witness of our sincerity, contrary to the con- 
ceit and surmise afore mentioned, and a sufficient con- 
futation of it. And yet though they be not combined 
into Church-Estate, there is so much of Gods Work 
amongst them, as that I cannot but count it a great evil, 
yea, a great injury to God and his goodness for any to 
make light or nothing of it. To see and to hear Indians 
opening their mouths, and lifting up their hands and their 
eyes in solemn Prayer to the Living God, calling on him 
by his Name Jehovah, in the Mediation of Jesus 
Christ, and this for a good while together; to see and 
hear them exhorting one another from the Word of God; 
to see them and hear them confessing the Name of Christ 
Jesus, and their own sinfulness, sure this is more than usu- 
al. And though they spake in a language, of which many 
of us understood but little, yet we that were present that 
day, we saw them, and we heard them perform the duties 
mentioned, with such grave and sober countenances, 
with such comely reverence in gesture, and their who! 
carriage, and with such plenty of tears trickling down 
the cheeks of some of them, as did argue to us that they 
spake with much good affection, and holy fear of God, 
and it much affected our hearts. Nor is it credible to 
me, nor for ought I know to any that w r as present that 
day, that in these things they were acted and led by that 
Spirit which is wont to breath amongst Indians, the Spi- 
rit of Satan or of corrupt Nature, but that herein they had 
with them another Spirit. 

But if there be any work of Grace amongst them, it 
would surely bring forth, and be accompanied with the 
Reformation of their disordered lives, as in other things, 
so in their neglect of Labor, and their living in idleness 
and pleasure. I confess the Allegation is weighty, and 
I deny not but some sober and godly persons, who do 
heartily wish well to this work, have been as much trou- 



224 To the Christian Reader. 

bled in their minds touching this particular as any that I 
know of. But yet somthing may be said in answer ther- 
to, & chiefly this, That since the Word of God came 
amongst them, and that they have attended thereto, they 
have more applied themselves unto Labor then formerly: 
For evidence whereof, appeal may be made to what was 
seen at JVatick that day, and is still to be seen in that 
place, I mean the Grounds that they have fenced in, and 
clawed and broken up, and especially their capacious 
Meeting-house, the Dimensions whereof are expressed in 
the Relation : little did I think when I saw that Fabrick, but 
that some English Carpenter or other had had the chief 
hand in the framing and erecting of it ; and that more 
hands than Indians, yea, and more English than one had 
been employed about it. But now understanding that 
the Indians alone were the Builders of it, it is a good 
testimony to me both of their industry, and likewise of 
their Skill ; for where these are utterly wanting, yea, 
where there is not some good measure of them, such a 
Building I conceive could never be raised. It is true, 
that considering the manner of their bringing up, being 
little accustomed to labor, but the contrary, it is not 
much to be marveled if they be not comparable therein to 
some English, who from their Child-hood have been 
trained up thereto ; yet we see they are coming to it, 
and I hope will fall to it more and more ; let all that love 
their souls, pray for them that they may, yea, let all that 
love the Lord Jesus Christ pray for them, that the Work 
of God may still prosper amongst them, that many more 
of them may be turned from darkness to light, and 
from the power of Satan unto God ; and that being con- 
verted they may be preserved in Christ, and be built up 
in him to further growth and perfection, from day to day. 
And let unfeigned thanksgiving be rendred to the Lord 
by his Saints for all that is already wrought amongst 
them : And Oh, let the English take heed, both in our 
dear Native Country, and here, lest for our unthankful- 
ness, and many other sins,the Lord should take the Gos- 
pel from us, and bestow our mercy therein upon them 
as upon a Nation that would yeelcl the fruits thereof in 



To the Christian Reader. 225 

better sort than many of us have done. The sins of the 
Jewish Nation to whom the Gospel was first preached 
provoked God to take his Kingdom from them, and to 
call in the Gentils : yet it appeareth by Rom. 11. 11. 14. 
31. that this mercy vouchsafed to the Gentiles, shall in 
time provoke the Jews to an holy Jealousie, and Emu- 
lation, to look after that mercy again that once they re- 
fused, that so through the mercy bestowed on the Gen- 
tiles, they (I mean the Jews) might at last again obtain 
mercy. Happy were the English if we could yeeld the 
fruits of Gods Gospel, that it might not be taken from us ; 
and happy also if the mercy coming to these Indians 
(though not yet taken from us) might provoke us so to do, 
that so the Kingdom of God, the Gospel of Salvation, be- 
ing not taken from us, and given to them, but though given 
to them, yet might still continue with us, and with our 
Posterity from Generation to Generation. 



Dorchester in New-England 
this 13th o /L0ber 1652. 

Rich. Mather. 



VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 29 



P?' 1 ^ brief Helation of the Proceedings 

of the Lords Work among ^Indians, in reference 
unto their Church-Estate ; The Reasons of the not ac- 
complishing therof at present : With some of their Con- 
fessions ; whereby it may be discerned in some measure 
how far the Lord has prepared among them fit Matter 
for aCHURCH. 

THese Indians (the better and wiser sort of them) have for some 
years inquired after Church-Estate, Baptism, and the rest of the 
Ordinances of God, in the observation whereof they see the Godly 
English to walk. I have from time to time, delayed them upon this 
point,That until they were come up unto Civil Cohabitation, Govern- 
ment, and Labor, which a fixed condition of life will put them upon, 
they|were not so capable to be betrusted with that Treasure of Christ, 
lest they should scandalize the same, and make it of none effect, be- 
cause if any should through temptation, fall under Censure, he could 
easily run away (as some have done) and would be tempted so to do, 
unless he were fixed in an Habitation, and had some means of liveli- 
hood to lose, and leave behind him : such Reasons have satisfied 
them hitherunto. But now being come under Civil Order, and fix- 
ing themselves in Habitations, and bending themselves to labor, as 
doth appear by their works of Fencings, Buildings he. and especially 
[p.2] in building without any English Workmans help, or direction a 
very sufficient Meeting-House, of fifty foot long twenty five foot 
broad, neer twelve foot high betwixt the joints, wel sawen and fram- 
ed (which is a specimen, not only of their singular ingenuity, and dex- 
terity, but also of some industry) I say this being so, now my argu- 
ment of delaying them from entering into Church-Estate, was taken 
away. Therefore in way of preparation of them thereunto, I did 
this Summer call forth sundry of them in the dayes of our publick 
Assemblies in Gods Worship ; somtimes on the Sabbath when I could 
be with them, and sometimes on Lecture daies, to make confession 



228 Confessions of Indians. 

before the Lord of their former sins, and of their present knowledg 
of Christ, and experience of his Grace ; which they solemnly doing, 
I wrote down their Confessions : which having done, and being in my 
own heart hopeful that there was among them fit matter for a Church, 
I did request all the Elders about us to hear them reade, that so they 
might give me advice what to do in this great, and solemn business ; 
which being done on a day appointed for the purpose, it pleased God 
to give their Confessions such acceptance in their hearts, as that they 
saw nothing to hinder their proceeding, to try how the Lord would 
appear therein. Whereupon, after a day of Fasting and Prayer 
among our selves, to seek the Lord in that behalf, there was another 
day of Fasting and Prayer appointed, and publick notice thereof, and 
of the names of Indians were to confess, and enter into Covenant 
that day, was given to all the Churches about us, to seek the Lord 
yet further herein, and to make solemn Confessions of Christ his 
Truth and Grace, and further to try whether the Lord would vouch- 
safe such grace unto them, as to give them acceptance among the 
Saints, into the fellowship of Church-Estate, and enjoyment of those 
Ordinances which the Lord hath betrusted his Churches withal. 
That day was the thirteenth of the eighth month. 

When the Assembly was met, the first part of the day was spent 
in Prayers unto God, and exercise in the Word of God ; in which my 
self firt; and after that two of the Indians did Exercise ; and so the 
time was spent till after ten or near[p.3] eleven of the clock. Then 
addressing our selves unto the further work of the day, I first request- 
ed the reverend Elders (many being present) that they would ask 
them Questions touching the fundamental Points of Religion, that 
thereby they might have some tryal of their knowledg, and better 
that way, than if them selves should of themselves declare what they 
beleeve, or than if I should ask them Questions in these matters : Af- 
ter a little conference hereabout, it was concluded, That they should 
first make confession of their experience in the Lords Work upon 
their hearts, because in so doing, it is like something will be discerned 
of their knowledg in the Doctrines of Religion : and if after those 
Confessions there should yet be cause to inquire further touching 
any Point of Religion it might be fitly done at last. Whereupon we 
so proceeded, and called them forth in order to make confession. 
It was moved in the Assembly by Reverend Mr. Wilson, that their 
former Confessions also, as well as these which they made at present, 
might be read unto the Assembly, because it was evident that they 
were daunted much, to speak before so great and grave an Assem- 
bly as that was, but time did not permit it so to be then : yet now in 
my writing of their Confessions I will take that course, that so it may 
appear what encouragement there was to proceed so far as we did ; 
and that such as may reade these their Confessions, may the better 
discern of the reality of the Grace of Christ in them. 



Confessions of Indians. 229 



[p. 4.] The first which was called forth is named Tother- 
swamp, whose former Confession read before the Elders 9 
was asfolloweth: 



BEfore I prayed unto God, the English, when I came unto their 
houses, often said unto me, Pray to God ; but I having many 
friends who loved me, and I loved them, and they cared not for 
praying to God, and therefore I did not : But I thought in my heart, 
that if my friends should die, and I live, I then would pray to God ; 
soon after, God so wrought, that they did almost all die, few of them 
left ; and then my heart feared, and I thought, that now I will pray 
unto God, and yet I was ashamed to pray ; and if I eat and did 
not pray, I was ashamed of that also ; so that I had a double shame 
upon me : Then you came unto us, and taught us, and said unto us, 
Pray unto God; and after that, my heart grew strong, and I was no 
more ashamed to pray, but I did take up praying to God ; yet at 
first I did not think of God and eternal Life, but only that the En- 
glish should love me and I loved them : But after I came to learn 
what sin was, by the Commandements of God, and then I saw all my 
sins, lust, gaming, &c. (he named more.) You taught, That Christ 
knoweth all our hearts, and seeth what is in them, if humility, or an- 
ger, or evil thoughts, Christ seeth all that is in the heart ; then my 
heart feared greatly, because God was angry for all my sins ; yea, 
now my heart is full of evil thoughts , and my heart runs away from 
God, therefore my heart feareth and mourneth. Every day I see 
sin in my heart ; one man brought sin into the World, and I am full 
of that sin, and I break Gods Word every day. 1 see I deserve not 
pardon, for the first mans sinning ; I can do no good, for I am like 
the Devil, nothing but evil thoughts, and words, and works. I have 
lost all likeness to God, and goodness, and therefore [p. 5.] every day I 
sin against God, and I deserve death and damnation : The first man 
brought sin first, and I do every day ad to that sin, more sins ; but 
Christ hath done for us all righteousness,and died for us because of our 
sins,and Christ teacheth us, That if we cast away our sins, and trust in 
Christ, then God will pardon all our sins ; this I beleeve Christ hath 
done, I can do no righteousness, but Christ hath done it for me ; this 
I beleeve, and therefore I do hope for pardon. When I first heard 
the Commandements, I then took up praying to God and cast off sin. 
Again, When I heard, and unerstood Redemption by Christ, then I 
beleeved Jesus Christ to take away my sins : every Commandement 
taught me sin, and my duty to God. When you ask me why do I 



230 Confessions of Indians. 

love God *? I answer, Because he giveth me all outward blessings, as 
food, clothing, children, all gifts of strength, speech, hearing; especially 
that he giveth us a Minister to teach us, and giveth us Government ; 
and my heart feareth lest Government should reprove me ; but the 
greatest mercy of all is Christ, to give us pardon and life. 



Totherswamp 

The Confession which he made on the Fast day before the 
great Assembly, icas asfolloweth : 

J Confess in the presence of the Lord, before I prayed, many were 
my sins, not one good word did I speak, not one good thought did 
I think, not one good action did I doe : I did act all sins, and full 
was my heart of evil thoughts ; when the English did tell me of God, 
I cared not for it, I thought it enough if they loved me : I had many- 
friends that loved me, and I thought if they died I would pray to 
God : and afterward it so came to pass ; then was my heart ashamed, 
to pray I was ashamed, &; if I prayed not, I was ashamed ; a double 
shame was [p. 6.] upon me : when God by you taught us, very much 
ashamed was my heart ; then you taught us that Christ knoweth all 
our harts : therefore truly he saw my thoughts, and I had thought, if 
my kindred should die I would pray to God ; therfore they dying, I 
must now pray to God : and therefore my heart feared, for I thought 
Christ knew my thoughts : then I heard you teach, The first man 
God made was named Adam, fy God made a Covenant with him, 
Do and live, thou and thy Children ; if thou do not thou must die, 
thou and thy Children : And we are Children of Adam poor sinners, 
therefore we all have sinned, for we have broke Gods Covenant, 
therefore evil is my heart, therefore God is very angry with me, we 
sin against him every day ; but this great mercy God hath given us, 
he hath given us his only Son, and promiseth, That whosoever be- 
leeveth in Christ shall be saved : for Christ hath dyed for us in our 
stead, for our sins, and he hath done for us all the words of God, for 
I can do no good act, only Christ can, and only Christ hath done all 
for us ; Christ have deserved pardon for us, and risen again, he hath 
ascended to God, and doth ever pray for us ; therefore all Beleevers 
Souls shall goe to Heaven to Christ. But when I heard that word of 
Christ, Christ said Repent and Beleeve, and Christ seeth who Repent- 
eth, then I said, dark and weak is my Soul, and I am one in darkness, 
I am a very sinful man, and now I pray to Christ for life. Hearing 
you teach that Word that the Scribes and Pharisees said Why do thy 
Disciples break the Tradition of the Fathers ? Christ answered, 
Why do ye make void the Commandements of God? Then my 



Confessions of Indians. 231 

heart feared that I do so, when I teach the Indians, because I can- 
not teach them right, and thereby make the word of God vain. 
Again, Christ said If the blind lead the blind they will both fall into the 
ditch; Therfore I feared that I am one blind, and when I teach 
other Indians I shal caus them to fall into the ditch. This is the love 
of God to me, that he giveth me all mercy in this world, and for them 
al I am thankfull ; but I confess I deserve Hell ; I cannot deliver 
my self, but I give my Soul and my Flesh to Christ, and I trust my soul 
with him for he is my Redeemer, and I desire to call upon him 
while I live. 

[p. 7.] This was his Confesssion which ended, Mr. JLllin fur- 
ther demanded of him this Question, How he found his heart, 
now in the matter of Repentance 
His answer was ; I am ashamed of all my sins, my heart is broken 
for them and melteth in me, I am angry with my self for my sins, 
and I pray to Christ to take away my sins, and I desire that they 
may be pardoned. 

But it was desired that further Question might be forborn, lest 
time would be wanting to here them all speak. 



Then Waban was called forth whose Confession was as 
followeth; no former confession of his being read unto 
the Elders. 

BEfore I heard of God, and before the English came into this 
Country, many evil things my heart did work, many thoughts I 
had in my heart ; I wished for riches, I wished to be a witch, I wish- 
ed to be a Sachem ; and many such other evils were in my heart : 
Then when the English came, still my heart did the same things ; 
when the English taught me of God (I coming to their Houses) I 
would go out of their doors, and many years I knew nothing; when 
the English taught me I was angry with them : But a little while 
agoe after the great sikness, I considered what the English do \ and 
I had some desire to do as they do ; and after that I began to work 
as they work ; and then I wondered how the English come to be so 
strong to labor ; then I thought I shall quickly die, and I feared lest I 
should die before I prayed to God ; then I thought, if I prayed to God 
in our Language, whether could God understand my prayers in our 
Language ; therefore I did ask Mr. Jackson, and Mr. Mahu, If God 
understood prayers in our Language f They answered me God doth 
understand all Languages in the World. But I do not [p. 8.] know 
how to confess, and little do I know of Christ ; I fear I shall not beleeve 
a great while, and very slowly ; I do not know what grace is in my 



232 Confessions of Indians. 

heart, there is but little good in me ; but this I know, That Christ 
hath kept all Gods Commandements for us, and that Christ doth know 
all our hearts ; and now I desire to repent of all my sins : I neither 
have done, nor can do the Commandements of the Lord, but I am 
ashamed of all I do, and I do repent of all my sins, even of all that I 
do know of : I desire that I may be converted from all my sins, and 
that I might beleeve in Christ, and 1 desire him ; I dislike my sins, yet 
I do not truly pray to God in my heart : no matter for good words, 
all is the true heart ; and this day I do not so much desire good 
words, as throughly to open my heart : I confess I can do nothing, 
but deserve damnation ; only Christ can help me and do for me. 
But I have nothing to say for my self that is good ; I judg that I am a 
sinner, and cannot repent, but Christ hath deserved pardon for us. 

This Confession being not so satisfactory as was desired, Mr. Wil- 
son testified, that he spake these latter expressions with tears, 
which I observed not, because I attended to writing ; but I gave 
this testimony of him, That his conversation was without offence 
to the English, so far as I knew, and among the Indians it was 
exemplar : his gift is not so much in expressing himself this way, 
but in other respects useful and eminent ; it being demanded in 
what respects, I answered to this purpose, That his gift lay in 
Ruling, Judging of Cases, wherein he is patient, constant, and 
prudent, insomuch that he is much respected among them, for 
they have chosen him a Ruler of Fifty, and he Ruleth well ac- 
cording to his measure. It was further said, they thought he 
had been a great drawer on to Religion ; I replyed, so he was 
in his way, and did prevail with many ; and so it rested. 



[p.9.] The next that was called, was William of Sudbury, 
his Indian Name is Nataous, his former Confession read 
before the Elders, was asfolloweth: 

I Confess that before I prayed, I committed all manner of sins, and 
served many gods : when the English came first, I going to their 
houses, they spake to me of your God, but when I heard of God, my 
heart hated it ; but when they said the Devil was my god, I was an- 
gry, because 1 was proud : when I came to their houses I hated to 
hear of God, I loved lust in my own house and not God, I loved to 
pray to many gods. Five years ago, I going to English houses, and 
they speaking of God, I did a little like of it, yet when I went again 
to my own house, I did all manner of sins, and in my heart I did act 
allsins though I would not be seen by man. Then going to your 



Confessions of Indians. 233 

house, I more desired to hear of God ; and my heart said, I will pray- 
to God so long as I live : then I went to the Minister Mr. Browns 
house, and told him I would pray as long as I lived : but he said I 
did not say it from my heart, and I beleeve it. When Waban spake 
to me that I should pray to God, I did so. But I had greatly sinned 
against God, and had not beleeved the Word but was proud : but 
then I was angry with my self, and loathed my self, and thought 
God will not forgive me my sins. For when I had been abroad in the 
woods I would be very angry, and would lye unto men, and I could not 
find the way how to be a good man : then I beleeved your teaching, 
That when good men die, the Angels carry their souls to God ; but 
evil men dying, they go to Hell, and perish for ever. I thought this 
a true saying, and I promised to God, to pray to God as long as I 
live. I had a little grief in my heart five years ago for my sins : but 
many were my [p. 10.] prides ; somtime I was angry with my self, and 
pityed my self; but I thought God would not pardon such a proud heart 
as mine is : I beleeve that Christ would have me to forsake my anger ; 
I beleeve that Christ hath redeemed us, and I am glad to hear those 
words of God ; and I desire that I might do al the good waies of God, 
and that I might truly pray unto God : I do now want Graces, and 
these Christ only teacheth us, and only Christ hath wrought our re- 
demption, and he procureth our pardon for all our sins ; and I be- 
leeve that when beleevers dy, Gods Angels carry them to Heaven ; 
but I want faith to beleeve the Word of God, and to open my Eyes, 
and to help me to cast away all sins ; and Christ hath deserved for me 
eternall life : I have deserved nothing my self; Christ hath deserved, 
all, and giveth me faith to beleeve it. 



William of Sudbury : 
His Indian Name is 

Nataous. 

The Confession which he made on the fast day before the 
great Assembly was as followeth. 

BEfore I prayed to God I commited all sins ; and serving many 
gods. I much despised praying unto God, for I beleeved the 
Devil, and he did dayly teach me to sin, and I did them : somtimes 
hearing of God my heart did hate it, and went to my own house, be- 
cause I did love to commit all sin there. About Six years ago a lit- 
tle I liked to hear of God, and yet I hated that which was good : 
hearing that Cutshamoquin prayed, then 1 thought I will pray also : 
a year after, I heard of praying to God, and I went to Mr. Browns 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 30 



234 Confessions of Indians. 

house and told him I will pray to God as long as live ; he said, I 
doubt of it, and bid me cut off my hair, and I did so presently ; and 
then [ desired to be like God, and Jesus Christ, and to call [p.H] on 
him, but I found it very hard to beleeve ; yet Ithought, I will pray as 
long as I live. Hearing that Word, That Christ dyed for us, was buried 
& rose again, and hearing of that Word also, Seek peace &£ imbrace 
the Word : then I began to beleeve that Christ died for us, for sin ; 
and I saw my heart very full of sin. And hearing that word, That 
Christ went to the Mount Olivet, and ascended, I beleeved and 
thought, Oh that God would pardon me ; but I fear he will not, be- 
cause I have been so long time a sinner. Somtime I am angry with 
my self, for my many Evil thoughts in my heart ; and to this day I want 
grace, and cannot confess, because I have been so great a sinner : 
and this day I confess, a little I pray, and that I can pray but a little 
and weakly. When I heard that word of God, That all from the ri- 
sing to the setting Sun shall pray I first understood it not, and won- 
dered how it should be : after I saw that when they beleeve and obey 
God, then he will teach them to do right things, and God will teach 
us to do al things for God, sleeping and waking to be with God. 
But still do foolishly and not according to my prayer : I cannot get 
pardon of my sins, for my sins are great in thought, word, and deed : 
and no man can cast off his own sins, but that is the work of Christ 
only to work it in us ; a man cannot make a right prayer but when 
Christ assisteth him ; then we shall do all things well. I beleeve 
that Christ is God, and the Son of God because when he dyed, he 
rose again, and he dyed for our sins ; and I beleeve he is in Heaven 
and ever prayeth for us, and sendeth his gospel unto us : and I am 
angry with my self, because 1 do not beleeve the word of God, and 
gospel of Jesus Christ. 



[p. 12.] The next which was called forth was Monequas- 
sun, who is our Schoolmaster ; whose former Confes- 
sion, read before the Elders, was asfolloweth. 

I Confess my sorrow for all my sins against God, and before men : 
When 1 first heard instruction, 1 beleeved not, but laughed at it, 
and scorned praying to God ; afterward, when we were taught at Co- 
hannet (that is the place where he lived) I still hated praying, and I 
did think of running away, because 1 cared not for praying to God ; 
but afterwards, because I loved to dwell at that place, I would not 
leave the place, and therfore I thought I will pray to God, because 1 
would still stay at that place, therefore I prayed not for the love of 
God, but for love of the place I lived in ; after that I desired a 



Confessions of Indians. 335 

little to learn the Catechisme on the Lecture daies, and I did learn 
the ten Commandements, and after that, all the points in the Cate- 
chisme ; yet afterwards I cast them all away again, then was my' 
heart filled with folly, and my sins great sins, afterwards hy hearing, 
I began to fear, because of my many sins, lest the wise men should 
come to know them, and punish me for them ; and then again I 
thought of running away because of my many sins : But after that I 
thought I would pray rightly to God, and cast away my sins ; then I 
saw my hypocricy, because I did ask some questions, but did not 
do that which I knew : afterward I considered of my question, and 
thought I would pray to God, and would consider of some other 
Question, and I asked this, Question, How should 1 get Wisdom c l 
and the Answer to it did a little turn my heart from sin, to seek after 
God ; and I then considered that the Word of God was good ; then I 
prayed [p. 13] to God because of the Word of God. The next Lec- 
ture day you taught that word of God, If any man lack Wisdom, let him 
ask it of God. who giveth freely to them that ask him, and upbraid eth 
no man, James, 1. 5. Then again a little my heart was turned after 
God, the Word also said, Repent, mourn, and beleeve in Jesus Christ : 
this also helped me on. Then you taught, That he that beleeveth 
not Christ, and repenteth not of sin, they are foolish and wicked; and be- 
cause they beleeve not, they shall perish : then 1 thought my self a fool, 
because I beleeved not Christ, but sinned every day, and after I 
heard the Word greatly broke the Word. But afterward I heard this 
promise of God Who ever repenteth and beleeveth in Christ, God will 
forgive him all his sins, he shall not perish ; then I thought, that as 
yet, I do not repent, and beleeve in Christ : then I prayed to God, 
because of this his Promise ; and then I prayed to God, for God 
and for Christ his sake : after that again 'I did a little break the Word 
of Christ. And then I heard some other words of God, which shew- 
ed me my sins, and my breakings of Gods word ; and sometimes I 
thought God and Christ would forgive me, because of the promise to 
them that beleeve in Christ, and repent of sin, I thought [ did that 
which God spake in the Promise. Then being called to confess, to 
prepare to make a Church at JVatick, I loved Cohannet ; but after 
hearing this instruction, That we should not only be Hearers, but Do- 
ers of the Word, then my heart did fear. And afterward hearing 
that in Matthew, Christ saw two brethren mending their Nets, he 
said, Follow me and I will make you Fishers of men, presently they 
followed Christ; and when I heard this, I feared, because I was 
not willing to follow Christ to JVatick ; they followed Christ at his 
Word, but I did not, for now Christ saith to us, follow Me : then I 
was much troubled, and considered of this Word of God. After- 
ward I heard another word, the blind men cried after Christ and said, 
Have mercy on us thou Son of David, but after they came to Christ 
he called them, and asked them, What shall 1 do for you'? they said 3 



236 Confessions of Indians . 

Lord open our eyes ; then Christ had pity on them, and opened their 
eyes, and they followed Christ ; when 1 heard this, my heart was trou- 
bled, then I prayed to [p. 14.] God and Christ, to open mine eyes, 
and if Christ open my eyes, then 1 shall rejoyce to follow Christ: 
then I considered of both these Scriptures, and I a little saw that I 
must follow Christ. And now my heart desireth to make confession 
of what I know of God, and of my self, and of Christ : I beleeve 
that there is only one God, and that he made and ruleth all the 
World, and that he the Lord, giveth us al good things : I know that 
God giveth every day all good mercies, life, and health, and all ; I 
have not one good thing, but God it is that giveth it me, I beleeve 
that God at first made man like God, holy, wise, righteous ; but 
the first man sinned, for God promised him, If thou do my Com- 
mandements, thou shaltlive, and thy Children; but if thou sin, thou 
shalt die, thou and thy children ; this Covenant God made with the 
first man. But the first man did not do the Commandements of God 
he did break Gods Word, he beleeved Satan ; and now I am full 
of sin, because the first man brought sin ; dayly I am full of sin in 
my heart : I do not dayly rejoyce in Repentance, because Satan 
worketh dayly in my heart, and opposeth Repentance, and all good 
Works ; day and night my heart is full of sin. I beleeve that Jesus 
Christ was born of the Virgin Mary ; God promised her she should 
bear a Son,and his Name should be J E S U S, because he shall de- 
liver his people from their sins : And when Christ came to preach, he 
said, Repent, because the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand ; again 
Christ taught, Except ye repent and become as a little child, ye shall 
not enter into the Kingdom of Heaven ; therefore humble yourselves 
like one of these little children, and great shall be your Kingdom in 
Heaven. Again Christ said, Come unto me all ye that are weary 
and heavy laden with sin, and 1 will give you rest : take up my Cross 
and Yoak, learn of me for I am meek, and ye shall find rest to your 
souls, for my yoak is easie and burden light : these are the Words 
of Christ and I know Christ he is good, but my works are evil : 
Christ his words are good, but 1 am not humble ; but if we be hum- 
ble and beleeving in Christ, he pardons all our sins. I now desire to 
beleeve in Jesus Christ, because of the word of Christ, that 1 may 
be converted and become as a little Child. I confess my sins before 
God, and before Jesus [p. 15.]Christ this day; now I desire all my 
sins may be pardoned ; I now desire repentance in my heart, and 
ever to beleeve in Christ ; now I lift up my heart to Christ, and trust 
him with it, because I beleeve Christ died for us, for all our sins, and 
deserved for us eternal life in Heaven, and deserved pardon for all 
our sins. And now I give my soul to Christ because he hath redeem- 
ed : I do greatly love, and like repentance in my heart, and I love 
to beleeve in Jesus Christ, and my heart is broken by repentance : 
al these things I do like wel of, that they may be in my heart, but 



Confessions of Indians. 237 

because Christ hath all these to give, I ask them of him that he may 
give me repentance, and faith in Christ, and therefore I pray and be- 
seech Christ dayly for repentance and faith ; and other good waies I 
beg of Christ dayly to give me : and I pray to Christ for al these 
gifts and graces to put them in my heart : and now I greatly thank 
Christ for all these good gifts which he hath given me. I know not 
any thing, nor can do any thing that is a good work : even my heart 
is dark dayly in what I should do, and my soul dyeth because of my 
sins, and therefore I give my soul to Christ, because my soul is dead 
in sin, and dayly doth commit sin ; in my heart I sin, and all the 
members of my body are sinful. I beleeve Jesus Christ is ascended 
to Heaven through the clouds, and he will come again from Heaven : 
Many saw Christ go up to Heaven, and the Angels said, even so he 
will come again to judg all the world ; and therefore I beleeve Gods 
promise, That all men shall rise again when Christ cometh again, then 
all shall rise, and all their souls comes again because Christ is trust- 
ed with them, and keeps their souls, therefore I desire my sins may 
be pardoned ; and I beleeve in Christ ; and ever so long as I live, I 
will pray to God, and do all the good waies he commandeth. 

[p. 16.] Monequassun, 

The Confession which he made on the Fast day before 
the great Assembly was asfolloioeth 

I Confess my sins before the Lord, and before men this day * a lit- 
tle while since I did commit many sins, both in my hands and heart ; 
lusts, thefts, and many other sins, and that every day : and after I 
heard of praying to God, and that others prayed to God, my heart 
did not like it, but hated it, yea and mocked at it ; and after they 
prayed at Cohannet I stil hated it, and when I heard the Word I did 
not like of it but thought of running away, because I loved sin : but I 
loved the place of my dwelling, and therfore I thought I wil rather 
pray to God, and began to do it ; a little I desired to learn the ten 
Commandements of God, and other points of Catechisme ; and then 
a little I repented, but I was quickly weary of repentance, and fell 
again to sin, and full of evil thoughts was my heart : and then I play- 
ed the Hypocrite, and my heart was full of sin : I learned some things, 
but did not do what God commanded, but I sinned and playd the 
hypocrite ; some things I did before man but not before God. But 
afterward I feared because of my sins, and feared punishment 
for my sins, therefore I thought again I would run away ; yet again 
I loving the place, would not run away, but would pray to God : and 
I asked a Question at the Lecture, which was this, How I should get 
Wisdom*? the Answer made me a little to understand : but afterward 
I heard the word If any man lack wisdom, let him ask it of God, who 



238 Confessions of Indians. 

givetJi liberally to all that ask, and upbraideth none. But then I did 
fear Gods anger, because of all my sins, because they were great. 
Afterward hearing that Word, That Christ is named Jesus, because 
he redeemeth us from all our sins : 1 thought Christ [p. 17.] would 
not save me, because I repent not, for he saveth only penitent Belee- 
vers ; but I am not such an one, but still a dayly sinner. Afterward 
hearing that Word, Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after 
righteousness for they shall be filled : then I thought I am a poor sin- 
ner and poor is my heart : then I prayed to God to teach me to do 
that which he requireth, and to pray aright. Afterward hearing that 
word, Who ever looks upon a Woman to lust after her, hath already 
committed Adultry with her in his heart ; then I thought I had done 
all manner of sins in thr sight of God, because he seeth lust in the 
heart,and knoweth all the evil thoughts of my heart; and then I did pray 
unto God, Oh ! give me Repentance and Pardon. Afterwards when I 
did teach among the Indians, I was much humbled because I could 
not reade right, and that I sinned in it ; for I saw that when I thought 
to do a good work, I sinned in doing it, for I knew not what was right 
nor how to do it. In the night I was considering of my sins and 
could not find what to do : three nights I considered what to do, and 
at last God shewed me mercy, and shewed me what I should do. 
And then I desired to learn to read Gods Word, and hearing that if 
we ask wisdom of God, he will give it, then I did much pray to God, 
that he would teach me to reade. After a years time, I thought I did 
not rightly seek, and I thought I sinned, because I did not rightly de- 
sire to read Gods Word, and I thought my praying was sinful, and 1 
feared, how should I, my wife, and child be cloathed, if I spend my 
time in learning to reade ; but then God was merciful to me, and 
shewed me that Word, Say not, what shall I eat, or drink, or where- 
with shall 1 be cloathed, wicked men seek after these ; but first seek the 
Kingdom of Heaven, and these things shall be added to you ; then 
I prayed God to teach me this word, and that I might do it : and then 
I desired to read Gods word, what ever I wanted. Afterward hear- 
ing that we must make a Town, and gather a Church at JYatick, my 
heart disliked that place ; but hearing that word, That Christ met two 
Fishers, and said, follow me, and 1 will make you fishers of men, and 
presently they left all and followed him ; hearing this I was much 
troubled, because I had not beleeved Christ, for I would not [p. 18.] 
follow him to make a Church, nor had ] done what he commanded 
me, and then I was troubled for all my sins. Again hearing that word 
That the blind man called after Christ, saying thou Son of David 
have mercy on me ; Christ asked him what he would have him do ; 
he said, Lord open my eyes ; and presently Christ gave him sight, 
and he followed Christ : then again my heart was troubled, for I 
thought I still beleeve not, because I do not follow Christ, nor hath he 
yet opened mine eyes : then I prayed to Christ to open my eyes, 



Confessions of Indians. 239 

that I might see what to do, because I am blind and cannot see how 
to follow Christ, and do what he commandeth, and I prayed to Christ, 
Teach me Lord what }o do, and to do what thou sayest; and I pray- 
ed that I might follow Christ : and then 1 thought 1 will follow Christ 
to make a Church. All this trouble I had to be brought to be willing 
to make a Church : and quickly after, God laid upon me more trou- 
ble, by sickness and death ; and then I much prayed to God for life, 
for we were all sick, and then God would not hear me, to give us life ; 
but first one of my Children died, and after that my Wife ; then I 
was in great sorrow, because I thought God would not hear me, and 
I thought it was because I would not follow him, therefore be hears 
not me : then I found this sin in my heart, That I was angry at the 
punishment of God : but afterward I considered, I was a poor sinner, 
I have nothing, nor Child, nor Wife, 1 deserve that God should take 
away all mercies from me ; and then I repented of my sins, and did 
much pray, and I remembred the promise to follow Christ, and my 
heart said, I had in this sinned, that followed not Christ, and there- 
fore I cryed for pardon of this sin : and then hearing of this Word, 
Who ever beleeveth in Christ his sins are pardoned, he beleeving that 
Christ died for us ; and I beleeved. Again hearing that Word, If 
ye be not converted, and become as a little Child you cannot go to 
Heaven ; then my heart thought, I do not this, but I deserve Hell fire 
for ever ; and then I prayed Christ, Oh ! turn me from my sin, and 
teach me to hear thy Word ; and I prayed to my Father in Heaven : 
and after this, I beleeved in Christ for pardon. Afterward I heard 
that Word, That it is a shame for a man [p. 19.] to wear long hair, 
and that there was no such custom in the Churches : at first I thought 
I loved not long hair, but I did and found it very hard to cut it off; 
and then I prayed to God to pardon that sin also : Afterward I thought 
my heart cared not for the Word of God : but then I thought I would 
give my self up unto the Lord, to do all his Word. Afterward I 
heard that word, If thy right foot offend thee cut it off, or thy right 
hand, or thy right eye ; its better to go to Heaven with one foot, or 
hand, or eye, than having both to go to Hell; then I thought my hair 
had been a stumbling to me, therefore I cut it off, and grieved for this 
sin, and prayed for pardon. After hearing that word, Come unto 
me all ye that are weary and heavie laden with your sins, and I will 
give rest to your souls ; then my heart thought that I do dayly hate 
my sins, Oh ! that I could go to Christ ! and Christ looketh I should 
come unto him, and therfore then I prayed, Oh! Christ help me to 
come unto thee : and I prayed because of all my sins that they may 
be pardoned. For the first man was made like God in holiness, and 
righteousness, and God gave him his Covenant ; but Adam sinned, 
beleeving the Devil, therefore God was angry, and therefore all we 
Children of Adam are like the Devil, and dayly sin, and break every 
law of God, full of evil thoughts, words, and works, and only Christ can 



240 Confessions of Indians. 

deliver us from our sins, and he that beleeveth in Christ is pardoned ; 
but my heart of myself cannot beleeve : Satan hath power in me, but 
I cry to God, Oh ! give me faith, and pardon my sin, because Christ 
alone can deliver me from Hell ; therefore I pray, Oh ! Jesus Christ 
deliver me. Christ hath provided the new Covenant to save Be- 
leevers in Christ, therefore 1 desire to give my soul to Christ, for 
pardon of all my sins : the first Covenant is broke by sin, and we 
deserve Hell ; but Christ keepeth for us the new Covenant, and 
therefore I betrust my soul with Christ. Again, I desire to beleeve 
in Christ, because Christ will come to judgment, and all shall rise 
again, and all Beleevers in this life shall then be saved ; therefore I 
desire to beleeve Christ, and mortifie sin as long as I live ; and I 
pray Christ to help me to beleeve : and I thank God for all his mer- 
cies every [p. 20.] day : and now I confess before God that I loath 
my self for my sins and beg pardon. 

Thus far he went in his Confession ; but they being slow of speech 
time was far spent and a great assembly of English understand- 
ing nothing he said, only waiting for my interpretation, many of 
them went forth, others whispered, and a great confusion was 
in the House and abroad : and I perceived that the graver sort 
thought the time long, therfore knowing he had spoken enough 
unto satisfaction (at least as I judged) I here took him off. 
Then one of the Elders asked, if I took him off, or whether had 
he finished ? I answered, That I took him off. So after my 
reading what he had said, we called another. 



The next who was called forth was Ponampam, who had 
formerly twice made confession, and both read before 
the Elders. His first Confession was as followeth. 

"WT^THen God first had mercy on us, when they first prayed at 
Y Y JVoonanetum, I heard of it, and the first word that I heard 
was, That all from the rising of the sun to the going down thereof, 
shall pray unto God ; and I thought, Oh ! let it be so. After I con- 
sidered what the word may be, and understood by it, That God was 
mercyfull ; afterwards when you alwayes came to us, I only heard 
the word, I did not understand it, nor meditate on it, yet I found that 
al my doings were sins against God ; then I prayed unto God. Af- 
terwards I heard, That God would pardon all that beleeve in Christ ! 
and quickly after I saw my sins to be very many ; I saw that in every 
thing I did, I sinned : & when I saw these my sins against God I was 
weary of my self, & angry with my self [p. 21.] in my heart ; but 
the free mercy of God caused me to hear his word, and then I fear 
ed because every day sin was in my heart, and I thought in vain I 



Confessions of Indians. 241 

looked to Christ : Then hearing this word of Christ, that Christ taught 
through every town and village, Repent and behave. If any one re- 
pent, and mourn, and beleeve, I will pardon him ; then my heart 
thought I will pray to God as long as I live : but somtimes my 
heart was ashamed, and somtimes my heart was strong, and God 
seeth my heart : I now desire to repent, and beleeve in Christ, and 
that Christ will pardon me, and shew mercy to us all. 



Ponampam, 



His Second Confession was as followeth : 

Hen I prayed not unto God I ever sinned every day : but when 
JVoonanetam Indians first prayed I heard of it, and three 
nights I considered whether 1 should pray or no, but I found not how 
to pray unto God, but how not to pray : but then I heard Gods free 
mercy in his word, call all to pray, from the rising of the Sun to the 
going down thereof; yet presently I lost that word, and sinned again 
and committed many sins. Then Gods free mercy shewed me in 
the Catechism, That God made all the World, yet my heart did not 
beleeve, because I knew I sprung from my Father and Mother : I 
did alwaies act many sins, because I was born in sin, and in vain I 
heard Gods word. Then I heard Gods Word, That Christ was made 
man, yet I did but hear it, though I thought it might be true : I thought 
I would cast off all sin but then I found that I loved them very much. 
I heard Gods promise to Abraham, To increase his Children as the 
Stars for number, but I beleeved not, because he had but one Son : 
and thus I cast off the word, and committed sins. I heard also from 
the word, That all men are not alike to God, some are first to God, 
[or preferred before other ;] but I did [p. 22.] not beleeve it because 
all men die alike ; therefore they are not the Sons of God, and God 
is not their Father : So still I beleeved not the Word, but broke Gods 
Word dayly, and in vain I heard Gods Word. Afterward I heard 
that Word of God to Moses, Fie be with thy mouth, for who maketh 
the seeing Eye or hearing Ear, is it not 1 9 saith the Lord : then I 
understood a little of God, and of his Word ; but still I acted much 
sin. Afterward I heard that Word of Free-Grace, Repent, and be- 
leeve the Gospel, and who ever beleeve shall be saved ; then my heart 
beleeved, then I saw I had prayed but afore man, & so was my hear- 
ing, or any other duty ; and I saw other of my sins against God ; 
and then I saw that my heart did not beleeve as it should, Si I desired 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 31 



242 Confessions of Indians, 

to be open in my doings ; I saw I brake every command of God ; ye*. 
presently I lost this, and the Word of Christ was of little worth unto 
me; and [ saw I loved sin very much. Then again I heard that 
word, That all shall pray from the rising to the sitting Sun ; then 1 
thought I will pray to God, and yet only my tongue prayed. Then 
again I heard the Catechism, That God made Adam and Eve, and 
al the world, and a little I beleeved that word. Afterward 1 heard 
another word, That they are Bastards, not Sons, whom God afflicts 
not : I did a little think this to be a truth, and then I prayed more 
unto God, and yet I saw I feared man more than God : but notwith- 
standing, I have prayed unto God from that day unto this day ; yet 
I see I sin every day. When I heard that word that God spake to 
Moses in the Mount by a Trumpet, and said : Thou shalt not have 
any other God, thou shalt not lust, nor lye, nor kill, fyc. I saw all 
these I had broken ; I heard the Word, but sinned in what I heard : 
I heard that my heart must break and melt for sin, and beleeve in 
Christ, and that we should try our hearts if it be so ; yet I could try 
but little, nor find but little, but still I sinned much. I heard that 
Word, That they which cast off God, God will cast off them ; and I 
feared lest God should cast me away, because of my sins : I was 
ashamed of my sins, and my heart melted, and I thought I will give 
my self to God and to Christ, and do what he will for ever ; and be- 
cause of this promise of pardon to al that repent and beleeve, my 
heart desireth to pray to God as long as I live. 



[p. 23.] Ponampam ; , 

The Confession he made on the Fast day, before the great 
.Assembly teas as followeth : 

BEfore I prayed unto God, I committed all manner of sins ; and 
when I heard the Catechism, That God made me, I did not be- 
leeve it, because I knew I sprang from my Father and Mother, and 
therefore I despised the Word, and therefore again I did act all sins, 
and I did love them. Then God was merciful to me, to let me hear 
that Word, That al shal pray from the rising to the sitting Sun ; and 
then I considered whether I should pray, but I found not in my heart 
that all should pray : but then I considered of praying, and what 
would become of me if 1 did not pray : and what would become of 
me, if I did pray ; but I thought if I did pray, the Sachems would be 
angry because They did not say, pray to God, and therefore I did 
not yet pray ; but considering of that word, that all shall pray, I was 



Confessions of Indians. 243 

troubled, and I found in my heart that I would pray unto God; and 
yet I feared that others would laugh at me, and therefore I did not 
yet pray. Afterward God was yet merciful to me, and I heard that 
God made the World, and the first man, and I thought it was true, 
and therefore I would pray to God, because he hath made all ; and 
yet when I did pray, I thought I prayed not aright, because I prayed 
for the sake of man, and I thought this to be a great sin. But then I 
wondered at Gods free mercy to me, for I saw God made me, and 
giveth me all mercies : and then was I troubled, and saw that many 
were my sins, and that I do not yet beleeve ; then I prayed, yet my 
heart sinned, for I prayed only with my mouth : and then I repented 
of my sins, and then a little I considered and remembred Gods love 
unto us , but I was a sinner, and many were my [p. 24.] sins, and 
a little I repented of them; and yet again I sinned, and quickly was 
my heart full of sin : then again was my heart angry with my self, 
and often I lost all this again, and fell into sin. Then I heard that 
word, That God sent Moses to Egypt, and promised 1 will be with 
thee ; that promise I considered, but I thought that in vain I did seek, 
and I was ashamed that 1 did so : and I prayed, Oh God teach me 
truly to pray, not only before man, but before God, and pardon al 
these my sins. Again I heard that word, that Christ taught through 
every Town and Village, Repent and beleeve, and be saved, and a 
little I beleeved this word : and I loved it, and then I saw all my sins, 
and prayed for pardon. Again I heard that word, He that casteth 
off God, him will God cast off; and I found in my heart, that I had 
done this, and I feared because of this my sin, lest God should cast 
me off, and that I should for ever perish in Hell, because God hath 
cast me off, I having cast off God : then I was troubled about Hell, 
and what shall I do if I be damned ! Then I heard that word, If ye 
repent aud beleeve, God pardons all sins ; then I thought, Oh that I 
had this, I desired to repent and beleeve, and I begged of God, Oh 
give me Repentance and Faith, freely do it for me ; and I saw God 
was merciful to do it, but I did not attend the Lord, only sometimes ; 
and I now confess I am ashamed of my sins, my heart is broken, 
and melteth in me ; I am angry at myself; I desire pardon in 
Christ ; I betrust my soul with Christ, that he may do it for me. 



By such time as this man had finished, the time was far spent, and 
he was the fift in number, their speeches being slow, and they were 
the more slow at my request, that I might write what they said ; && 
oft I was forced to inquire of my interpreter (who sat by me) because 
I did not perfectly understand some sentences, especially of some of 
them : these things did make the work long-som considering the in- 
largement of spirit God gave some of them ; and should we have pro- 
ceeded further, it would have been sun-set before the Confessions in 



244 Confessions of Indians. 

likelyhood would have been finished, besides all the rest of the work 
that was to be done to finish so solemn a work ; and the place [p. 25.] 
being remote in the woods, the nights long and cold and people not 
fitted to lie abroad, and no competent lodgings in the place for such 
persons, and the work of such moment as would not admit an hud- 
ling up in hast. And besides all this, though I had fully used all fit 
means, to have all the Interpreters present that I could, that so the 
interpretation might not depend upon my single testemony, yet so it 
was that they all failed, and 1 was alone (as 1 have been wont to be in 
this work) which providence of God was not to be neglected in so 
solemn a business. Wherfore the Magistrates, Elders, and Grave 
men present, advised together what to do, and the Conclusion was, 
Not to proceed any further at present, yet so to carry the matter, as 
that the Indians might in no wise be discouraged, but encouraged ; to 
which end one of the Elders was requested to speak unto the English 
the two above said Reasons, viz. The want of Interp reters, And 
want of Time, lo finish at this time so solemn a Work ; but to refer 
it to a more fitting time. And 1 was desired to declare it to the Ind- 
ians, which T did to this purpose, That the Magistrates, Elders, and 
other Christian People present, did much rejoyce to hear their Con- 
fessions, and advised them to go on in that good way ; but as for the 
gathering a Church among them this day, it could not be ; partly, Be- 
cause neither Mr. Mayhew, nor Mr. Leveridg, nor any Interpreter 
was here (for whom they knew I had sent, some of themselves being 
the Messengers to carry Letters time enough) and it was Gods Or- 
dinance, That when any were to judg a Case, though they could be- 
leeveone Witness, yet they could not judg under two or three. Al- 
so I told them, That themselves might easily see there was hot time 
enough to finish so solemn a work this day ; therefore they advised, 
and God called to refer it to a fitter season ; in which advice they 
rested : And so was the Work of that, day, with prayers unto God, 
finished ; the accomplishment being referred to a fitter season. 

As for my self, the Lord put it into the hearts of the Elders, to 
speak unto me words of Comfort, and acceptance of my poor Labor 
expressing their loving fear, lest I should be discouraged by this dis- 
appointment : I shall therefore nakedly [p. 26.] declare, and open my 
very heart in this Matter. The Lord he knoweth, that with much fear 
and care I went about this work, even unto the sensible wasting, and 
weakning of my natural strength, knowing that the investing these 
young Babes in Christ, with the highest, and all the external privi- 
ledges of the Church, the Spouse of Jesus Christ on Earth, would 
have drawn upon me much more labor and care, lest they should in 
any wise scandalize the same ; unto which I have now more time as- 
signed me by the Lord to prepare them, yea, and a greater advan- 
tage than I had before, because this dispensation of the Lord, doth 
give me occasion to instruct them of their need to be filled with 



Confessions of Indians. 245 

deeper apprehensions of the weight and solemnity of that great Work, 
though it is most true, that they also came on unto it with many fears, 
and questions, what they should do when they should be a Church : 
When therefore I saw the Lord by the Counsel of his Servants (which 
is an holy reverend Ordinance of Christ) and by his Providence de- 
nying me the help of all Interpreters, having many witnesses how 
much care and pains I took every way ] knew, to be supplied there- 
in ; and that the work it self was extended by the Lords gracious in- 
larging them in their Confessions, so that the day was not sufficient to 
accomplish it; I say, when I saw the Lord speaking that delatory 
word, I cannot express what a load it took off my heart, and I did 
gladly follow the Lord therein, yea, and 1 bless the Lord for that day, 
that it was carried so far as it was, for the cause of Christ hath many 
waies gained by it, many hundreds of the precious Saints, being much 
comforted and confirmed in their hopes of this work of Christ among 
them, and their faith and prayers much quickned by what they heard 
and saw. And because all witnesses failed me, let me say but this, 
I began, and have followed this work for the Lord according to the 
poor measure of grace received, h not for base ends. I have been 
true &e faithful unto their souls, and in writing and reading their Con- 
fessions, I have not knowingly, or willingly made them better, than 
the Lord helped themselves to make them, but am verily perswaded 
on good grounds, that I have rather rendered them weaker (for the 
[p. 27.] most part) than they delivered them ; partly by missing some 
words of weight in some Sentences, partly by my short and curt 
touches of what they more fully spake, and partly by reason of the 
different Idioms of their Language and ours. 



Now follow those Preparatory Confessions, which 

were read before the Elders, 

most of them. 

The first that made a publick Confession, and was took in 
Writing, was Peter, a Ruler of Ten among them, a 
Godly man, who quickly after he had made this Con- 
fession, fell sick, and died, and now injoyeth the fruit of 
his Faith, the end of his Hope, the salvation of his Soul, 
among the Blessed ; where I am perswaded he shall be 
found in the great day. His Confession was as follow- 
eth. 



w 



Hen I first prayed to God, T did not fear God, but I feared 
perdition, because the English had told me, that all should be 



246 Confessions of Indians. 

damned, that call not upon God. But now I know that God made 
all the world, and I fear him 5 now I beleeve that which you teach 
is true ; Now I beleeve that God calleth us to JVatik, that here we 
may be ruled by God, and gather a Church ; now I beleeve that it 
is Gods Command, that we should labor Six dayes, and keep the 
Sabbath on the Seventh day : now my heart is greatly abased, for 
all my sins ; for we see though we pray to God we are ready to of- 
fend each other, and be angry with each other, and that we love not 
each other as we should do ; and for this I grieve h my heart crieth : 
now I remember that God saith thou [p. 28.] shalt not lust, but before 
I prayed to God I was full of lusts. God saith, We must have but one 
Wife, and at first did make but one man and one woman ; but 
I followed many women. God saith, Remember to keep the Sab- 
bath day holy ; but I did hunt, or shoot, or any thing on the Sabbath 
day : many 01 her sins I committed ; but now I see them, and wil cast 
them away because they are vile, and God forbiddeth them : when 
I prayed first my sins were not pardoned, for my praying is worth no- 
thing : now I am humbled, and mourn for my sins and yet cannot de- 
liver my self nor get pardon, therfore I trust Christ with my soul. 



The next Confession was made by John Speene, as fol- 
loweth. His first confession was this, 

WHen I first prayed to God, I did not pray for my soul, but 
only I did as my friends did, because I loved them ; and 
though I prayed to God, yet I did not fear sin, nor was I troubled at 
it. I heard that when good men die, their souls go to God, and are 
there happy, but I cannot say that I beleeved it. Afterward my 
eart run away into the country, after our old wayes, and I did almost 
cast off praying to God. A little while after that, I saw that I had 
greatly sinned, and then I saw all my sins, afore I prayed to God, and 
since I prayed to God, and I saw that God was greatly angry for them, 
and that I cannot get pardon for them ; but yet my heart saith I will 
pray to God as long as I live : I thought God would not pardon me 
and yet I would cast away my sins. I did greatly love hunting, and 
hated labor : but now I beleeve that word of God, which saith, Six 
dayes thou shalt labor : and God doth make my body strong to la- 
bor. 






Confessions of Indians. 247 



[p. 29.] John Speene, 

This Confession being short in some main points, he after- 
ward made Confession asfolloweth. 

"Hen I first prayed I prayed not for my soul, but for the sake 
of men, I loved men, and for their sakes I prayed to God. 
Before I prayed many were my sins, and my heart was heaped full, 
and ran over in all manner of lusts and sins. After I heard of pray- 
ing to God, I let it fall and regarded it not ; after I came to hear the 
word, I sometimes feared, but soon lost it again. Then my heart 
ran away after our former courses, and then what ever I heard I lost 
because my heart was run away; and many were my sins, and ther- 
fore I could not get pardon, because my heart run away, and many 
were my sins, and I did indeed go into the Country. But afterwards 
I hearing the Catechism, I desired to learn it, and then I beleeved 
that when Beleevers die, their souls go to God, and are ever happy ; 
when Sinners die, their souls go to Hel, and are ever tormented ; 
and that when Christ judges the world, our bodies rise again, and then 
we shall receive the judgment of Christ; the good shal stand at his 
right hand, the bad at his left ; this I beleeved was true, and then I 
saw all my great follies and evils : and now my heart desired to lay 
by hunting, and to work every day ; and this is Gods Command, and 
therfore a good way ; God said, Thou shalt work six daies, and if 
thou work thou shalt eat ; therfore I beleeve it, and my heart pro- 
miseth that I will this do as long as I live. Now I see I did great 
folly, for now I hear that God saith Work ; and now I fear because 
God hath afflicted me, in taking away my brother a Ruler : now I am 
troubled, I fear I sinned in not beleeving our Ruler, because now 
God hath taken him away ; he taught me good words, but I beleeved 
them not, and now I repent because Christ calleth me to it : great is 
the punishment of God in taking away our Ruler ; and now I pray, 
and say to Christ, Oh Jesus Christ [p. 30.] I have sinned : I beleeve 
that if I repent and be humbled, and pray not only outwardly but In- 
wardly, and beleeve in Christ, then God will pardon all my sin ; but 
I cannot get pardon of sin, I cannot deserve pardon, but only 
Christ hath merited pardon for us : I cannot deliver my self from all 
my sins, but Christ redeemeth, and delivereth from all sin : I de- 
serve not one mercy of God, but Christ hath merited all mercies 
for us. 



248 Confessions of Indians. 

The next are the Confessions of Robin Speene, who three 
several times came forth, and confessed as followeth. 
His first Confession : 

I Was ashamed because you taught to pray to God, and I did not 
take it up ; I see God is angry with me for all my sins, and he 
hath afflicted me by the death of three of my children, and I fear 
God is still angry, because great are my sins, and I fear lest my chil- 
dren be not gone to Heaven, because I am a great sinner, yet one of 
my children prayed to God before it died, and therefore my heart 
rejoyceth in that . I remember my Panwaning [for he was a Pan- 
wan] my lust, my gaming, and all my sins; I know them by the 
Commandements of God, and God heareth and seelh them all ; I can- 
not deliver my self from sin, therefore I do need Christ, because of 
all my sins, I desire pardon, and I beleeve that God calls all to come 
to Christ, and that he delivereth us from sin. 



[p. 31.] Robin Speene, 

His Second Confession. 

I Have found out one word more : great are my sins, and I do not 
know how to repent, nor do I know the evil of my sins ; only this 
one word, now I confess 1 want Christ, this day I want him; I do 
not truly beleeve nor repent : I see my sin, and I need Christ, but I 
desire now to be redeemed : and I now ask you this Question, What 
is Redemption % " \ answered h'rnl, by shewing him our estate by 
" Nature, and desert, the price which Christ paid for us, and how it 
" is to be applied to every particular person ; which done, he pro- 
ceeded in his confession thus : 1 yet cannot tell whether God hath par- 
doned my sins, I forget the word of God ; but this I desire, that my 
sins may be pardoned, but my heart is foolish, and a great part of the 
Word stayeth not in my heart strongly. I desire to cast all my sins out 
of my heart : but I remember my sins, that I may get them pardoned, 
1 think God doth not yet hear my prayers in this, because I cannot 
keep the Word of God, only I desire to hear the Word, and that God 
would hear me. 



Confessions of Indians. 249 



Robin Speen, 
His Third Confession. 

ONe word more I cal to mind, Great is my sin ! this saith my 
heart, I have found this sin, when I first heard you teach, that 
all the world from the rising to the sitting Sun should pray to God, I 
then wondered at it, and thought, I [p. 32.] being a great sinner, 
how shal I pray to God ; and when 1 saw many come to the Meet- 
ing, I wondred at it : But now I do not wonder at that work of God, 
and therefore I think that I do now greatly sin : and now I desire 
again to wonder at Gods Works, and J desire to rejoyce in Gods 
good waies. Now I am much ashamed, and fear because I have de- 
served eternal wrath by my sins : my heart is evil, my heart doth 
contrary to God : and this I desire, that I may be redeemed, for I 
cannot help my self, but only Jesus Christ hath done al this for me, 
and I deserve no good, but I beleeve Christ hath deserved all for us; 
and I give my self unto Christ, that he may save me, because he 
knoweth eternal life, and can give it ; I cannot give it to my self, 
therefore I need Jesus Christ, my heart is full of evil thoughts ; and 
Christ only can keep my soul from them, because he hath paid for 
my deliverance from them. 



The next are the Confessions of Nishohkou ; who twice 
made preparatory Confessions ; the first of which only, 
was read before the Elders. 

JP1 O D in Heaven is merciful, and I am sinful : when I first heard 
'OTthe Word of God, I neither ;saw nor understood ; but after, 
when you taught these words, Be wise, Oh "all ye people, and be- 
leeve in Jesus Christ, then 1 prayed unto God ; yet afterwards I sin- 
ned, and almost forsook praying to God. Afterward I understood, 
That God who made all the World was merciful to sinners : and tru- 
ly I saw my heart very sinful, because I promised God to pray as 
long as I live, but my heart hath not so done. Again I promised 
God I will follow Christ in al things, and now I find my heart back- 
ward, and not so forward to make a Church. God promiseth, If 
foolish ones pray to God for Wisdom he will give it : this Promise I 
beleeve, but I find my heart full of temptations ; but now I promise 
[p. 33.] God as in the Psalm,* All my works shall be done * Psalm, 
in wisdom for I confess al my works and words, have been 2 ' 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 32 



250 Confessions of Indians. 

foolish. God is wise and good, but I am foolish. God who hath made 
the World, sent his own Son Jesus: and Jesus Christ hath died for 
us, and deserved for us, pardon and life, this is true ; and he hath done 
for me all Gods Commandements, for I can do nothing, because I am 
very sinful. God in Heaven is very merciful, and therfore hath called 
me to pray unto God. God hath promised to pardon al their sins, who 
pray unto God, and beleeve in the Promise of Christ, and Christ can 
give me to beleeve in him. 

When he had made this Confession, he was much abashed, for he is 
a bashful man ; many things he spoke that I missed, for want of 
through understanding some words and sentences : therfore be- 
fore the Fast day he made another Confession, which was not 
read before the Elders ; which was as followeth. 



Nishohkou. 



I am dead in sin, Oh ! that my sins might die, for they cannot give 
life, because they be dead : before I prayed^to God, I did commit 
all fiithynesse, I prayed to many gods, I was proud, full of lusts, adul- 
teries, and all other sins, and therefore this is my first Confession, 
that God is mercifull, and I am a sinner, for God have given unto me 
instruction, and causeth me to pray unto God, but I only pray words ; 
when I prayed I somtimes wondered, and thought true it is that God 
made the world, and me : and then I thought I knew God, because 
I saw these his works, and then I was glad somtimes and gave thanks ; 
yet presently again I did not rejoyce in it. Again somtimes I thought 
now I do wel because I pray, and work not on the Sabbath daies, but 
come to the Meetings, and hear the Word of God : But afterward 
again, I thought I do not wel, because true it is, That yet I do 
[p. 34.] not truly pray ; for now I see I sin when I pray : because 
there is nothing but sin in my mouth, or hand, or heart, and all sins 
are there, for of these my sins my heart is full, because my heart doth 
sometimes lust, and steal, and the like. Again, I was not only proud 
before I prayed, but now I am proud. Again, sometimes my heart 
is humbled, and then I pray, Oh God have mercy on me, and par- 
don these my sins ; yet sometimes I know not whether God did either 
hear my prayer, or pardon my sins. Again, afterwards I thought I 
had greatly sinned, because I heard of the good way of praying 
unto God, but I do wickedly because I pray not truly, yea, some- 
times I have much ado to pray with my mouth, aud therfore I sin. 
1 heard of that good way, to keep the Sabbath, and not to work on that 
day, and I did so : but yet again I sinned in it, because I did not reve- 






Confessions of Indians. 251 

rence the Word of God ; yea, and sometimes I thought that work- 
ing on the Sabbath was no great matter. Again, I heard it was a 
good way to come to theMeelings, and hear the Word of God, and 
1 desired to do it ; but in this also I sinned, because I did not truly 
hear : yea, sometimes I thought it no great matter if I heard not, and 
cared not to come to hear, and still I so sinned. Then I thought 
God was angry, because I have greatly sinned ; desiring to do well 
and yet again to sin. When I desired to do well, then I sinned, and 
in all things I sinned. But afterward I was angry with my self, and 
thought I will not sin again ; and what God saith, is good, but I am 
sinful because I have done all these evils. Again, sometimes my 
heart is humbled, and then I repent, and say, Oh God and Jesus 
Christ, have mercy on me, and pardon my sins. Now I desire tru- 
ly to pray ; now I desire to reverence the Word every Sabbath day : 
now I desire to hear the Word of God truly ; now I desire to bend 
my heart to pray, and it may be God will hear me : but quickly af- 
ter a temptation cometh to my heart, and I did not desire it. Again 
sometimes I did think, true it is I can do nothing of my self, but Je- 
sus Christ must have mercy on me, because Christ hath done for me 
all Gods Commandemehts and good Works, therfore my heart saith, 
Oh Jesus give me desires after thee : sometimes I think it is [p. 35.] 
true, I have greatly sinned against God, but great are his mercies: 
sometimes I hear the Word on the Sabbath day, and he giveth it me, 
[that is, maketh it my own] sometimes I say the great and mighty 
God is in Heaven, but these are but words, because I do not fear 
this great and mighty God ; and I sometimes regard not Gods Word, 
and make it of none effect, because I do not that which is good, but 
commit sin : sometimes I say I know Christ, because I know he died 
for us, and hath redeemed us, and procured pardon for us : yet again 
I say I sin, because I beleeve not Christ, for that only is right to be- 
leeve in Christ, and do what he saith ; but I think I do this in vain, 
because I yet do not truly beleeve in Jesus Christ, nor do what he 
commandeth, and therfore my heart plays the hypocrite ; and now L 
know what is hypocrisie, namely, when I know what I should do, and 
yet do it not. Sometimes I think I am like unto Satan, because I do 
al these sins, and sin in all things 1 do ; if I pray I sin, if I keep Sabbath 
I sin, if I hear Gods Word I sin, therefore I am like the Devil. 
Now 1 know I deserve to go to Hell, because all these sins I have 
committed : then my heart is troubled, and I say, Oh God and Christ 
pardon all my sin,, for I cannot pardon my sins my self; for the first 
man brought sin into the world, and therfore I am sinful, therfore I 
pray thee O Lord pardon all the sins which I have done. Again, 
sometimes my heart is humbled, and 1 desire to fear God, because 
he is a great God, and I desire to do what he saith, and now I desire 
to do the right way, and now I desire to beleeve Jesus Christ ; and 
sometimes I think it may be God will hear me, it may be he will par- 



252 Confessions of Indians. 

don me, yet again I think I cannot be ashamed of sin ; but now I am 
ashamed of all my sins, and my heart is broken, and all these my sins 
I cast off, and take heed of: yet then again I sometimes say to God, 
I cannot my self be humbled, or break my heart, or cast oft sin, but 
I pray thee O Jesus help me to do it. Again sometimes I confess 
this is true, I cannot redeem my self, nor deliver my self, because of 
all these my many sins ; truly, full is my heart of sin in every thing, 
all my thoughts, my words, my looks, my works are full of sin ; true 
this is, therefore I cannot deliver [p. 36.] my self from sin ; Oh re- 
deem thou my soul from Hel and torment, for I like not to do it with 
my own hand, therfore I desire Jesus Christ, that I may delight in 
him ; take thou me and my soul, because thou hast done Gods word, 
and all good works for me, and hast procured pardon for all my 
sins, and hast prepared pardon in Heaven, therfore I desire, Oh I de- 
sire pardon : but I somtimes think Christ doth not delight in me be- 
cause I do much play the hypocrite, but if 1 truly beleeve then he 
will pardon, but true faith I cannot work ; Oh Jesus Christ help me, 
and give it me. 



Another who made Confession, is named Magus ; which 
is as followeth: 

Eretofore I beleeved not, that God made the world, but I 
thought the world was of it self, and all people grew up in the 
world of themselves. When any bid me pray to God, I said I can- 
not, and none of our Rulers beleeve or pray to God ; yet I went 
about to seek how to pray to God, I told the wise men I seek how 
to pray to God, and all of them could not find how to pray to God. 
Afterward I had a desire to pray God, lest I should lose my soul, 
but my heart run away, and I could not find how to pray to God, 
and therefore I thought of going away ; yet I also thought if I do go 
away, I shall lose my ground. But after this I heard of Gods anger 
against me, and I beleeved it ; for God made the first man good, and 
told him if he did well he should live, and this day I beleeve all men 
should do so ; and then I thought 1 will pray as long as I live, and I 
will labor, because Gods promise is, If we labor we shall eat ; and I 
see that that is a true word ; for they that do labor do eat [that is, 
have wherewith to be fed] I see that sin alwaies hath continued, from 
the beginning of the world. I beleeve that word which God told 
Eve, That in sorrow she should bring forth [p. 37.] Children, and I 
see it dayly to be true. 1 beleeve that word of God, that sin brings 
misery, and all shall die, because by sin, we break all the Commands 



Confessions of Indians. 253 

of God : I have been full of lusts, and thefts, &c. all my life, and all 
the time I have lived. I have done contrary to the Command of 
God. And I am now grieved, now I hear of all my sins : I beleeve 
Christ doth convert me to God, and he calleth Children, and old men, 
and all men to turn unto God, and from their sins ; he calleth to sor- 
row and repentance, and ever to beleeve in Christ ; and who ever 
doth this, shall be ever blessed in Heaven ; but if he do it not, he 
perisheth : if he turn not from sin, dying, he shall go to Hell for ever. 
I think also, that so long as I live, God doth give me life. I be- 
leeve that we ought to gather into a Church, to serve God as long as 
we live. But I do not know whether yet God hath pardoned my sins, 
or not ; but I know Christ, and I know he hath already dyed for me, 
because I cannot redeem my self. 



Another who made Confession, was named Poquanum; 
which was asfolloweth. His first Confession. 

A Great while ago the English would tell me of God bujl hated 
it, and would go out of doors, when they so spake unto me, 
and I murmured at it. When the Indians first prayed to God, I did 
not think there was a God, or that the Bible was Gods Book, but 
that wise men made it : When some prayed to God, I went with them, 
but I did not know God. Afterward my mind was changed 
thus far, That I desired to be wise, as others were, but yet I knew 
nothing of God ; yea, after I prayed to God, I still did think there 
was no God. Afterward I found this in my heart, That we pray to 
God for our souls ; then I thought all my [p. 38.] praying was no- 
thing, because I was so foolish that I never thought of dying : but af- 
ter,! learned, That all must die, and good mens souls go to Heaven ; 
and then I thought of dying, and of my soul : but then I thought we 
prayed for nothing but that our souls might go to Heaven ; I knew 
nothing of Christ. But after, when the Children were Catechised, 
and taught the ten Commandements, I hearkned, and by them I came 
to know that there was a God, and that there was sin against God ; 
and hereby God made me to see all my sins, both before I prayed to 
God, and since ; and I saw Gods anger against me for my sins, before, 
and since I prayed, because sometimes I came not to the Meeting ; 
brake my word, regarded not my Children, and 1 see sin in me, and 
therfore I do greatly fear Gods anger. 



254 Confessions of Indians. 

Poquanum ; 
His Second Confession was asfolloweth: 

BEfore I prayed unto God, I greatly sinned, I prayed to many 
gods, and used Panwaning, Adultery, Lust, Lying, and al other 
sins, and many were my sins, evil thoughts, evil words, and nothing 
else but evil, hatred, and pride, and all sins against God, coveting 
other mens goods ; when I stole, I added lying to it when I had done ; 
I was very proud, I much hated many men, and loved them not be- 
cause I was angry with them ; and thus I did every day : 1 would 
slander my neighbors, great was my pride, I was daily angry with 
my neighbors, my heart was alwaies full of such waies. When the 
English said, Pray to God, I cared not for God, because I loved sin, 
nor did I desire that God should forgive my sin. Afterward I heard 
the word, That if we truly pray, mourn for sin, cast off sin, desire to 
hear the word, and beleeve in Christ, God will then pardon, and 
when he dieth Christ will lead him to Heaven : 1 much rejoyced to 
hear of this [p. 39.] pardon, but I must truly beleeve in Christ, else 
I shal not have pardon : and first I thought God will not pardon me, 
because I still sinned. But afterward I heard, That though we should 
pray as long as we live, and never sin more, yet that was of no value; 
but we must beleeve in Christ, else there is no pardon ; and this I re- 
joyced at. 



Another who made Confession, is named Nookau, which 
is as followeth. His first Confession. 

Five years ago, before I prayed I was sick, I thought I should 
die ; at which I was much troubled, and knew not what to do ; 
then I thought, if there be a God above, and he give life again, then 
I shall beleeve there is a God above, and God did give me life : and 
after that I took up praying to God. Now I beleeve God, one God 
that made all the world, and governeth it, yet this I only said with 
my mouth, I did not truly beleeve it in my heart. Then I un- 
derstood, That God made the first man good, and like God, but he 
sinned, and we have lost Gods Image, and are like the Devil, and de- 
serve Hell and Damnation : this I now know, and see that I am fool- 
ish, and sometime think not of God in an whol day, sometime I do 
think of God every day ; sometime my heart greatly sinneth, then 
sometime I presently fear, but again sometimes I am slow to fear ; 



Confessions of Indians. 255 

I am very foolish because I do not understand the Word, but break 
the Word of God. I beleeve the Catechism we learn to be accord- 
ing to the Word of God ; but the writings of the Bible are the very 
W T ords of God, and the Spirit of God is the Word, and that God giv- 
eth all things that are good : I now see my sins before I prayed un- 
to God, and since, and I beleeve that God seeth them all : and my 
heart feareth, because I do not yet forsake my sins, and I think God 
will not forgive me, because my [p. 40.] heart is wicked ; 1 know not 
when Christ forgiveth my sins, others may know, but I desire that my 
sins may be pardoned for Christ his sake. 



Nookau, 
His Second Confession. 

BEfore I prayed to God, I greatly sinned every day, I was proud, 
and lived in adultery, lying, &c. and my heart alwaies full of evil 
thoughts, and when the English would instruct me, I then thought my 
waies evil, but the business of praying to God, good ; then I did think, 
if I could first understand, then I would pray to God, and I was glad 
to hear of any that did pray to God. When I heard that word at 
Cohannet, Who ever lacketh wisdom, let him ask it of God ; let 
fools pray to God, and he will give them wisdom : I thought I was a 
fool, and I beleeved that Word of God. I heard that word of the 
dry bones, God bid them hear, and promised to put flesh, and sinews, 
and skin upon them, and make them live ; therefore I desired to hear, 
because I beleeved the dry bones, and that I was one that did not 
know God : afterward I was glad of praying to God. Sometimes 
I beleeved not God and God will not look on such, alwaies I thought 
God will not forgive me. I wondred at all that prayed to God, be- 
cause I thought God had given them wisdom : then I thought I am 
glad I pray to God. Sometime my heart is broken because I shall 
lose all in this world, and lose my soul also, because I beleeve not, for 
all the Words of God are true which he hath taught me. Now this 
day I think I will confess the truth ; Because I have sinned, I want 
Jesus Christ : and I will truly confess God, because of that word of 
Christ, He that confesses me before men, him will 1 confess before my 
Father : I wonder at this Instructoin, I desire to confess my heart. 






[p.41 .^Another who made his Confession is named Antony, 
upon whom the Lord was pleased the last Winter to lay 



256 Confessions of Indians. 

an heavy stroke; for he and another Indian being at 
work sawing of Board, and finishing the Peece, they 
laid it so short, and the Rowl not so stedfast, insomuch 
that this man being in the Pit directing to lay the Piece, 
and the other above ordering thereof, it slipped down 
into the Pit upon this mans head, brake his neather 
Chap in two, and cracked his Skull, insomuch that he 
was taken up half dead, and almost strangled with 
blood ; and being the last day of the week at night I had 
no word until the Sabbath day, then I presently sent a 
Chyrurgion, who took a discreet order with him ; and 
God so blessed his indeavors, as that he is now well 
again, blessed be the Lord: and whereas I did fear that 
such a blow in their Labor might discourage them from 
Labor, I have found it by Gods blessing otherwise ; yea 
this man hath performed a great part of the sawing of 
our Meeting- House, and is now sawing upon the School- 
house, and his recovery is an establishment [p. 42.] of 
them to go on ; yea, and God blessed this blow, to help 
on the Work of Grace in his soul; as you shall 
see in his Confession, which followeth. 

BEfore I prayed to God I alwaies committed sin, but I do not 
know all my sins, I know but a little of the sins I have commit- 
ted, therefore I thought I could not pray to God, because I knew not 
al my sins before I prayed to God, and since I heard of praying to 
God : formerly when the English did bid me pray unto God I hated 
it, and would go out of their houses, when they spake of such things 
to me. I had no delight to hear any thing of Gods Word, but in eve- 
ry thing I sinned ; in my speeches I sinned, and every day I broke 
the Commands of God. After I heard of praying to God, that Wa- 
ban and my two brothers prayed to God, yet then I desired it not, 
but did think of running away; yet I feared if I did run away some 
wicked men would kill me, but I did not fear God. After when you 
said unto me, pray, my heart thought, I will pray ; yet again I thought, 
I cannot pray with my heart, and no matter for praying with words 
only : but when I did pray, I saw more of my sins ; yet I did but on- 
ly see them, I could not be aware of them, but still I did commit 
them : and after I prayed to God, I was still full of lust, and then a 
little I feared. Sometimes I was sick, and then I thought God was 
angry, and then I saw that I did commit all sins : then one of my 
brothers died, and then my heart was broken, and after him another 






Confessions of Indians. 257 

friend, and again my heart was broken : and yet after all this I broke 
my praying to God, and put away God, and then I thought I shall 
never pray to God : but after this I was afraid of the Lord, because I 
alwaies broke my praying to God and then my heart said, God doth 
not hear my prayer. When I was sick, and recovered again, I thought 
then that God was merciful unto me. Hearing that word of God, If you 
hear the Word of God, and be forgetful hearers, you sin against God ; 
then I thought God will not pardon such a sinner as I, who dayly did 
so, and broke my praying to God. When I heard the [p. 43.] Com- 
mandements, I desired to learn them, and other points of Catechism, 
but my desires were but small, and I soon lost it, because I did not de- 
sire to beleeve : then sometimes I feared Gods anger because of al my 
sins ; I heard the Word and understood only this word, All you that 
hear this day, it may be you shall quickly die, and then I quickly saw 
that God was very angry with me. Then God brake my head, and 
by that I saw Gods anger ; and then I thought that the true God in 
Heaven is angry with me for my sin, even for al my sins, which eve- 
ry day I live, I do. When I was almost dead, some body bid me 
now beleeve, because it may be I shal quickly die, and I thought I 
did beleeve, but I did not know right beleeving in Christ : then I pray- 
ed unto God to restore my health. Then I beleeved that word, 
That we must shortly appear before Jesus Christ ; then I did greatly 
fear lest if I beleeved not, I should perish for ever. When I was neer 
death, I prayed unto God, Oh Lord give me life, and I will pray to 
God so long as 1 live, and I said, I will give my self soul, and body to 
Christ : after this, God gave me health, and then I thought, truly, 
God in Heaven is merciful ; then I much grieved, that I knew so lit- 
tle of Gods Word. And now sometimes I am angry, and then I fear 
because I know God seeth it ; and I fear, because I promised God 
when I was almost dead, that if he giveth me life, I will pray so long 
as I live ; I fear lest I should break this promise to God. Now I de- 
sire the pardon of all my sins, and I beg faith in Christ, and I desire 
to live unto God, so long as I live ; I cannot my self get pardon, but 
I dayly commit sin, and break Gods Word, but I look to Christ for 
pardon. 



.Another who made His Confession is named Owussumag; 
which is as followeth : 

WHen I first heard that Waban prayed to God, and after that 
many more prayed. I first feared praying [p. 44.] to God, 
and instruction, and I hated instruction by the Word of God, and al- 
waies I laughed at them who prayed to God ; and I alwaies thought 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 33 



258 Confessions of Indians. 

I will yet more commit sin : and I went into the Country, and there 
I acted much lust, adultry, and the like, and all my Neighbors, we 
did together seek after wickedness, and every day I was proud, and 
of high or open eyes. When some of my neighbors began to pray, I 
went away into the Country, but I could find no place where I was 
beloved. Then I heard, That when beleevers die, they go to Hea- 
ven, when sinners die they go to Hel ; and my heart considered, 
What good will it be if my soul go to Heaven ? But two years ago, 
I began to think, I had sinned against God ; and then somtimes I 
feared, yet again sinned, but my fear was of man, not of God : 
Then ever my heart said I should be better, if I would pray to God, 
and somtimes I beleeved that which I was taught, yet again, last year, 
I sought to go away afar off, but I could think of no place, but I 
should be in danger to be killed. Then again I much remembred 
my sins : and again I thought, What will become of me, if I die in 
my sins ? and then I thought it was good for me to pray unto God 
so long as I live ; and then my heart turned to praying unto God, 
and I did pray, and my heart feared when I heard the word read 
and taught, and I was glad to hear the Word of God ; and then I pur- 
posed to pray as long as I live. Sometime I did dayly see my sins, 
and fear, for I cannot get pardon, only in Jesus Christ. Then I 
heard that word, 1 thank thee oh Heavenly father, that thou hast 
revealed these things to babes; and that word, that we must forgive 
each other : then I saw that I beleeved not one word from Christ, 
not any word of G od ; and dayly my heart wept, that Christ might 
pardon all my sins against God and Christ : and now unto this day my 
heart saith I desire the good waies of praying to God, but 1 cannot 
know them of my self, but Jesus Christ must teach me them. When 
I heard, That only Christ must pardon our sins, and that for Christ 
God will pardon our sins, this day I rejoyce to hear that w r ord of God 
and all that Christ hath taught me : and now I purpose, That while I 
live, I will pray unto God, and [p. 45.] Jesus Christ only : and this 
day I see I cannot know how to find good thoughts ; but this day I 
desire pardon for all my sins, and to cast them away. 



Another who made Confession, is named Ephraim, his In- 
dian Name I have forgotten. It is as followeth : 

ALL the daies I have lived, I have been in a poor foolish condi- 
tion, I cannot tell all my sins, all my great sins, I do not see 
them. When I first heard of praying lo God, I could not sleep qui- 
etly, I was so troubled, ever I thought I would forsake the place be- 
cause of praying to God, my life hath been like as if I had been a 



Confessions of Indians. 259 

mad man. Last yeer I thought I would leave all my sins, yet I see 
I do not leave off sinning to this day ; I now think I shall never be 
able to forsake my sins. I think sometimes the Word of God is false, 
yet I see there is no giving over that I might follow sin, I must pray to 
God ; I do not truly in my heart repent, and I think that God wil not 
forgive me my sins : every day my heart sinneth, and how will Christ 
forgive such an one ? I pray but outwardly with my mouth, not with 
my heart ; I cannot of my self obtain pardon of my sins : I cannot 
tell all the sins that I have done if I should tell you an whol day to- 
gether : I do every morning desire that my sins may be pardoned 
by Jesus Christ ; this my heart saith, but yet I fear I cannot forsake 
my sins, because I cannot see all my sins : I hear, That if we repent 
and beleeve in Christ, all our sins shall be pardoned, therefore I de- 
sire to leave off my sins. 

This poor Publican was the last which made his Confession be- 
fore I read them unto the Elders, and the last of them I shall 
now publish. I will shut up these Confessions with the Confes- 
sion (if I may so call it) or rather with the Expression, and 
manifestation of faith, by two little [p. 46.] Infants, of two yeers 
old, and upward, under three yeers of age when they died 
and departed out of this world. 

The Story is this, 

THis Spring, in the beginning of the yeer, 1652. the Lord was 
pleased to afflict sundry of our praying Indians with that griev- 
ous disease of the Bloody-Flux, whereof some with great tor- 
ments in their bowels died ; among which were two little Chil- 
dren of the age above-said, and at that time both in one house, being 
together taken with that disease. The first of these Children in the 
extremities of its torments, lay crying to God in these words, God 
and Jesus Christ, God and Jesus Christ help me ; and when they 
gave it any thing to eat, it would greedily take it (as it is usual at the 
approach of death) but first it would cry to God, Oh God and Jesus 
Christ, bless it, and then it would take it : and in this manner it lay 
calling upon God and Jesus Christ untill it died : The mother of 
this Child also died of that disease, at that time. The Father of 
the Child told me this story, with great wonderment at the grace of 
God, in teaching his Child so to call upon God. The name of the 
Father is JVishohkou, whose Confession you have before. 

Three or four daies after, another Child in the same house, sick 
of the same disease, was (by a divine hand doubtless) sensible of the 
approach of death, (an unusual thing at that age) and called to its 
Father, and said, Father, I am going to God, several times repeat- 
ing it, 1 am going to God. The mother (as other mothers use to 
do) had made for the Child a little Basket, a little Spoon, and a lit- 
tle Tray : these things the Child was wont to be greatly delighted 



260 Confessions of Indians. 

withal (as all Children will) therefore in the extremity of the torments, 
they set those things before it, a little to divert the mind, and cheer 
the spirit : but now, the child takes the Basket, and puts it away, and 
said, / will leave my Basket behind me, for 1 am going to God, I 
will leave my Spoon and Tray behind me (putting them away) for I 
am going to God : and with these kind of expressions, the same night 
finished its course, and died. 

The Father of this child is named Robin Speen, whose Confes- 
sions [p. 47.] you have before, and in one of them he maketh men- 
tion of this child that died in Faith. When he related this story to 
me, he said, He could not tell whether the sorrow for the death of 
his child, or the joy for its faith were greater, when it died. 

These Examples are a testimony, That they teach their children 
the knowledg and fear of God, whom they now call upon ; and also 
that the Spirit of God co-worketh with their instructions, who teach- 
eth by man, more than man is able to do. 

I have now finished all that I purpose to publish at this time ; 
the Lord give them Acceptance in the hearts of his Saints, to engage 
them the more to pray for them ; and Oh ! that their judgings of 
themselves, and breathings after Christ, might move others (that have 
more means than they have, but as yet regard it not) to do the like, 
and much wore abundantly. 



FINIS. 



A Late and Further 

I MANIFESTATION 

OF THE 

Progress of the Gospel 

AMONGST THE 

INDIANS 

I JY 



New-England. 



Declaring their constant Love and Zeal 

to the Truth : With a readinesse to give 
Accompt of their Faith and Hope ; as of 
their desires in Church Commu- 
nion to be Partakers of 
the Ordinances of 
Christ. 

Being a Narrative of the Examinations of the Indians, about their 
Knowledge in Religion, by the Elders of the Churches, 
Related by Mr. John Eliot. 

Published by the C o n p o r a t i o n, established by Act of Parlia- 
ment, for Propagating the Gospel there. 



Acts 13. 47. I have set thee to be a light to the Gentiles, that thou 
shouldest be for Salvation unto the Ends of the Earth* 

L O KB ON: Printed by M. S. 165 5. 






WEE having perused the ensuing Narration, writ- 
ten by Master Eliot, doe conceive it fit to be 
Printed, That thereby the Servants of God in 
England may be further enlarged in their Prais- 
es to God for his free Grace wonderfully manifested in 
beginning and so successfully carrying on the hoped for 
Conversion of the Indians. And also that they may be 
much encouraged to continue their Prayers, and liberall 
Contributions for the finishing and perfecting of this bless- 
ed and glorious undertaking, so much conducing to the Glo- 
ry of God, the Salvation of soules, and the Inlargement of 
the Kingdome of Christ upon Earth. 

May 13. 1655. 



H : Whitfeild. £ C Edm : Calamy. 
Simeon Ashe. ^ ( John Arthur. 



To all that pray and wait for the 

Prosperity of 8 IOJY, and the 

increase of the Kingdome of our Lord 
Jesus Christ to the ends of the Earth. 






Grace and Peace be multiplied. 



Beloved Brethren, 

AS, The One thing which ye have desired of the 
Lord, and which yee have sought after, is, that your 
selves might dwell in the house of the Lord all the dayes 
of your lives, to behold the beauty of the Lord, and to 
enquire in his Temple : So, I am much assured that 
the next thing which yee have desired of the Lord, and 
which ye have earnestly sought after, is, that they who 
have hitherto been strangers to, might dwell also in the 
house of the Lord all the dayes of their lives, to behold 
the beauty of the Lord, and to enquire in his Temple ; 
yea, that they might be a house and a Temple of the 
Lord. This being the gratious designe of your holy 
breathings unto God, and of your liberall contributings 
unto men, ye cannot but rejoyce to hear of any thing 
which looketh like, much more which really is a fruit 
and return of such breathings and contributings. Holy 
prayers and zealous endeavours are very sweet in their 
acts, but they are much more sweet in their effects and 
issues. It should mightily encourage the seed of Jacob 
to pray, because God hath said, that he hath not said to 
the seed of Jacob, seeke yee me in vaine. But how 
should it provoke the seed of Jacob to give thanks, when 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 34 



266 TO THE READER. 

they find that they have not sought the Lord in vaine ? 
and that their labours have not been in vaine in the 
Lord 1 

Beloved Brethren, yee may now see and tast the fruit 
of those Prophecies, which ye have been helping to the 
birth. The Wildernesse and solitary places are glad, the 
desert rejoycelh and blossometh, as the Rose it blossometh 
abundantly, and rejoyceth even with joy and singing. 
The glory of Lebanon is given to it, the excellency of Car- 
mell and Sharon, these see the glory of the Lord, and the 
excellency of our God. 

This little Book of Observations and Experiences 
gives you a brief and faithfull Narrative of the increasing 
glory of Christ by the Progresse of the Gospel in New- 
England: It tells you how Christ hath there led captiv- 
ity captive, and given gifts for men, yea, for the rebel- 
lious, that the Lord God might dwell among them. 
Where the strongman Armed kept the house (for many 
Ages and Generations, and all was in peace :) there now 
(Christ) JI stronger then he, hath come upon him, and 
hath (in many examples) overcome him and taken from 
him all his Armour wherein he trusted, and divided his 
spoyles: Now Christ keeps the house, which Satan for- 
merly kept ; yea, they who were kept by Satan as his 
house, are now ready and earnestly desire to be built up 
as a house for Christ. The poor, naked, ignorant Indians 
who lately knew no civill Order, now beg to be brought 
into Church Order, to live under the Government, and 
enjoy the holy Ordinances of our Lord Jesus Christ, in 
the purest way of Gospel-worship. 

May we not now (Beloved) make mention of JRahab 
and Babylon to them that know Christ ? Behold Philistia 
and Tyre, with Ethiopia, this man was borne there ; and of 
Sion (in New -England) it may be said, this and that man 
(of the wild, rude, and barbarous Indians) ivas borne there. 
Read this short discourse, and it will tell you that the 
Lord hath blessed the labours of the Messengers of Sion 
in New-England, w r ith the Conversion of some (I may 
say, of a considerable number) of the Indians, to be a 
kind of first fruits of his (new) Creatures there. O let 



TO THE READER. 267 

old England rejoyce in this, that our brethren who with 
extream difficulties and expences have Planted them- 
selves in the Indian Wildernesses, have also laboured 
night and day with prayers and tears and Exhortations 
to Plant the Indians as a spirituall Garden, into which 
Christ might come and eat his pleasant fruits. Let the 
gaining of any of their souls to Christ, and their turning 
to God from Idols to serve the living and true God, be 
more pretious in our eyes then the greatest gaine or re- 
turn of Gold and Silver. This gaine of soules is a Mer- 
chandize worth the glorying in upon all the Exchanges, 
or rather in all the Churches throughout the world. This 
Merchandize is Holinesse to the Lord : And of this the 
ensuing Discourse presents you with a Bill of many par- 
ticulars, from your spirituall Factory in JYew England, as 
the improvement of your former adventures thether, for 
the promoting of that heavenly Trade ; as also for an en- 
couragement not only to all those who have freely done 
it already, to adventure yet more, but also for the quick- 
ning of those who hitherto have not done it, now to un- 
derwrite themselves Adventurers for the advancement 
of so holy and hopefull a designe. I shall adde only 
this one word, That, Whosoever shall thus Advent er for 
Christ, shall have Christ for his Insurer. To his Grace 
and Blessing I recommend both you and this Blessed 
Work, who am 



Dearly Beloved, 



A hearty well-wisher to the Propagation of 
the Gospel ; and your Servant for 
Ckrists sake. 



Joseph Caryl. 






A BRIEF 

NARRATION 

OF THE 

INDIANS 

PRO DEEDING S 

In respect of 

Church-Estate, 

A JY D 

How the Case standeth at the present 
with us. 



AFTERI had spent my poor labours among the Indians for 
the space of neer four years, it pleased God to stir up in them 
a great desire of partaking iu the Ordinance of Baptism, and other 
Ecclesiasticall Ordinances in way of Church Communion. But I 
declared unto them how necessary it was, that they should first be 
Civilized, by being brought from their scattered and wild course of 
life, unto civill Co-habitation and Government, [p. 2.] before they 
could, according to the will of God revealed in the Scriptures, be fit 
to be betrusted with the sacred Ordinances of Jesus Christ, in Church- 



270 Narration of the Indians Proceedings 

Communion. And therefore 1 propounded unto them, that they 
should look out some fit place to begin a Towne, unto which they 
might resort, and there dwell together, enjoy Government, and be 
made ready and prepared to be a People among whom the Lord 
might delight to dwell and Rule. 

When they understood the mind of God in this matter, they were 
desirous to set upon the work : The reallity of which desires, the 
living have actually expressed, by their performance thereof (in some 
poor measure) and some of them dying, left their earnest affections 
and desires with the rest, to set upon that work ; especially Warn- 
jpooas, a godly man, of whose death and exhortations that way, I have 
made some mention in some former Letters. 

We accordingly attended thereunto, to search for a fit place, and 
finally, after sundry journeyes and travells to several places, the 
Lord did by his speciall providence, and answer of prayers, pitch 
us upon the place where we are at JVatick. Unto which place my 
purpose at first was to have brought all the Praying Indians to Co- 
habit together : But it so fell out (by the guidance of God, as it 
now appeareth) that because the Cohannet Indians desired a place 
which they had reserved for themselves, and I finding that I could 
not at that time pitch there without opposition from some English, 
I refused that place, and pitched at JVatick, where I found no oppo- 
sition at present. This choyce of mine did move in the Cohannet In- 
dians a jealousie that I had more affection unto those other Indians 
than unto them. By which occasion (together with some other Pro- 
vidences of God, as the death of Cutshamoquin, and the coming of 
Josias, to succeed in the Sachemship in that place) their minds were 
quite alienated from the place of JVatick, though not from the work, 
for they desire to make a Towne in that fore-mentioned place of 
their owne, named Ponkipog, and are now upon the work. And in- 
deed, it now appeareth to be of the Lord, because we cannot have 
competent accommodations at JVatick, for those that be there, which 
are about fifty Lots, more or lesse. [p. 3.] And furthermore, by the 
blessing of God upon the work, there are People, partly prepared, 
and partly preparing for three Townes more. Insomuch, as that 
it is most evident, that had I proceeded according to my first inten- 
tions, to have called them all unto that one place, we must have been 
forced very quickly to have scattered againe, for want of accommo- 
dations for so great a company of Inhabitants, and so have discouraged 
them at our first onset of drawing them from their scattered way of 
living, unto Co-habitation : seeing it would have brought them unto 
such wants and streights as they could not have grapled withal], 
but rather would have been occasioned to think there were insu- 
perable difficulties in this enterprise : Whereas in lesser companies 
they may find a more plentifull and better course of life then they 
found in that former way out of which they are called ; as through 






in respect of Church-Estate. 271 

Gods mercy, and the bounty of good people in England, whose 
love layeth the foundation-stone of the work, they doe already feele 
and find at JVatick, and begin to find atPonkipog. 

In prosecution of this work in the year 1650 we began by the 
Lords assistance our first Towne at JVatick, where we built a Fort, 
and one dwelling-house. In the year 51 after Fasting and Prayer 
about that matter, they gave up themselves and their Children to be 
governed by the Lord, according to his word, in all wayes of civility, 
and chose among themselves Rulers often, fifty, and an hundred, ac- 
cording to the holy Patterne, so far as they could : In which way of 
Government the Lord hath not a little owned them, and blessed 
them. 

In the year 52 I perceiving the grace of God in sundry of them* 
and some poor measure of fitnesse (as I was perswaded) for the en- 
joyment of Church-fellowship, and Ordinances of Jesus Christ, I mov- 
ed in that matter, according as I have in the Narration thereof, brief- 
ly declared. In the year 53 I moved not that way, for these Rea- 
sons. 

I having sent their Confessions to be published in England, I did 
much desire to hear what acceptance the Lord gave unto them, in 
the hearts of his people there, who daily labour at the Throne of grace, 
and by other expressions of their loves, for an holy birth of this work 
of the Lord, to the praise of Christ, and [p. 4.] the inlargement of 
his Kingdome. As also my desire was, that by such Books as might, 
be sent hither, the knowledge of their Confessions might be spread 
here, unto the better and fuller satisfaction of many, then the trans- 
acting thereof in the presence of some could doe. These Books 
came by the latter Ships (as I remember) that were bound for New- 
England, and were but newly out when they set saile, and therefore. 
I had not that answer that year, which my soule desired, though 
something I had which gave encouragement, and was a tast of what 
I have more fully heard from severall this year, praised be the 
Lord. 

Besides there fell a great damping and discouragement upon us 
by a jealousie too deeply apprehended, though utterly groundlesse,. 
viz. That even these praying Indians were in a conspiracy with 
others, and with the Dutch, to doe mischief to the English. In 
which matter, though the ruling part of the People looked otherwise 
upon them, yet it was no season for me to stir or move in this mat- 
ter, when the waters were so troubled. This businesse needeth a 
calmer season, and I shall account it a favour of God when ever he 
shall please to cause his face to shine upon us in it. Yet this I did the 
last year, after the Books had been come a season, there being a 
great meeting at Boston, from other Colonies as well as our owne, 
and the Commissieners being there, 1 thought it necessary to take 
that opportunity to prepare and open the way in a readinesse against 



272 Narration of the Indians Proceedings 

this present year, by making this Proposition unto them ; namely, 
That they having now seen their confessions, if upon further triall 
of them in point of knowledge, they be found to have a competent 
measure of understanding in the fundamental! points of Religion ; 
and also, if there be due testimony of their conversation, that they 
walke in a Christian manner according to their light, so that Reli- 
gion is to be seen in their lives ; whether then it be according to God, 
and acceptable to his people, that they be called up unto Church- 
estate ? Unto which I had I blesse the Lord, a generall approbation. 

Accordingly this year 54 I moved the Elders, that they would give 
me advice and assistance in this great businesse, & that they would 
at a fit season examine the Indians in point of their knowledge, be- 
cause we found by the former triall, that a day will be too little (if 
the Lord please to call them on to Church-fellowship) [p. 5.]to ex- 
amine them in points of Knowledge, and hear their Confessions, and 
guide them into the holy Covenant of the Lord. Seeing all these things 
are to be transacted in a strange language, and by Interpreters, and 
with such a people as they be in these their first beginnings. But if they 
would spend a day on purpose to examine them in their knowledge 
there would be so much the more liberty to doe it fully and throughly, 
(as such a work ought to be) as also when they may be called to 
gather into Church-Communion, it may suffice that some one of them 
should make a Doctrinall Confession before the Lord and his people, 
as the rule of faith which they build upon, the rest attesting their con- 
sent unto the same : And themselves (the Elders 1 mean, if the Lord so 
far assist the Indians, as to give them satisfaction) might testifie that 
upon Examination they have found a competency of knowledge in 
them to inable them unto such a work and state. And thus the work 
might be much shortned, and more comfortably expedited in one day. 
I found no unreadinesse in the Elders to further this work. 

Some dispute there was about Officers in the Church, if they should 
be found fit matter to proceed, of which I shall anon speak God-wil- 
ling. 

They concluded to attend the work, and for severall Reasons ad- 
vised that the place should be at Roxbury, and not at JYatick, and that 
the Indians should be called thither, the time they left to me to ap- 
point, in such a season as wherein the Elders may be at best liberty 
from other publick occasions. The lime appointed was the 13 of the 
4 moneth; meanwhile I dispatched Letters unto such as had know- 
ledge in the Tongue, requesting that they would come and help in In- 
terpretation, or attest unto the truth of my Interpretations. I sent also 
for my Brother Mayhu, who accordingly came, and brought an In- 
terpreter with him. Others whom I had desired, came not. I in- 
formed the Indians of this appointment, and of the end it was ap- 
pointed for, which they therefore called, and still doe, when they have 
occasion to speak of it, JVatootomuhtede kesuk, A day of asking 



in respect of Church-Estate. 273 

Questions, or, A day of Examination. I advised them to prepare for 
it, and to pray earnestly about it, that they might be accepted 
among Gods people, if it were the will of God. 

[p. 6.] Tt pleased God so to guide, that there was a publick Fast 
of all the Churches, betwixt this our appointment, and the accom- 
plishment thereof: which day they kept, as the Churches did, and 
this businesse of theirs was a Principall matter in their Prayers. 

It hath pleased God to lay his hand in sicknesse upon Monequas- 
sun our JVatick Schoolmaster, so that we greatly wanted his help and 
concurrence in this businesse. Yea, and such is his disease (viz. an 
Ulcer in his Lungs) that I fear the Lord will take him away from us, 
to the great hindrance of our work, in respect of humane means : 
Lord increase our faith ! 

There fell out a very great discouragement a little before the time, 
which might have been a scandall unto them, and I doubt not but Sa- 
tan intended it so ; but the Lord improved it to stir up faith and Pray- 
er, and so turned it another way : Thus it was. Three of the un- 
sound sort of such as are among them that pray unto God, who are 
hemmed in by Relations, and other means, to doe that which their 
hearts love not, and whose Vices Satan improveth to scandalize and 
reproach the better sort withall ; while many, and some good people 
are too ready to say they are all alike. I say three of them had got- 
ten severall quarts of strong water, (which sundry out of a greedy 
desire of a little gaine, are too ready to sell unto them, to the offence 
and grief of the better sort of Indians, and of the godly English too) 
and with these Liquors, did not onely make themselves drunk, but 
got a Child of eleven years of age, the Son of Toteswamp, whom his 
Father had sent for a little Corne and Fish to that place near Wa- 
tertowne, where they were. Unto this Child they first gave too 
spoonfuls of Strong-water, which was more then his head could bear ; 
and another of them put a Bottle, or such like Vessel to his rnouth, 
and caused him to drink till he was very drunk ; and then one of 
them domineered, and said, Now we will see whether your Father 
will punish us for drunkennesse (for he is a Ruler among them) see- 
ing you are drunk with us for company ; and in this case lay the 
Child abroad all night. They also fought, and had been severall 
times Punished formerly for Drunkennesse. 

When Toteswamp heard of this, it was a great shame and [p. 7.] 
breaking of heart unto him, and he knew not what to doe. The 
rest of the Rulers with him considered of the matter, they found a 
complication of many sins together. 

1 The sin of Drunkennesse, and that after many former Punish- 
ments for the same. 

2 A willfull making of the Child drunk, and exposing him to dan- 
ger also. 

3 A degree of reproaching the Rulers. 

4 Fighting. 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 35 



274 Narration of the Indians Proceedings 

Word was brought to me of it, a little before I took Horse to goe 
to JYatick to keep the Sabbath with them, being about ten dayes be- 
fore the appointed Meeting. The Tidings sunk my spirit extreamly> 
I did judge it to be the greatest frovvne of God that ever I met with- 
all in the work, I could read nothing in it but displeasure, I began to 
doubt about our intended work : 1 knew not what to doe, the black- 
nesse of the sins, and the Persons reflected on, made my very heart 
faile me : For one of the offendors (though least in the offence) was he 
that hath been my Interpreter, whom I have used in Translating a 
good part of the Holy Scriptures ; and in that respect I saw much 
of Satans venome, and in God I saw displeasure. For this and 
some other acts of Apostacy at this time, 1 had thoughts of casting 
him off from that work, yet now the Lord hath found a way to hum- 
ble him. But his Apostacy at this time was a great Triall, and I 
did lay him by for that day of our Examination, i used another in 
his room. Thus Satan aimed at me in this their miscarrying ; and 
Toteswamp is a Principal! man in the work, as you shall have occa- 
sion to see anon God-willing. 

By some occasion our Ruling Elder and I being together, I open- 
ed the case unto him, and the Lord guided him to speak some 
gracious words of encouragement unto me, by which the Lord did 
relieve my spirit ; and so I committed the matter and issue unto the 
Lord, to doe what pleased him, and in so doing my soul was quiet 
in the Lord. I went on my journey being the 6 day of the week ; 
when 1 came at JYatick, the Rulers had then a Court about it. 
Soon after I came there, the Rulers came to me with a Question 
about this matter, they related the whole businesse unto me, with 
much trouble and grief. 

[p. 8.] Then Toteswamp spake to this purpose, 1 am greatly griev- 
ed about these things, and now God tryeth me whether 1 love Christ 
or my Child best. They say, They will try me; but I say, God will 
try me. Christ saith, He that lovelh father, or mother, or wife, or 
Child, better than me, is not worthy of me. Christ saith, 1 must 
correct my Child, if I should refuse to doe that, 1 should not love Christ, 
God bid Abraham kill his Son, Abraham loved God, and therefore 
he would have done it, had not God with-held him. God saith to 
me, onely punish your Child, and how can 1 love God, if I should 
refuse to doe that ? These things he spake in more words, and much 
affection, and not with dry eyes : Nor could I refraine from teares to 
hear him. When it was said, The Child was not so guilty of the 
sin, as those that made him drunk ; he said, That he was guilty of 
sin, in that he feared not sin, and in that he did not believe his coun- 
sells that he had often given him, to take heed of evill company : but 
he had believed Satan and sinners more then him, therefore he need- 
ed to be punished. After other such like discourse, the Rulers 
left me, and went unto their businesse, which they were about be- 
fore I came, which they did bring unto this conclusion, and judge- 



in respect of Church-Estate. 275 

/nent, They judged the three men to sit in the stocks a good space of 
time, and thence to be brought to the whipping-Post, &t have each of 
them twenty lashes. The boy to be put in the stocks a little while, 
and the next day his father was to whip him in the School, before the 
Children there ; all which Judgement was executed. When they 
came to be vvhipt, the Constable fetcht them one after another to the 
Tree (which they make use of instead of a Post) where they all re- 
ceived their Punishments : which done, the Rulers spake thus, one 
of them said, The Punishments for sin are the Commandements of 
God, and the worke of God, and his end was, to doe them good, and 
bring them to repentance. And upon that ground he did in more 
words exhort them to repentance, and amendment of life. When he 
had done, another spake unto them to this purpose, You are taught in 
Catechisme, that the wages of sin are all miseries and calamities in this 
life, and also death and et email damnation in hell. JVow you feele 
some smart as the fruit of your sin, and this is to bring you to repen- 
tance, that so you may escape the rest. And in more words he exhort- 
ed them [p. 9.] to repentance. When he had done, another spake to 
this purpose, Heare all yee people (turning himselfe to the People who 
stood round about, I think not lesse then two hundred, small and great) 
this is the Commandement of the Lord, that thus it should be done un- 
to sinners ; and therefore let all take warning by this, that you commit 
not such sins, least you incur these Punishments. And with more 
words he exhorted the People. Others of the Rulers spake also, but 
some things spoken I understood not, and some things slipt from me : 
But these which I have related remained with me. 

When I returned to Roxbury, I related these things to our Elder, 
to whom I had before related the sin, and my grief: who was much 
affected to hear it, and magnified God. He said also, That their sin 
was but a Transient act, which had no Rule, and would vanish : 
But these Judgements were an ordinance of God, and would 
remaine, and doe more good every way, then their sin could doe 
hurt, telling me what cause I had to be thankfull for such an issue : 
Which I therefore relate, because the Lord did speak to my heart, 
in this exigent, by his words. 

When the assembly was met for Examination of the Indians, and 
ordered, I declared the end and Reason of this Meeting, and therefore 
declared, That any one, in due order, might have liberty to propound 
any Questions for their satisfaction. Likewise, I requested the As- 
sembly, That if any one doubted of the Interpretations that should be 
given of their Answers, that they would Propound their doubt, and 
they should have the words scanned and tryed by the Interpreters, 
that so all things may be done most clearly. For my desire was to 
be true to Christ, to their soules, and to the Churches : And the try- 
ing out of any of their Answers by the Interpreters, would tend to the 
satisfaction of such as doubt, as it fell out in one Answer which they 



276 The Indians Proceedings in respect of Church-Estate. 

gave ; the Question was, How they knew the Scriptures to be the 
word of God 9 The finall Answer was, Because they did find that it 
did change their hearts, and wrought in them wisedome and humility. 
This Answer being Interpreted to the Assembly, my Brother Mahu 
doubted, especially of the word [Hohpooonk] signifying Humility, it 
was scanned by the Interpreters, and proved to be right, and he rest- 
ed satisfied therein. I was purposed my [p. 10.] selfe to have written 
the Elders Questions, and the Indians Answers, but I was so imployed 
in propounding to the Indians the Elders Questions, and in return- 
ing the Indians Answers, as that it was not possible for me to write 
unlesse I had caused the Assembly to stay upon it, which had not been 
fitting ; therefore seeing Mr. Walton writing, I did request him to 
write the Questions and Answers, and help me with a Copy of them, 
which I thank him, he did, a Copy whereof I herewith send to be in- 
serted in this place, on which, this only I will animadvert, That the 
Zlders in wisdome thought it not fit to ask them in Catechisticall 
method strictly, in which way Children might Answer. But that they 
might try whether they understood what they said, they traversed up 
and downe in Questions of Religion, as here you see. 



Postscript. 



LET the Reader take notice, That these 
Questions were not propounded all to 
one man, but to sundry, which is the reason 
that sometime the same Questions are pro- 
pounded againe and againe. Also the num- 
ber Examined were about eight, namely, so 
many as might be first called forth to enter 
into Church- Covenant, if the Lord give op- 
portunity. 



[p- ■'•] THE 

EXAMINATION 

OF THE 

INDIANS 

A T 

Roxbury, 

The 13 th Day of the 4 th Month, ' 
165 4. 

Quest : ^BTW'T^^ *» G °d '? 

t&LPEL/ Answ : An Ever-living Spirit. 

W V Q. What are the Attributes of God*! 

A. God is Eternall, Infinite, Wise, Holy, Just. 
Q. In which of these are we like unto God f 
A. In Wisedome, Holinesse, and Righteousnesse : But in Infin- 
itenesse and Eternity, God is onely like himselfe. 
Q. How many Gods are there "l 
A. There is one onely God. 
[p. 12.] Q. Have not some Indians many Gods ? 
A. They have many Gods. 
Q, How doe you know these Gods are no Gods ? 
A. Before the English came we knew not but that they were Gods, 
but since they came we know they are no Gods : 



278 Narration of the Indians Proceedings 

Q. What doe you find in the true God, that you find not in false 
Gods'} 

A. I see in the English many things, that God is the true God, 
Q. What good things see you in the English ? 

A. I see true love, that our great Sachems have not, and that mak- 
eth me think that God is the true God. 

Q. Doe you love God ? 

A. A little I love God, my heart wanteth wisedome, but i doe de- 
sire to love him. 

Q. Why doe you love God ? 

A. Because we are taught this, that when we dye, we must goe to 
God, and live ever with him. 

Q. Who among the Indians shall goe to God, and what are the 
signes that they shall goe to God 9 
A. Every man that truly believeth in Jesus Christ shall goe to heaven. 

Q. Whether have you not many jealousies and j "tares that you love 
not God in truth °l 

A. I hope I have some love to God, but I know that I have but 
little knowledge of him, I hope I love him. 

Q. How doe you understand that God ruleth in your heart ? 

A. Before I prayed to God, I knew nothing of God, but since I 
have been taught, 1 desire to believe. 

Q. What is faith in Jesus Christ ? 

A. I confesse I deserve to be damned for ever, and I am not able 
to deliver my selfe, but I betrust my soule with Jesus Christ. 

Q. Whether doth not your soule groane within you, under the 
sense of unbelief, and other sins °l 

A. Since I have been taught, I find my selfe very weak, there is a 
little in me, sometimes my heart mournes, sometimes I desire more. 

[p. 13.] Q. How doe you know the word of God is Gods word ? 

A. I believe the word that you teach us, was spoken of God. 

Q. Why doe you believe it °l 

A. Therefore I believe it to be the word of God, because when we 
learn it, it teacheth our hearts to be wise and humble. 

Q. Whether are not your sins, and the temptations q/*Hobbomak 
more strong since, then before you prayed to God ? 

A. Before I preyed to God, I knew not what Satans temptations 
were. 

Q. Doe you know now °l 

A. Now I have heard what Satans temptations are. 

Q. What is a temptation of the Devill in your heart, doe you un- 
derstand what it is °l 

A. Within my heart there are Hypocrisies, which doe not appear 
without. 

Q. Whether doe not you find this a principall temptation from 
the wickednesse of your hearty to drive you away from Christy and 



in respect of Church- Estate. 279 

not to believe the gracious Promises in Jesus Christ ? Or whether 
when you find wickednesse in your heart, you are not tempted, that 
you cannot believe ? 

A. My heart doth strongly desire to goe on in sin, but this is a 
strong temptation, but Faith is the work of Jesus Christ. 

Q. Why doe some believe in Christ, and not others, what malceth 
the difference °) 

A. Because Satan speaks to some, and bids them not believe, and 
they hearken to him, and God speaks to others, and they believe God. 

Q. Why doe they believe God °l 

A. It is the work of the Spirit of God teaching them to believe in 
Jesus Christ. 

Another Indian being asked what he could say further to 
it, he Answered, Jesus Christ sendeth his Spirit into 
their hearts, and teacheth them. 

Q. What moveth Jesus Christ to send his Spirit, whether any thing 
in your selfe °\ 

A. I believe, the Promise of God. 

Q. Whether doe you indeed believe there is a God, Christ, Heav- 
en, Hell, whether have you any doubts concerning these things or no °l 

[p. 14.] I doe but a little know my owne thoughts, but God through- 
ly knoweth my heart, I desire to believe these things, I desire not to 
be an Hypocrite. 

It being put to another Indian for further answer, he an- 
swered, My heart desires truly to pray unto God, and I 
more and more desire to believe these things. When I 
am taught by the word Preached, I desire to believe in 
particular, 1 desire to believe as long as I live. 

Q. What is the Word of God 1 ? 

A. That wherein God hath written his Will, and therein taught the 
way to Heaven. 

Q. What is sin ? 

A. There is the root sin, an evill heart ; and there is actuall sin,, 
sin is a breaking of the Law of God. 

Q. Wherein doe you breake the Law of God !> 

A. Every day in my heart, words, and works. 

Q. Why are you troubled for sin, that none ever knew but your 
selfe? 

A. I fear God and Jesus Christ. 

Q. What doe you believe about the immortality of the soule, and 
resurrection of the body ? doth the soule dye when the body dyeth °l 

A. I believe, when the body of a good man dyeth, the Angels car- 
ry^his soule to heaven, when a wicked man dyeth, the Devills carry 
his soule to hell. 

Q. How long shall they be in that state ? 

A. Untill Christ cometh to Judgement. 



280 Narration of the Indians Proceedings 

Q. When Christ cometh to judge the world, what then shall be- 
come of them ] 

A. The dead bodies of all men shall rise againe. 
Q. Whether shall they ever dye any more ? 
A. Good men shall never dye any more. 

Q. Whether doe you believe that these very bodies of ours shall rise 
againe 1 

A. This body which rots in the earth, this very body, God maketh 
it new. 

Q. Who is Jesus Christ ? 

[p. 15.] A. Jesus Christ is the Son of God, yet borne man, and 
so both God and man. 

Q. Why was Christ Jesus a man ? 
A. That he might dye for us. 
Q. Why is Christ Jesus God ? 
A. That his death might be of great value. 

Q. Why doe you say, Christ Jesus was a man that he might dye, 
doe onely men dye? 

A. He dyed for our sins. 

Q. What reason or justice is there, that Christ should dye for 
our sins? 

A. God made all the world, and man sinned, therefore it was ne- 
cessary Christ should dye to carry men up to Heaven. God hath 
given unto us his Son Jesus Christ, because of our sins. 

The Question being put to another for further Answer, his 
Answer was, That God so loved the world, that he gave 
his onely begotten Son? that whosoever believth in him 
should not perish, but have everlasting life. 
Q. What is God? 
A. An Ever-living Spirit. 
Q. What are the Attributes of God 9 
A. As before. 

Q. In these Attributes wherein are we like God 9 
A. As before. 

Q. How many Gods are there c l 

A. One onely God, but he is three, the Father, Son. and Holy 
Ghost. 

Q. What is Eter nail 1 
A. Man is not like God in Eternall being. 
Q. What is infinite 9 

A. All the World hath an end, but God hath no end. 
Q. Had God any beginning ? 
A. No, but he is ever. 

Q. Was there alwaies an Heaven and Earth, how came they to 
be^ 

A. Jehovah made them, and Governeth them all. 









in respect of Church-Estate. 281 

Q. Were they ever c l 

[p. 16] A. No. 

Q. How did God make the world ? 

A. Onely the Will of God. 

Q. Out of what matter did God make the worlds 

A. Not of any thing at all. 

Q. How long was God making the world ? 

A. Six dayes. 

Q. How cometh it to passe that the Sun riseth and setteth, that 
there is winter and Summer, day and night % 

A, All are the work of God. 

Q. Now the world is made can it Jceepe it selfe °l By whose strength 
is it kept together ? 

,/L God preserveth it, he made it, and keeps it all. 

Q. In what condition was man made ? 

A. Very good, like unto God. 

Q. What is the Image of God in man ? 

A. Holinesse, Wisedorae, and Righteousnesse. 

Q. Was there any sin in the soule of man ? 

A. No. 

Q. What Covenant did God make with Adam ? 

A. A Covenant of Works, Doe this and live, thou and thy Chil- 
dren, Sin, and dye, thou and thy Children. 

Q. How many Commandements are there ? 

A. Ten. 

Q. What is the first Commandement 9 

A. God spake these words, and said, Thou shalt have no other 
Gods but me. 

Q. What was the sin of Adam ? 

A. He believed the Devil, and eat of the Tree in the midst of the 
Garden, of which God commanded him not to eat. 

Q. When Adam sinned, what befell him °l 

A. He lost the Image of God. 

Q. What is that Image of God, which he lost 1 

A. Wisedome, Holinesse, and Righteousnesse. 

Q. To whom is man now like ? 

A. He is like unto Satan. 

Q. What is this likenesse to Satan ? 

A. He is Unholy, Foolish, and Unrighteous. 

[p. 17.] Q. How many kinds of sin are there? 

A. An evill heart, and evill works 

Q. What doe you call it ? 

A. We daily break Gods Commandements, and there is the root 
sin. 

Q. What is the wages of sin ? 

A. All miseries in this life, and death, and damnation. 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 36 



282 Narration of the Indians Proceeding? 

Q. Whose wages is death ? 

A. All unbelievers. 

Q. Seeing but one man Adam sinned, how come all to dye ? 

A. Adam deserved for us all, that we should dye. 

The Question being put to another for further answer, he an- 
swered, Adam was the first man, and father of all men, and 
in him we sinned. 

Q. Who is Jesus Christ? 

A. Christ is God, born like man, God and man in one person. 
Q. Why was Christ man °\ 
A. That he might dye. 
Q. Why was Christ God 9 
A. That his death might be of great value. 
Q. How many are the Offices of Christ ? 
A. Three. A Priest, a Prophet, a King. 
Q. What Sacrifice did Christ offer ? 
A. His owne body.^ 
Q. What hath Christ done for us ? 
A. He hath dyed for us. 

Q. What death dyed Christ for us ? Who put him to death 9 
A. Wicked men. 

Q. What else hath Christ done for us *? 

A, He hath kept all the Commandements of God for us, and al- 
so dyed for us. 

Q. What hath Christ deserved, or merited for us °l 
A. Pardon of sin and eternall life. 

Q. The same Question was asked another, What hath Christ 
merited ? 

[p. 18.] A. Pardon of all our sins, because he paid a ransome, 
the favour of God, and Eternall life. 

Q. What else hath Christ done for us? 

A. He rose again, and ascended into Heaven. 

Q. What doth Christ in heaven for us ? 

A. He appeareth for us before God, he prayeth for us, and giveth 
us the New Covenant. 

Q. What is the New Covenant ? 

A. The Covenant of Grace, Repent and believe in Christ, and be 
saved. 

Q. Shall all men be saved by Jesus Christ ? 

A. All that believe in Christ shall goe to heaven, and be saved. 

Q. Why doth thy heart desire Jesus Christ more then sin, and thy 
former ldolls ? 

A. Before we prayed to God, I did not desire Jesus ^Christ, I did 
desire my sins, but now I see my need of Jesus Christ. 



in respect of Church- Estate. 283 

Q. Why doe you need Christ ? 

A. Wlien { dye, Christ carrieth my soule to heaven. 

The same put to another for further answer, he answered, 
We need Jesus Christ, beeause we are full of sinne. 

Q. How doth Christ work Grace in our hearts ? 

A. I beleive Christ hath sent his Spirit into my heart by his word. 

Q. What is repentance for sinne ? 

A. I am ashamed of my selfe, and broken is my heart, I hate, and 
am aware of all sin. 

Q. What most of all breaks your heart, why is your heart broken ?< 

A. Because J have sinned against God. 

Q. What see you in sin that breaks your heart ? 

A. It is not my owne work, but Christ sends his Spirit, and breaks 
my heart. 

Q. What doth he put into your heart, that causeth your heart to 
break ? 

A, The Spirit. 

[p. 19.] Q. What wounds your heart most, because you sin, or be- 
cause you must goe to hell ? 

A. Because we must goe. to hell. 

Q. When you heare that Adam by his sin deserved eternall death, 
and when you hear of the grace of God sending Jesus to save you, 
which of these break your heart most ? 

A. Pardon of sin goeth deepest. 

Q, What worke of the Spirit finde you in your heart ? 

A. The Spirit of God breaketh my heart to repent of all my sin, 
and turneth me from sin to believe in Jesus Christ. 

Q. Whether have you found at any time any such worke in your 
selfe? 

A. I am ashamed of my selfe, I doe not throughly find it in my 
heart to be so. 

Q. When God sendeth his Spirit, what doth it worke in us ? 

A. A change of the heart. 

Q. What change hath God wrought in you of late, which was not 
in you in former times ? 

A. The Spirit turneth us from our sins, to believe in Jesus Christ. 

Q. Doe you finde this in your heart, that your heart is turned from 
your sins ? 

A. I find my heart turned, I leave my stealing, lying, lust, and now 
my heart believeth in Jesus Christ. 

Q. Doe you believe in Jesus Christ? 

A. I doe believe in Jesus Christ. 

Q. What is it to believe in Jesus Christ ? 

A. I confesse 1 deserve to be damned, and am not able to deliver 



284 Narration of the Indians Proceedings 

my selfe, and therfore I doe give up my selfe unto Jesus Christ, and 
trust in him, casting away my sins. 

Q. Why doe you cast away your sins ? 

A. They make me that I cannot love Jesus Christ. 

Q. Is there any promise set home on your heart that comforteth you, 
what Promise doe you remember ? 

A. I believe the Promise of God, that he will pardon believers in 
Jesus Christ. 



So far they proceeded in Questions and A 



nswers. 



[p. 20.] Some or other of the Elders did severall times publickly 
call upon the Interpreters, to be attentive to all things that pas- 
sed, because they must relye upon their testimony, or to that 
purpose, praying them to speak if they doubted of any thing. 
In the conclusion, the Elders saw good to call upon the Interpreters 
to give a publick testimony to the truth of Mr. Eliots Interpre- 
tations of the Indians Answers, which Mr. Mahu and the two 
Interpreters by him, did, all speaking one after another to this 
purpose, That the Interpretations which Mr. Eliot gave of their An- 
swers, was for the substance the same ivhich the Indians answered, 
many times the very ivords ivhich they spake and alwayes the sense. 

William Walton. 



Hen the day was well spent, in this above-written manner, 
some that were aged desired that an end might be put unto 
this work for this time, because by this tast which they had, they saw 
that which gave them comfortable satisfaction. Then I desired that 
(if it might be without prejudice to any) they might be further tryed 
with Questions about Christ, and grace wrought in us by the Spirit ; 
and about the Ordinances of Christ (concerning which, no Questions 
had been yet propounded) and also about the estate of man after 
death, of the resurrection of the dead, and of the last Judgement, 
wherein they were, through the grace of Christ, in some measure in- 
structed. But it was said, that they did perceive that they were in- 
structed in points of Catechisme, by what they had heard from them. 
When they came to a conclusion, one of the Elders (viz. Mr. Ezek : 
Rogers) having first privately conferred with such of the Elders as 
sate near him, spake words of acceptance and encouragement both 
to me and to the Indians, in the name of the rest. But Mr. Walton 
did not write them, and therefore I omit the rehearsing of them. 

This great and solemne work of calling up these poor Indians un- 
to that Gospel light and beauty of visible Church-estate, [p. 21 .] having 



in respect of Church- Est ate. 285 

now passed through a second Tryall : In the former whereof, they 
expressed what experience they had found of Gods grace in their 
hearts, turning them from dead works, to seek after the living God, 
and salvation in our Saviour Jesus Christ. In this second they have 
in some measure declared how far the Lord hath let in the light of 
the good knowledge of God into their soules, and what tast they have 
of the Principles of Religion, and doctrine of salvation. Now the 
Question remaineth, What shall we further doe ? And when shaft 
they enjoy the Ordinances of Jesus Christ in Church-estate ? 

The work is very solemne, and the Question needeth a solemn 
Answer. It is a great matter to betrust those with the holy priviledges 
of Gods house, upon which the name of Christ is so much called, 
who have so little knowledge and experience in the wayes of Christ, 
so newly come out of that great depth of darknesse, and wild course 
of life; in such danger of polluting and defiling the name of Christ 
among their barbarous Friends and Countrey-men ; and under so ma- 
ny doubts and jealousies of many people ; and having not yet stood in 
the wayes of Christ so long, as to give sufficient proof and experience 
of their stedfastnesse in their new begun profession. Being also the 
first Church gathered among them, it is like to be a pattern and pre- 
sident of after proceedings, even unto following Generations. Hence 
it is very needfull that this proceeding of ours at first, be with all 
care and warinesse guided, for the most effectuall advancement of the 
holinesse and honour of Jesus Christ among them. 

Upon such like grounds as these, though I and some others know 
more of the sincerity of some of them, then others doe, and are bet- 
ter satisfied with them : Yet because I may be in a temptation on 
that hand, I am well content to make slow hast in this matter, remem- 
bring that word of God, Lay hands suddenly upon no man. Gods 
works among men, doe usually goe on slowly, and he that goeth slow- 
ly, doth usually goe most surely, especially when he goeth by coim- 
sell. Sat cito si sat bene, the greater proof we have of them, the 
better approbation they may obtain at last. Besides, we having had 
one publick meeting about them already this summer, it will be diffi- 
cult to [p. 22.] compasse another, for we have many other great oc- 
casions, which may hinder the same, and it is an hard matter to get 
Interpreters together to attend such a work, they living so remote. 
The dayes also will soon grow short, and the nights cold, which will 
be an hindrance in the attendance unto the accomplishment of that 
work, which will most fitly be done at JYatick. 

But above all other Reasons this is greatest, that they living in sun- 
dry Towns and places remote from eacli other, and labourers few to 
take care of them, it is necessary that some of themselves should be 
trained up, and peculiarly instructed, unto whom the care of ruling 
and ordering of them in the affaires of Gods house may be committed, 
in the absence of such as look after their instruction. So that this 



286 Narration of the Indians Proceedings- 

is now the thing we desire to attend, for the comfort of our little Sister 
that hath no breasts, that such may be trained up, and prepared, ynto 
whom the charge of the rest may be committed in the Lord. And 
upon this ground we make the slower hast to accomplish this work 
among them. Mean while I hope the Commissioners will afford some 
encouragement for the furtherance of the instruction of some of the 
most godly and able among them, who may be in a speciall manner 
helpfull unto the rest, in due order and season. 

And thus have I briefly set down our present state in respect of our 
Ecclesiasticall proceedings. I beg the prayers of the good people 
of the Lord, to be particularly present at the Throne of Grace, in 
these matters, according as you have hereby a particular Information 
how our condition is. And for me also, who am the most unfit in 
humane reason for such a work as this, but my soule desireth to de- 
pend and live upon the Lord Jesus, and fetch all help, grace, mercy, 
assistance, and supply from him. And herein I doe improve his 
faithfull Covenant and Promises, and in pellicular, the Lord doth 
cause my soule to live upon that word of his, Psal. 37. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 
wherein I have food, rayment, and all necessaries for my selfe and 
Children (whom I have dedicated unto the Lord, to serve him in this 
work of his, if he will please to accept of them) and this supply I live 
upon in these rich words of gracious Promise, vers. 3. Trust in the 
Lord,and doe good, dwell in the Land, and verily thou shalt be fed. 
Herein also I find supply of grace to believe the conversion of 
[p. 23.] these poor Indians, & that not only in this present season, 
in what I doe already see, but in the future also, further then by 
mine eye or reason I can see. Which supply of grace, I live upon 
in those words of his gracious Promise, which I apply and improve 
in this particular respect, vers. 4. Delight thysdfe also in the Lord, 
and he shall give thee the desires of thy heart. 

Herein also 1 find supply of grace to believe, that they shall be in 
Gods season, which is the fittest, brought into Church Estate ; faith 
fetching this particular blessing out of the rich Fountaine of those gra- 
cious words of Promise, Commit thy way unto the Lord, trust also 
in him, and he shall bring it to passe. 

Herein also my soule is strengthned and quieted, to stay upon the 
Lord, and to be supported against all suspitious jealousies, hard speech- 
es, and unkindnesses of men, touching the sincerity and reallity of 
this work, and about my carriage of matters, and supply herein. 
Which grace my soule receiveth by a particular improvement of that 
rich treasury of the Promise in these words, vers. 6. And he shall 
bring forth thy righteousnesse as the light, and thy judgement as the 
noon day. And herein likewise I find supply of grace, to wait pa- 
tiently for the Lords time, when year after year, and time after time, 
I meet with disappointments. Which grace I receive from the com- 
manding force of that gracious Promise, vers. 7. Rest in the Lord, 
and wait patiently for him, fret not thy selfe, either for one cause, or 



in respect of Church-Estate. 287 

another. Thus I live, and thus I labour, here I have supply, and 
herejs my hope, I beg the help of prayers, that I may still so live and 
labour in the Lords work, and that I may so live and dye. 



T l He Corporation (appointed by Act of Parliament ) 
for Propagation of the Gospel amongst the Heathen 
Natives in New-England, desire all men to take notice, 
That such as desire to be satisfied how the moneys collected, 
are disposed of may (if they please) repair e to Coopers- 
Hall, London, any Saturday, between the houres of JYine 
and Twelve in the forenoone, where the said Corporation 
meet. 



F I JV I S 



289 



• Concord, New Hampshire, 12 Bee. 1832. 

To the Publishing Committee of 

the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Gentlemen, 
The enclosed List of Representatives to the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts for the years 1689, 1690, 1691, 1692, was derived from the State 
Records of Massachusetts, and communicated to me by a gentleman of 
Boston. If suitable for your Collections, it is at your service. 

With respect, 

I am, &c. 

John Farmer. 



A LIST OF REPRESENTATIVES 



GENERAL COURT OF MASSACHUSETTS, 

From the Deposition of Sir Edmund Andros, in 1689, to the Commencement 
of the New Charter, in 1692. 

[The number of Courts summoned during this period was sixteen, which, for 
convenience in designating those in which each member served, will be 
numbered. 1689, (1) 9 May ; (2) 23 May; (3) 5 June; (4) 5 November; 
(5) 3 December; 1690, (6) 12 February ; (7) 28 May ; (8) 8 October; (9) 10 
December; 1691, (10) 3 February; (11) 14 April; (12) 20 May; (13) 14 Oc- 
tober; (14) 8 December ; 1692, (15) 8 March ; (16) 4 May. The figures after 
the names show in which Courts the members served. Those in small capitals 
were speakers.] 

Boston, Thomas Oakes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ; James Taylor 1, 2; 

John Clark 1, 2, 7, 8; Theopbilus Fraiy I, 2, 7-16; 

Timothy Prout 3,5-16; Penn Townsend 3-16; Adam 

Winthrop 3-6, 12, 13, 15, 16. 
Salem, John Corwin 1, 2; John Price 1-6; John Higginson 3, 

5, 6 ; John Ruck 7 - 11 ; Nathaniel Putnam 7 - 11 ; Manas- 

seh Marston 12-15; John Putnam 12-15; Timothy Lin- 

dall 16. 
Dorchester, Samuel Clap 1-16; Timothy Tileston 1 -6, 16. 
Charlestown, Jonathan Call, sen. 1, 2; John Fowle 1, 2; Richard 

Sprague 3 ; Joseph Lynde 3 - 16 ; Samuel Hey man 7-16. 
Newbury, Stephen Greenleaf 1-7; Thomas Noyes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 

16; Joseph Pike 8-15. 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 37 



290 List of Representatives in the 

Andover, John Osgood 1, 2, 4, 5, 6; Thomas Chandler 7; Chris- 
topher Osgood 8, 9 ; Dudley Bradstreet 10, 11. 

Braintree, Samuel Tompson 1, 7-10, 12; Christopher Webb 
2-6; Joseph Crosby 2 ; Edmund Quiney 16. 

Medfield, Edward Adams 1, 2; John Harding 4, 5. 

Wrentham, John Ware 1,2; Samuel Fisher 3, 5; Oliver Fisher 4. 

Sherburne, Edward West 1, 2. 

Beverly, William Dodge 1, 2, 7 ; Peter Woodbury 1,2; William 
Raymond 3 ; John Dodge 5, 6 ; Andrew Elliot 8-16. 

Woburn, Samuel Walker 1, 2 ; John Pierce 1,2; James Con- 
vers3-6, 13, 16; Matthew Johnson 3- 12, 14, 15. 

Billerica, Ralph Hill 1, 2, 4, 5, 6; Joseph Walker 1, 2; Simon 
Crosby 10, 11. 

Dedham, Nathaniel Stearns 1, 3, 5-8, 10; Thomas Fuller 2 ; 
Thomas Metcalf 12 ; Timothy Dwight 13-16. 

Salisbury, Jacob Morril 1, 2, 3, 5; Henry True 1, 2, 9, 16; 
Nathaniel Brown 12 ; John Eastman 13, 14. 

Amesbury, Samuel Colby 1, 2, 3 ; C. Foote 1,2; Samuel Foote 
6 ; Thomas Harvey 9, 10 ; Thomas Fowler 16. 

New Cambridge (Newton), John Ward 1, 2, 3, 13, 14, 15. 

Groton, John P arris 1. 

Bradford, Samuel Stickney 1,2, 3, 6. 

Lancaster, Ralph Houghton 1, 2; John Moore, jr. 3, 4; John 
Moore, sen. 5, 6 ; John Houghton 9. 

Lynn, Oliver Purchis 1, 2, 3, 5 ; John Shepard 1, 2; John Bur- 
rill 12 -16, 

Gloucester, James Stevens 1, 3, 5, 6,7; William Ellery 2; 
William Sargent 8-12. 

Mendon, Josiah Chapin 1, 2; Capt. Haskell 16. 

Marlborough, Obadiah Ward, sen. 1, 2, 3, 8- 11 ; John Brig- 
ham 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 ; Abraham Williams 13. 

Rowley, John Pearson, sen. 1 -6 ; Daniel Wicom 1, 2 ; Ezekiel 
Jewett 9-11, 13, 14, 16 ; John Dresser 12. 

Topsfield, Thomas Baker 1-6; John Gould 9, 10, 11. 

Reading, Jeremiah Swain 1, 2; Benjamin Fitch 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 
14, 15 ; Nathaniel Goodwin 6-11, 16. 

Maiden, Henry Green 1,2, 3, 16 ; John Wilson 1, 2, 3 ; Phine- 
has Sprague 5, 6, 7 ; John Sprague 4, 6, 8, 10, 11 ; John 
Green 13-15. 

Muddy River (Brookline), Andrew Gardner 1, 2, 3. 



General Court of Massachusetts. 291 

Stow, Stephen Hall 1, 2. 

Concord, Simon Davis 1-7, 16; Ebenezer Prout 1-7; Henry 
Woodhouse 8-11; James Blood 12; Humphrey Barrett 
13. 
Milton, William Blake 1 - 6. 
Medford, Peter Tufts 1 - 3 ; Peter Tufts, jr. 4 - 6, 10 - 12 ; 

N. Wade, 13, 14. 
Boxford, John Peabody 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14. 
Haverhill, Peter Ayer 1 - 6 ; John Johnson 9, 10. 
Wenham, Walter Fairfield 1,2; Thomas Patch 1, 2, 3 ; Thomas 

Fiske 4-8, 13. 
Sudbury, Peter King 1 - 6 ; Peter Noyes 8 - 11 ; John Haynes 

13, 14; Joseph Freeman 13, 14. 
Roxbury, Samuel Ruggles 1 - 16 ; Nathaniel Holmes 1,2; 

John Bowles 3-6. 
Weymouth, William Torrey 1,2; Ephraim Hunt 1,2, 7, 12- 

14 ; Jacob Nash 3- 6, 8, 10. 11 ; John Holbrook 16. 
Cambridge, Samuel Champney 1-16; Edward Fisk 1-5; 

David Fisk 6. 
Chelmsford, Josiah Richardson 1-6; Edward Spalding 10, 11. 
Marblehead, Nathaniel Norden 1-6. 

Watertown, William Bond 1 - 7, 9, 13-15; Benjamin Gar- 
field 2, 16; Simon Stone 3, 5, 6. 
Ipswich, Nehemiah Jewett 1,2, 7; John Wise 1, 2 ; Daniel 
Epes 3 - 6 ; Simon Stacy 3- 6 ; Nathaniel Rust 8 - 11 ; 
Samuel Ingalls 9-11; Nicholas Wallis 12-15; William 
Goodhue, jr. 12, 14, 15 ; Robert Kinsman 16. 
Hingham, Thomas Andrews 2-6; John Leavitt 8, 10; Na- 
thaniel Beal 12, 1 3. 
Dunstable, John Waldo 2 ; Cornelius Waldo 3 ; Robert Parris 5. 
Deerfield, Thomas Weld 2. 
Westfield, Cornet Dewey 2, 13. 
Northampton, John King 2, 3 ; Joseph Bridgham 7 ; Medad 

Pomeroy 9 ; Jona. Hunt 12; Joseph Hawley 12, 13, 16. 
Hatfield, Samuel Partridge 2, 12, 13 ; Ebenezer Frary 12. 
Hadley, Aaron Cook 2, 12 ; A. Cook, jr. 4 ; Timothy Nash 

7, 13. 
Springfield, Henry Chapin 2 ; John Holyoke 12. 
Salem-Village (Danvers), Daniel Andrews 3. 
Hull, Abram Jones 4, 5. 



292 Churches and Ministers in New Hampshire. 

Portsmouth, Elias Stilernan 7 ; John Foster 7 ; Richard Waldron 
12, 13, 16; John Pickering 12, 14. 

Oakes was Speaker at the 3d, 4th, and 5th Courts ; Bowles at 
the 6th ; Townsend from 8th to 12th and the 16th; and Bond at 
the 13th, 14th, and 15th. 



CHURCHES AND MINISTERS IN NEW HAMPSHIRE. 
[Continued from Vol. Ill, Third Series, p. 190.] 

Rev. Dr. Holmes, 

Sin, — As I have hitherto pursued my Ecclesiastical Sketches 
for New Hampshire without any regard to the order of time the 
several churches in this State were formed, being, at the time 
the Sketches commenced, unable to collect any particular infor- 
mation of several of the early churches, the readers of the Collec- 
tions can have had no connected view of their origin and progress, 
and their number at different periods. I propose to give you 
sketches, similar to those already given, of the first fifty Congre- 
tional Churches formed in New Hampshire (not including those 
'of which notices have already been given), and shall endeavour to 
arrange them in the order of time they were respectively organ- 
ized. Such an arrangement I have long wished to make, and 
after considerable investigation now attempt, by putting down 
against each church either the actual time it was formed, or the 
time when the first pastor was inducted into office. By this 
method an approximation to correctness may be obtained, as 
most of the churches were gathered about the time the first min- 
isters were ordained, and generally on the same or the preceding 
day. The dates without brackets show the time the churches 
were organized ; those included in brackets the time the first 
ministers were ordained. 

Churches. Founded. 

Exeter 1st church, 163S. 

Hampton, 1639. 

Dover, 1639. 

Portsmouth 1st church, . . . 1671. 



Churches and Ministers in New Hampshire, 293 



Churches. 
Dunstable, 

Portsmouth 2d church, 
New-Castle, 
Greenland, 
Hampton-Falls, 
Newington, 
Durham, 
Stratham, . 
Kingston, 
Rye, 
Concord, 
Somersworth, 
Plaistow, 
Newmarket, 
Chester, 
Gosport, 
Winchester, 
Pembroke, . 
Kensington, 
Nottingham-West 
Rochester, 
East-Kingston, 
Keene, 

North-Hampton, 
Salem, 
Boscawen, 
Amherst, . 
Swanzey, 
Litchfield, 
Nottingham, . 
Hollis, 

South-Hampton, 
Epping, . 
Exeter 2d church 
Pelham, . 
Hampstead, . 
Brentwood, 
Charlestown, 
Hopkinton, 
Lyndeborough, 
Portsmouth 3d church, 
Newtown, 
Sandown, 



Founded. 
[16 Dec. 1685.] 
. 1703. 
[1704.] 
[15 July, 1707.] 
[13 Jan. 1712.] 
[16 Nov. 1715.] 
26 March, 1718. 
April or May, 1718. 
[1725.] 
20 July, 1726. 
18 Nov. 1730, 
[28 Oct. 1730.] 
2 Dec. 1730 
. [1730! 
[1731. 
[26 July, 1732. 
12 Nov. 1736. 
1 March, 1737. 
. [Nov. 1737.] 

30 Nov. 1737. 
. . [1737.] 

[1738.] 
18 Oct. 1738. 

31 Oct. 1739. 
[30 Jan. 1740.] 

[8 Oct. 1740.] 
22 Sept. 1741. 
4 Nov. 1741. 
. [1741.] 
[1742.] 
[20 April, 1743.] 
[1743.] 
[9 Dec. 1747.] 
1748. 

13 Nov. 1751. 
[24 June, 1752.] 

. [1752.] 
[4 Dec. 1754.] 
23 Nov. 1757. 
3 Dec. 1757. 

14 Oct. 1758. 
[1759.] 

. [1759.] 



294 Churches and Ministers in New Hampshire. 

New-Tpswich, ... [22 Oct. 1760.] 

Walpole, 10 June, 1761. 

Epsom, .... [23 Sept. 1761.] 



EXETER. 

The first Congregational church in New Hampshire is supposed to 
have been established at Exeter in the year 1638. The Rev. John 
Wheelwright, " having been banished from Massachusetts for his 
Anlinomianism, with eight of his brethren, obtained dismission from 
the church in Boston ; and they formed themselves into a church, 
and removed to Exeter that year. He continued there till 1642, 
when the inhabitants of the town came under the jurisdiction of 
Massachusetts, and Mr. Wheelwright soon after removed, with 
several of his friends, to Wells in Maine. The original commis- 
sion for surveying that town was issued by Thomas Gorges in 
July 1643, and directed to ' Mr. John Wheelwright, minister of 
God's word,' and two others. He spent about four years in 
Wells, when he became reconciled to the government of Massa- 
chusetts, and was settled in the ministry at Hampton, in this 
State, as colleague with Mr. Dalton, where he remained about 
ten years, and then went to England. He was in favor with 
Oliver Cromwell ; whose contemporary he was in the University. 
The Protector, upon Wheelwright's being presented, said that 
' he could remember the time when he was more afraid of meet- 
ing Wheelwright at foot-ball than he had since been of meeting 
an army in the field ; for he was infallibly sure of being tript up 
by him.' On the accession of Charles II. Mr. Wheelwright re- 
turned to New England and settled at Salisbury, Massachusetts, 
where he died suddenly of an apoplectic fit, Nov. 15, 1679, being 
at the time of his decease the oldest minister in the colony. 
Dr. Cotton Mather said of him that 6 he was a man of the 
most unspotted morals and unblemished reputation,' and that ' his 
worst enemies never looked on him as chargeable with the least 
ill practices.' He had been in the ministry in England before he 
came to America. He fled from persecution in his native land, 
and met it in the wilderness. He appears to have been a man of 
piety and talents ; but he was a man, and therefore liable to err. 
The common effect of persecution is not to convince men of the 



Churches and Ministers in New Hampshire. 295 

right, but to confirm them in the wrong. Mr. Wheelwright be- 
came sensible that he had erred, and acknowledged it. The 
Massachusetts government restored him to the freedom of the 
colony. But it is no easy matter with most men truly to forgive 
the man whom they have injured. Mr. Wheelwright was not 
regarded with that respect and esteem which he appears to have 
deserved. His descendants were reputable. His son, grandson, 
and great grandson were of the council for the province of Massa- 
chusetts." * 

Mr. Wheelwright was succeeded in 1650 by the Rev. Samuel 
Dudley, a son of Gov. Thomas Dudley. He was born in Eng- 
land about the year 1606; married in 1633 Mary Winthrop,. 
daughter of Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts. He left seven 
sons and as many as five daughters. Thomas Dudley, his eldest 
son, born in Boston 9 March, 1634, graduated at Harvard College 
in 1651, and was fellow of the College. Mr. Dudley resided 
some time in Salisbury, and was deputy from that town in 1641, 
and was occasionally engaged in public business after his settle- 
ment at Exeter. He died in 1683, having been considered "a 
person of good capacity and learning." His descendants are 
numerous in this State and Maine. 

Rev. John Clark, who graduated at Harvard College in 1690, 
succeeded Mr. Dudley, and was ordained 21 September, 1698, 
when " the church was organized anew." He died in the fall of 
1705, [one account I have, says 25 July, 1705,] at the age of 35. 
Ward Clark, his youngest son, was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1723, and was the minister of Kingston. 

Rev. John Odlin, who graduated at Harvard College in 1702, 
succeeded Mr. Clark, and was ordained 12 November, 1706. 
He died in 1754, aged 72, and was succeeded by his son, 

Rev. Woodbridge Odlin, who graduated at Harvard College, 
1 738, and was ordained 28 September, 1 743. He died 1 March, 
1776, aged 57. On the side of his mother, he was descended 
from Rev. John Woodbridge, the first minister of Andover. 

Rev Isaac Mansfield, who graduated at Harvard College in 
1767, succeeded Mr. Odlin, and was ordained in 1776, and dis- 
missed in 1787. 

* Article Ecclesiastical Memoranda in Farmer and Moore's Collec- 
tions, Vol. II. p. 235. 



296 Churches and Ministers in New Hampshire. 

Rev. William Frederic Rowland, who graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1784, was ordained in 1790. — Such have been 
the ministers of this ancient church for 187 years, during which 
time there have been twenty-six years in which it was destitute of 
regularly settled pastors. 

Respectfully yours, 

F. 

Concord, N. H., 23 July, 1825. 



[The first portion of the following paper (pp. 297 — 308,) was originally pub- 
lished in the " Collections of the New- York Historical Society," (Vol. HI. 
pp. 3d7 — 404.) i By the courtesy of that Society, the Publishing Committee 
are enabled to insert it here, with the author's emendations, as giving com- 
pleteness to Dr. Mease's subsequent communication to the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society.] 



DESCRIPTION 



OF SOME OF 

THE MEDALS, 

Struck in relation to Important Events in North America, before 
and since the Declaration of Independence by the United 
States. By James Mease, M. D. 

1. Occasion. — Settlement of Pennsylvania. Silver. 
Face. — A head of William Penn. 

Legend. — william penn — born 1644, dted 1718. 

Reverse. Device. — Penn standing ; his left hand on his walk- 
ing cane, and shaking hands with an Indian Chief, who is holding a 
bow in his left hand. 

Legend. — by deeds of peace. 

Exergue. — Pennsylvania, settled 1681.* 

2. Occasion. — In honor of the late General John Armstrong, 
of Carlisle, Pennsylvania, for destroying the Kitanning Indian 
town. Silver. 

Device. — An officer followed by two soldiers : the officer point- 
ing to a soldier shooting from behind a tree, and an Indian prostrate 
before him. In the back ground Indian houses are seen in flames. 

Legend. — kitanning destroyed by colonel Armstrong, 

SEPTEMBER 8, 1756. 

Reverse. Device. — The arms of the corporation of Philadel- 
phia. These consisted of four devices : on the right hand, a ship 
under full sail : on the left, a pair of scales equally balanced : on 
the right, above the ship, a wheat-sheaf: on the left, two hands 
locked 

Legend — the gift of the corporation of the city of 

PHILADELPHIA.f 

* I am not informed by whose authority this medal was struck. It is 
preserved in the Cabinet of the Library Company of Philadelphia. 
f Silver medals were presented to each of the commissioned officers. 

38 



298 Description of American Medals. 

The district including the site of the battle fought between General (then 
Colonel) Armstrong's troops and the Indians, is now called "Armstrong 
County," and contained in 1812, according to the official census by the 
marshal of Pennsylvania, 6,413 inhabitants. The population of the county 
of Armstrong, in 1830, was 17,625. 

1 have read the copy of Colonel Armstrong's letter to the Governor of 
Pennsylvania (William Denny), in one of the books of public documents in 
the office of the secretary of the Commonwealth, and can assure the Society, 
that the following account contains all the essential particulars of the ac- 
tion. The letter is very long, and minutely details the progress of his 
march, and the occurrences that took place during the expedition. The 
account is taken from Franklin and Hall's ''• Pennsylvania Gazette " of Sep- 
tember 23d, 1756. 

" Saturday last, arrived an express from Colonel Armstrong, of Cumber- 
land county, with advice that he marched from Fort Shirley, on the 30th 
past, with about 300 of our provincial forces, on an expedition against 
Kitanning, a town of our Indian enemies on the Ohio, about 25 miles 
above fort Duquesne (Pittsburg).* On the third inst. he joined the ad- 
vanced party at the Beaver Dams, near Frankstown ; and on the seventh, 
in the evening, being within 6 miles of Kitanning, the scouts discovered a 
fire in the road, and reported that there were but three or at most four 
Indians at it. It was not thought proper to attempt surprising those Indians 
at that time, lest, if one should escape, the town might be alarmed ; so 
Lieutenant Hogg, with twelve men, was left to watch them, with orders not 
to fall upon them till day-break : and our forces turned out of the path, to 
pass by their fire without disturbing them. About three in the morning, 
having been guided by the whooping of the Indian warriors at a dance in 
the town, they reached the river, 100 perches below the body of the town, 
near a corn-field, in which a number of the enemy lodged, out of their 
cabins, as it was a warm night. As soon as day appeared, and the town 
could be seen, the attack began in the corn-field, through which our people 
charged, killing several of the enemy, and entered the town. Captain 
Jacobs, the chief of the Indians, gave the war-whoop, and defended his 
house bravely through loop-holes in the logs, and the Indians generally 
refused quarters, which were offered them, declaring they were men, and 
would not be prisoners. Colonel Armstrong (who now received a wound 
in his shoulder by a musket-ball) ordered their houses to be set on fire 
over their heads, which was immediately done. When the Indians were 
told that they would be burnt if they did not surrender, one of them replied, 
' he did not care, as he could kill four or five before he died ;' and as the 
heat approached, some began to sing. Some, however, burst out of their 
houses, and attempted to reach the river, but were instantly shot down. 
Captain Jacobs, in getting out of a window, was shot, as also his. squaw, 
and a lad called the king's son. The Indians had a number of spare arms 
in their houses, loaded, which went off in quick succession as the fire came 
to them ; and quantities of gunpowder, which had been stored in every 
house, blew up from time to time, throwing some of their bodies a great 
height in the air. A body of the enemy on the opposite side of the river, 
fired on our people, and were seen to cross the river at a distance, as if to 
surround our men ; they collected some Indian horses that were near the 
town, to carry off the wounded ; and then retreated without going back to 
the corn-field to pick up those killed there in the beginning of the action. 
Several of the enemy were killed in the river, as they attempted to escape 

* Kitanning is on the Alleghany river, 44 miles above Pittsburg. 



Description of American Medals, 209 

by fording it ; and it was computed that, in all, between thirty and forty 
were destroyed. Eleven English prisoners were released, and brought 
away, who informed the Colonel, that, besides the powder (of which the 
Indians boasted they had enough for ten years' war with the English), there 
was a great quantity of goods burnt, which the French had made them a 
present of but ten days before. The prisoners also informed, that, that very 
day, two batteaux of French Indians were to join Captain Jacobs to march 
and take fort Shirley, and that twenty-four warriors had set out before 
them, the preceding evening, which proved to be the party that kindled 
the fire the night before ; for our people, returning, found Lieutenant Hogg 
wounded in three places, and learnt that he had, in the morning, attacked 
the supposed party of three or four, at the fire place, according to order, 
but found them too numerous for him. He killed three of them, however, 
at the first fire, and fought them an hour, when, having lost three of his best 
men, the rest, as he lay wounded, abandoned him and fled, the enemy pur- 
suing. Captain Mercer, being wounded in the action, was carried off by 
his ensign and eleven men, who left the main body in their return, to take 
another road." 

Annexed, is a return of the killed and wounded, and the names of the 
released prisoners. Captain Mercer,* with twenty-three soldiers, and four 
released prisoners afterwards returned safe. 

The Corporation of Philadelphia, on the 5th of January, 1757, addressed a 
complimentary letter to Colonel Armstrong, thanking " him, his officers 
and men, for their gallant conduct, and presented him with a piece of plate, 
besides the silver medal. A silver medal was also presented to each of 
the commissioned officers, and " a small sum of money, to be disposed of in 
the manner most agreeable to them." 

3. Occasion. — Promoting peace with the Indian tribes. 

Device. — A head of George the Second. 

Reverse. Device. — A citizen and Indian seated under a tree ; 
the former holding up the calumet of peace : the Indian in the act 
of receiving it. A fire, as usual on such occasions, is between 
them. The sun is m the zenith. 

Legend. — let us look to the most high, who blessed our 

FATHERS WITH PEACE. 1757. 

The medals were struck at the expense of the association (chiefly com- 
posed of the religious society called Quakers), formed for the purpose of pro- 
moting peace with the Indian tribes. The gentleman f to whom I owe the 
knowledge of this fact says further, " I well remember the striking of those 
medals by my father. They were executed in silver and presented to the 
Indians by the Society. The appropriate inscription on the reverse, is 

* General Mercer of the United States army, who died near Princeton, of the 
effects of a blow received in the battle at that town, January 12, 1777. 

t Mr. Joseph Richardson, assayer of the mint of the United States. Mr. 
Richardson's father was a silversmith in Philadelphia, and the son of one of the 
original settlers of the province under William Penn. Mr. Richardson informed 
me that the original dies of the medals for " Colonel Armstrong," and for " pro- 
moting peace with the Indians," were in his possession, and permitted me to 
have some medals struck from them. One of each is deposited in the cabinet of 
the [New- York] Historical Society. 



300 Description of American Medals. 

truly characteristic, and may serve to convey to posterity a just idea of the 
men of influence in those days." 

4. Occasion. — Evacuation of Boston by the British troops, in 
1776. Gold. 

Face. — The head of General Washington, in profile. 

Legend. — georgio Washington supremo duci exercituum 

ADSEIITORI LIBERTATIS COMITIA AMERICANA. 

Reverse. — Troops advancing towards a town which is seen at a 
distance. Troops marching to the river. Ships in view. General 
Washington in front, and mounted, with his staff, whose attention he 
is directing to the embarking enemy. 

Legend. ■ — hostibus primo fugatis 

Exergue. — bostonium recuperatum xvii. martii mdcclxxvi. 

This medal was ordered to be struck by a resolve of Congress, of March 
25th, 1776, and to be presented to General Washington. A vote of thanks 
was also passed to him, and " the officers and soldiers under lus command, 
for their wise and spirited conduct in the siege and acquisition of Boston." 

5. Occasion. — Surrender of Lieutenant-General Burgoyne 
and his army, at Saratoga, New York, in 1777. Gold. 

Face. — A head of General Gates, in profile. 

Legend. — horatio gates duci strenuo comitia Ameri- 
cana. 

Reverse. — Gates and Burgoyne in front of the American and 
British troops. Burgoyne in the act of presenting his sword to 
Gates. The Americans on the right, with arms shouldered, and 
colors flying. The British on the left, in the act of grounding their 
arms, and laying down their colors. By the side of the two Gene- 
rals are a drum and stand of colors. 

Legend. — saltjs regionum septentrional. 

Exergue. — hoste ad saratogam in dedition. accepto die 

XVII OCT. MDCCLXXVU. 

This medal (which weighs 10 half Joannes,*) was ordered by a resolve 
of Congress of November 4, 1779, which stated the particular defeats of 
Burgoyne's army and detachments from it. (Journals of Congress, 1777, 
p. 472.) The reader is referred to "A State of the Expedition from Canada, 
as laidbefore the House of Commons, by Lieutenant General Burgoyne, 
London 1780," for a variety of interesting details of the march, repeated bat- 
tles, and progress from Canada to Saratoga of the British army : to the 
British " Annual Register " for 1779, p. 149 : also to General Wilkinson's 
" Memoirs," for many particulars never before published of that expedition, 
and of the capitulation of General Burgoyne: see also Gates's Life, in 
"The Port Folio," New Series, Vol. II. with a plate of the medal. 



• Medical Repository, New York, Vol. IV. p. 307 



Description of American Medals. 301 

6. Occasion. — Capture of the English frigate Sernpis, Cap- 
tain Pearson, by the Bon Homme Richard, Captain John Paul 
Jones. Gold. 

Face. — Head of John Paul Jones, a good likeness. 

Legend. — joanni paulo jones classis prefecto Comitia 

AMERICANA. 

Reverse. — Two frigates engaged yard-arm and yard-arm : the 
English ship severely battered in the sides. Another ship lying 
across the bow of the British frigate. 

Legend. — hostium navibcs captis aut fugatis. 

Exergue. — ad oram scoti^ xxiii. sept, mdcclxxviii. 

This medal was struck by order of Congress in 1787. The one I saw 
was of copper. Considering that Jones fought under the American flag, 
and that the victory over the Serapis was highly honorable to our country, 
he certainly deserved a medal. He had besides made several other cap- 
tures, and had done great injury to the British. The action between the 
Richard and the Serapis was very severe, and lasted four hours. Jones's 
account of it, and a journal of his naval exploits, may be seen in " Niles's 
Register," (Baltimore,) Vol. II. p. 29H.* Captain Pearson's is inserted in the 
British " Annual Register," London, 1779 — See also Clarke's Naval His- 
tory of the United States. The Serapis carried 44 guns on two decks, the 
lower battery consisting of 18-pounders ; and the Countess of Scarborough, 
her consort, was a new ship of 22 guns. Jones's ship, the Richard, he says, 
only carried 34 12-pounders. The battle was fought by moonlight, off* 
Flamborough head. To relieve himself from the superiority of his enemies, 
and to cover his ship from the fire of the Countess of Scarborough, Jones 
grappled with the Serapis, on which her consort ceased to fire, the captain 
knowing that by firing be must endanger the Serapis; while the captain of 
the Alliance, the American ship in company with the Richard, fired three 
broadsides, which did much mischief to her. She sunk two days after the 
action. Pearson was knighted after his exchange, and made one of the 
officers of Greenwich hospital. He died a few years since. 

On the 27th February, 1781, Congress passed a very complimentary 
resolve expressive of their sense of the military conduct of Captain Jones, 
especially in the capture of the Serapis; and of their approbation of the 
honor intended to be conferred on him by the King of France (as commu- 
nicated to them) by investing him with the " cross of military merit." And 
on the 26th June of the same year, they unanimously elected him captain of 
the ^American, a 74-gun ship ; but he was deprived of the honor of her 
command, in consequence of the loss of the French ship Magnifique 74, in 
the harbour of Boston, when Congress seized the opportunity to testify their 
gratitude to their good ally, by presenting him with the .American to re- 
place her. The King of France also presenter! him with a sword, the hilt 
of which was composed of gold, and bore the following flattering motto : 

Vindicati Marts 

Ludovicus XVI. Remunerator 

Strenuo Vindici. 

7. Occasion. — Taking the fort of Stony-Point, on the North 
River, by storm. Gold. 

* See also the Biography of Paul Jones, by Mr. Sherburne, 1825, and another 
by his niece, Mrs. Taylor, 1830. 



302 Description of American Medals. 

Device. — An Indian Queen crowned, a quiver on her back, 
and wearing a short apron of feathers : a mantle hangs from her waist 
behind : the upper end of the mantle appears as if passed through 
the girdle of her apron, and hangs gracefully by her left side. She 
is presenting, with her right hand, a wreath to General Wayne, who 
receives it gracefully. In her left hand, the Queen is holding up a 
mural crown towards the General. On her left, and at her feet, an 
alligator is stretched out. She stands on a bow : a shield, with the 
American stripes, rests against the alligator. 

Legend. — antonio wayne duci exercitus comitia Ameri- 
cana. 

Reverse. Device. — A fort with two turrets, on the top of a hill : 
the British flag flying : troops in single, or Indian file, advancing in 
the front and rear up the hill : manners lying at the bottom. Troops 
advancing in front, at a distance, on the edge of the river : another 
party to the right of the fort. A piece of artillery posted on the 
plain, so as to bear upon the fort : ammunition on the ground : six 
vessels in the river. 

Legend. — stoney point expugnatum. 

Exergue. — xv. jul. mdcclxxix. 

By the journals of Congress for July 26, 1779, it appears that the attack 
on the fort of Stony Point was ordered by General Washington on the 1 0th of 
July. General Wayne issued his orders on the 15th, on the night of which 
day the attack was successfully made. Congress passed a vote of thanks 
to General Wayne, and the officers and soldiers under his command, particu- 
larly mentioning Colonel de Fleury, Major Stewart, Lieutenants Gibbons 
and Knox, the two first of whom led the attacking columns, and the two last 
the parties ordered to destroy the double row of abatis, which they did 
under a severe fire. The first of them lost 17 out of 20 men. Gibbons, 
Knox, and Mr. Archer, General Wayne's aid, were promoted; and the 
stores were divided among the troops. The fort was garrisoned by the 
17th British regiment, the grenadiers of the 71st, and commanded by 
Lieutenant Colonel Johnson, by whom a stout resistance was made. The 
prisoners amounted to 543. An excellent account of the gallant exploit 
may be seen in the British " Annual Register " for 1779, p. 192.* Not a 
musket was fired by the American troops ; and although the laws of war, 
and the principle of retaliation would have justified the sacrifice of the gar- 
rison in return for the cruel conduct of the British General Grey, when he 
surprised General Wayne near the Paoli tavern, on the Lancaster road, 
two years before, yet not a man was killed who asked for quarters. 

The medal granted to General Wayne is superbly executed, and most 
tastefully designed. The description is taken from the original in the pos- 
session of General Wayne's son. It weighs 63 dwt. 18 grains. Mr. Gib- 
bons is at present collector of the port of Richmond, Virginia. He and his 
gallant companion Knox were natives of Pennsylvania: Fleury was a 
Frenchman. Stewart was killed by a fall from his horse, near Charleston, 
South Carolina, at the close of the American war. Archer died in Phila- 
delphia, about the year 1786. 

* And also in the " Analectic Magazine," Philadelphia, 1819. 



Description of American Medals. 303 

Captain Benjamin Fishbourne, of Philadelphia, was another of the aids 
of General Wayne : both are highly praised by the General in his official 
letter. 

8. Occasion. — Same as the preceding. Silver. 

Device. — America, personified in an Indian queen, is presenting 
a palm branch to Captain Stewart : a quiver hangs at her back : 
her bow and an alligator are at her feet : with her left hand she 
supports a shield inscribed with the American stripes, and resting on 
the ground. 

Legend. — johanni stewart cohortis prefecto comitia 

AMERICANA. 

Reverse. — A fortress on an eminence : in the foreground, an 
officer cheering his men, who are following him over abatis with 
charged bayonets, in pursuit of a flying enemy : troops in Indian 
files ascending the hill to the storm, front and rear : troops ad- 
vancing from the shore : ships in sight. 

Exergue. — stoney point oppugnatum xv jul. mdcclxxix. 

9. Occasion. — Same as the preceding. Silver. 

Device. — A soldier helmeted and standing against the ruins of 
a fort : his right hand extended, holding a sword upright : the staff 
of a stand of colors reversed in his left : the colors under his feet : 
his right knee drawn up, as if in the act of stamping on them. 

Legend. — virtutis et AUDACiiE monum. et premium d. de 

FLEURY EQJJITI GALLO PRIMO SUPER MUROS RESP. AMERIC. D. D. 

Reverse. — Two water batteries, three guns each : one battery 
firing at a vessel : a fort on a hill : flag flying : river in front : six 
vessels before the fort. 

Legend. — aggeres paludes hostes victi. 

Exergue. — stony-pt. expugn. xv. jul. mdcclxxix. 

10. Occasion. — Capture of Major Andre, Adjutant-General of 
the British army. Silver. 
Device. — A shield. 
Legend. — fidelity. 
Reverse. — A wreath. 
Legend. — vincit amor patris:. 

Three of these medals were struck by vote of Congress of 3d Novem- 
ber, 1780, and presented to John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van 
Wart, who " intercepted Major John Andre in the character of a spy, and, 
notwithstanding the large bribes offered them for his release, nobly dis- 
daining to sacrifice their country for the sake of gold, secured and con- 
veyed him to the commanding officer of the district, whereby the danger- 
ous and traitorous conspiracy of Benedict Arnold was brought to light, the 
insidious designs of the enemy baffled, and the United States rescued from 



304 Description of American Medals, 

impending danger." A pension of 200 dollars annually, during life, was 
bestowed on each of them. The medals were presented in the presence 
of the whole army, the year following, by (General Washington, with a 
copy of the resolve ordering the medals, and of the vote of thanks. The 
design for the medal was given in the resolve of Congress. Paulding died 
February, 1818. Van Wart died in May. 1828. Williams died in August, 
1831, at Livingstonville, Schoharie Co., N. York, aged 79 years. In June, 
1829, a monument was erected to the memory of Van Wart, in Greenshurgh, 
Westchester Co., New York, near to the place of the residence of the 
deceased patriot, in the presence of his widow, descendants, a large as- 
semblage of citizens, and military corps. The following account of it is 
taken from a newspaper of the time : — 

" The monument is a neat structure of white marble, consisting of a base 
of three ascending steps, and a pedestal upon which stands an obelisk, — 
in all being from fifteen to eighteen feet high. It stands by the road-side, 
in a retired valley, in the town of Greenshurgh, about three miles due east 
from Tarrytown, on the Hudson. A little creek winds its way through 
this valley, bending round to the north in the course of a few miles, until 
it leaps into the Hudson at Yonkers. The following inscriptions are copied 
from the pedestal of the monument: 

" On the North Side. 

" ' Here repose the mortal remains of 

"'ISAAC VAN WART, 

" ' An Elder of Greenshurgh Church, who died on the 23d of May, 1828, in 
the 69th year of his age. Having lived the life, he died the death, of a 
Christian.' 

" On the South Side. 

"'FIDELITY. 

"'On the 23d of September, 1780, ISAAC VAN WART, accompanied 
by John Panlding, and David Williams, all farmers of the county of West- 
chester, intercepted Major Andre, on his return from the American lines, 
in the character of a spy; and notwithstanding the large bribes offered 
them for his release, nobly disdained to sacrifice their country FOR 
GOLD, — secured and carried him to the commanding officer of the dis- 
trict, whereby the dangerous and traitorous conspiracy of Arnold was 
brought to light, the insidious designs of the enemy baffled, the Ame- 
rican army saved, and our beloved country, now free and independent, 
rescued from most imminent peril.' 

" On the East Side. 

"'VINCIT AMOR PATRLE. 

"'Nearly half a century before this monument was built, the Conscript 
Fathers of America, had, in the Senate Chamber, voted that ISAAC VAN 
WART was a faithful patriot, — one, in whom the love of country was in- 
vincible, and this tomb bears testimony that the record is true.' 

" On the West Side. 

"'The Citizens of the county of Westchester erected this tomb in tes- 
timony of the high sense they entertained for the virtuous and patriotic 
conduct of their fellow citizen, and as a memorial sacred to public grati- 
tude.' 



Description of American Medals. 305 

" It was on the whole a very interesting spectacle. The number of peo- 
ple present to witness or bear a part in the ceremony, was not far from 
fifteen hundred ; among these latter were -twenty-one survivors of the 
army of the revolution. Several of this little band have the appearance of 
prosperous days, and a green old age ; but far the greater number looked 
as though time had laid his hand heavily upon them ; and several were 
evidently tottering upon the verge of that bourne, ' where the wicked 
cease from trouhling, and the weary are at rest.' All, however, cheerful ; 
and, as they had not met together for years before, they soon engaged in 
fighting their battles o'er again. This tract of country, it will be recol- 
lected, was what was called neutral ground, — lying between the contend- 
ing armies, and subject to irruptions from both, and consequently to fre- 
quent skirmishings. The little valley, too, where the people were now 
assembled, had been the theatre of some brisk fighting, and near the very 
spot where the monument was now erected, Mr. Acker, or 'Rifle Jake,' 
as he was called from the weapon which he bore, and the skill with which 
he used it, had killed two British soldiers, of a party who were hotly pursu- 
ing him, but from which he was so fortunate as to escape, by flying from 
one point of defence to another, and loading and firing with good effect 
from each." 

When we reflect upon the calamitous events that in all probability would 
have resulted to the United States from the success of the deep and trea- 
sonable plot which those faithful men defeated, the mind shudders : for the 
stern integrity and love of country exhibited by them, they deserve to be 
held in everlasting and grateful remembrance by every true American — 
by every friend to the " asylum of the oppressed throughout the world." 

11. Occasion. — Victory at the Cow-Pens, North Carolina. 
Gold. 

Device. — An Indian queen with a quiver on her back, in the act 
of crowning an officer with a laurel wreath : his hand resting on his 
sword : a cannon lying on the ground : various military weapons 
and implements in the back ground. 

Legend. — danieli morgan duci exercitus comitia Ameri- 
cana. 

Reverse. Device. — An officer mounted, at the head of his troops, 
charging a flying enemy. A battle in the back ground : in front, a 
personal combat between a dragoon unhorsed and a foot soldier. 

Legend. — victoria libertatis vindex. 

Exergue. — fugatis, captis aut ctesis ad cowpens hostibus. 

XVII. JAN. MDCCLXXXI. 

12. Occasion. — Same as the last. Silver. 

Device. — An officer mounted, with uplifted sword, pursuing an 
officer on foot, bearing a stand of colors : Victory descending in 
front over the former, holding a wreath in her right hand over his 
head : a palm branch in her left hand. 

Legend. — joh. egar Howard * legion is peditum prje- 

FECTO COMITIA AMERICANA. 

* Mr. Howard's name was John Eager Howard, 
VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 39 



306 Description of American Medals. 

Reverse. Inscription. — quod in nutaetem hostium aciem 

SUBITO IRRUENS, PRiECLARUM BELLlCiE VIRTUTIS SPECIMEN DEBIT 

in pugna ad cowpens, xvii. jan. MDccLXxxi. (Within a laurel 
wreath.) 

These medals were struck by a resolve of Congress of March 9, 1781, 
which stated that 80 cavalry and 237 infantry of the United States, and 
553 southern militia, obtained a complete victory over a select and well 
appointed detachment of more than 1100 British, commanded by Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Tarleton. General Lee says, " The advance of McArthur 
reanimated the British line, which again moved forward, and, outstretching 
our front, endangered Howard's right. This officer instantly took 
measures to defend his flank, by directing his right company to change its 
front; but mistaking this order, the company fell back; upon which the 
line began to retire and General Morgan directed it to retreat to the cav- 
alry. This manoeuvre being performed with precision, our flank became 
relieved, and the new position was assumed with promptitude. Consider- 
ing this retrograde movement the precursor of flight, the British line rush- 
ed on wilh impetuosity and disorder : but as it drew near, Howard faced 
about and gave it a close and murderous fire. Stunned by this unexpected 
shock, the most advanced of the enemy recoiled in confusion. Howard 
seized the happy moment, and followed his advantage with the bayonet. 
This decisive step gave us the day. The reserve having been brought 
near the line, shared in the destruction of our fire, and presented no rally- 
ing point to the fugitives. A part of the enemy's cavalry, having gained 
our rear, fell on that portion of our militia who had retired to their horses. 
Washington struck at them with his dragoons, and drove them before him. 
Thus by simultaneous efforts^ the infantry and cavalry of the enemy were 
routed. Morgan pressed home his success, and the pursuit became vigor- 
ous and general." — Lee's Memoirs, Vol. I. p. 258. 

13. Occasion. — Same as the two last. Silver. 

Device. — An officer mounted, at the head of a body of cavalry, 
charging flying troops ; Victory over the heads of the Americans, 
holding a laurel crown in her right hand, and a palm branch in her 
left. 

Legend. — gulielmo Washington legionis eojjit. pr^fecto 

COMITIA AMERICAN. 

Reverse. Inscription. — quod parva militum manu strenue 

PROSECUTUS HOSTES, VIRTUTIS INGENITiE PRiECLARUM SPECIMEN 
DEDIT IN PUGNA AD COWPENS, XVII. JAN. MDCCLXXXI. (Within a 

laurel crown.) 

14. Occasion. — Gallant conduct at the Eutaw Springs, South 
Carolina. Gold. 

Face. — Head of General Greene, a profile. 

Legend. — nathanieli green egregio duci comitia Ameri- 
cana. 

Reverse. — Victory lighting on the earth, stepping on a broken 
shield : under her feet broken arms; colors; a shield. 

Legend. — salus regionum australium. 






Description of American Medals. 307 

Exergue. — hostibus ad eutaw debellatis, die viii. sept. 

MDCCLXXXI. 

15. Occasion. — Alliance of the United States with France. 
Silver. 

Device. — A head of Liberty : a liberty-cap on a staff, resting on 
her right shoulder. 

Legend — libertas Americana 4 juil. 1776. 

Reverse. — Pallas holding a shield in her left hand, with three 
fleurs-de-lis on it, (the arms of France.) and opposing it to a leopard, 
which is springing against it : her right hand drawn back, and hold- 
ing a barbed javelin, as il in the act of plunging it into the leopard : 
under the shield, an infant strangling a serpent in each hand, which 
he is holding up ; and, at the same time, stooping to pick up another 
at his feet. 

Legend. — non sine dtis animosus infans. 

Exergue — 17 1777 

Oct. 
19 1781. 

Hercules, according to the ancient mythology, while in his cradle, was 
said to have strangled two serpents, which had assaulted him, having been 
assisted by the protection of the goddess Pallas. Infant America, like the 
Hercules in his cradle, had destroyed two British armies. The two epochs 
of those exploits are marked in the exergue 17 Oct. 1777, Burgoyne's 
surrender at Saratoga ; and 19th October, 1781, Cornwallis's surrender at 
Yorktown, Virginia. The motto is from Horace, Ode 4th, Book 3d, verse 
20. The allusion is highly appropriate and classical. I cannot find any 
resolve of Congress for this medal. It was, probably, struck by the French 
government. 

The above are all the medals struck in reference to public events, 
in North America, previously to the close of the war of Independ- 
ence. Those for General Wayne, Colonel Fleury, and Captain 
Stewart, were executed under the direction of Dr. Franklin ; and 
those presented to Generals Washington, Gates, Greene, and Mor- 
gan, and Colonels Howard and Washington, were contracted for by 
the late Colonel Humphreys.* The dies were engraven by Dupre 
and Du Vivier. 

16. Occasion. — Capture of the French frigate La Vengeance, 
by Captain Thomas Truxtun, of the United States frigate Constella- 
tion. Decreed March 29, 1800. 

Face. — A head of Captain Truxtun. 
Legend. — patri.e patris filio digno thomje truxtun. 
Reverse. — Two ships of war, the French a two decker: both 
much shattered : the rigging of both much cut up. 

* See his letter to Mr. Carey, " American Museum," Philadelphia, Vol. II. 



308 Description of American Medals. 

Legend. — the united states frigate constellation, of 

THIRTY-EIGHT GUNS, PURSUES, ATTACKS, AND VANQUISHES THE 
FRENCH SHIP LA VENGEANCE, OF FIFTY-FOUR GUNS J 1 FEB. 1800. 

The war between the United States and France took place without a 
formal declaration, in the year 1798. The occasion was the repeated 
captures of our merchantmen by the cruisers, both public and private, of 
France, then governed by the Directory ; the violation of treaties between 
the two countries ; the refusal to listen to any demand of reparation for 
losses sustained from depredation on our commerce ; refusal to negotiate 
on fair and honorable terms, or even to receive our messengers of peace 
(C. C. Pinckney, John Marshall, now chief justice of the United States, 
and Elbridge Gerry); and demanding a tribute, together with the most 
humiliating submissions, as the price of an interview! Peace was made 
after Bonaparte became First Consul, and preliminaries were signed Sept. 
3d, 1800, by W. R. Davie of N. Carolina, Wm Vans Murray of Maryland, 
then the minister of the United States at the Hague, and Oliver Ellsworth 
of Connecticut, on the part of the United States ; and Joseph Bonaparte, 
Raederer, and Fleurieu, on the part of Fiance. 

An account of the action between the Constellation and the Vengeance 
may be seen in a biographical sketch of Capt. Truxtun in " The Port Folio," 
New Series, Vol. II, with an engraving of the medals, and in Clark's "Na- 
val History of the United States." 

17. Occasion. — To Commodore Preble, for his good conduct 
in the attack on the Dey of Tripoli, in 1804. Decreed March 3d, 
1805. Gold. 

Face. — Head of Commodore Preble. 

Legend. — edwakdo preble duci strenuo comitia ameri- 

CANA. 

Reverse. — The American fleet bombarding the town and forts 
of Tripoli. 

Legend. — vindici commek.ch americani. 
Exergue, — ante Tripoli, mdccciv. 

An account of the proceedings against Tripoli may be seen in the 
biography of Commodore Preble in "The Port Folio," New Series, Vols. 
Ill and IV. 

The United States have set the first example in the world of obliging 
the Barbary powers to respect their flag, by the force of arms ; instead of 
a disgraceful tribute, which some of the European powers still continue to 
pay. The history of our expeditions against those pests of society is well 
worth recording in a separate work. The facts that could be detailed 
would be highly honorable to our brave countrymen ; to their spirit and 
decision as negotiators ; to their extended humanity as regards the libera- 
tion of the captives of other nations ; and as respects the influence which 
may be produced upon the happiness of mankind by their example of 
flogging those barbarians into peace. 



309 



To the Historical Society of Massachusetts. 

In the third volume of the New York Historical Society's " Col- 
lections," I have described seventeen Medals which had been struck 
at various times in Europe, and in Pennsylvania ; some in reference 
to events in the American Colonies; others in honor of the military 
heroes of the American war; — of the captors of Major Andre; 
of Captain Truxtun for the capture of a French frigate in the year 
1 800 ; and of Commodore Preble for his attack on Tripoli with an 
American squadron in the year 1804. I have now the pleasure to 
send you a description of the Medals presented to the officers who 
distinguished themselves during the late war with England, by sea 
and land ; of one awarded to Major (afterwards General) Henry 
Lee, in the year 1779; and of three, engraven and struck by the 
late Joseph Sansom of Philadelphia. 

1 am, very respectfully, 

James Mease. 

Philadelphia, December 1, 1832. 



1. Isaac Hull, .... 

2. Jacob Jones, . . . 

3. Stephen Decatur, . 

4. William Bainbridge., 

5. 6, 7. O. H. Perry, 

8. J. D. Elliott, . . . 

9. William Burrows, 

10. Edward R. M'Call, 

11. James Lawrence, 

12. Thomas Macdonoug 

13. Robert Henly, . . , 

14. Stephen Cassin, . , 

15. Lewis Warrington, , 

16. Johnston Blakeley, 

17. Charles Stewart, . 

18. General Scott, . . 

19. General Miller, . 

20. General Gaines. . 

21. General Porter, . 

22. General Brown, . 

23. General Ripley, . 

24. General Macomb, 

25. James Biddle, . . 



. Constitution and Guerriere. 

. Wasp and Frolic. 

. United States and Macedonian. 

. Constitution and Java. 

. Lake Erie. 

. do. do. 

. Enterprise and Boxer. 

do. and do. 

. Hornet and Peacock, 

h, Lake Champlain. 
. do. do. 
. do. do. 

, Peacock and Epervier. 

. Wasp and Reindeer. 

. Constitution and Cyane and Levant. 
. Battles of Chippewa and Niagara. 
. Chippewa, Niagara, Erie. 
. Battle of Erie. 
. Chippewa, Niagara, Erie. 
. Chippewa, Niagara, Erie. 
. Chippewa, Niagara, Erie. 
. Plattsburg. 
. Hornet and Penguin. 



310 Description of American Medals. 

26. General Jackson, . New Orleans. 

27. General Shelby, . . Battle of the Thames. 

28. General Harrison, . Battle of the Thames. 

29. Major Lee's Medal. 

30. Franklin's Medal. 

31. 32, 33. Medals of Franklin and Washington by Mr. Sansom. 

1. Occasion. — -Capture of the British frigate Guerriere. 

To Isaac Hull, commander of the frigate Constitution, for the 
capture of the English frigate Guerriere, Captain J. R. Dacres. 
Decreed January 29, 1S13. 

Face. — A bust of Captain Hull. 

Legend. — isaacus hull peritos arte superat, jul. 

MDCCCXII. ANG. CERTAMINE FORTES. 

Reverse. — The battle between the Constitution and Guerriere 
is represented in that particular and interesting stage, when the 
boarders from the Guerriere were repulsed, and a raking fire from 
the Constitution had cut away the main and foremasts of the Guer- 
riere, which are falling, leaving the American ship little injured. 

Legend. — hors: momento victoria. 

Exergue. — inter const, nav. amer. et guer. angl. 

Silver Medals were also voted to the commissioned officers of the Con- 
stitution. 

2. Occasion. — Capture of the British sloop of war Frolic. 

To Captain Jacob Jones of the State of Delaware, com- 
mander of the sloop-of-war Wasp, for the capture of the Brit- 
ish sloop-of-war Frolic, Captain Whinyates, October 18, 1812. 
Decreed January 29, 1813. 

Face. — Bust of Captain Jones. 

Legend. — jacobus jones. virtus in ardua tendit. 

Reverse. — Two ships closely engaged, the bowsprit of the Wasp 
between the masts of the Frolic ; men engaged on the bow of the 
Wasp while in the act of boarding the Frolic ; the main-topmast of 
the Wasp shot away. 

Legend. — victoriam hosti majori celerrime rapuit. 

Exergue. — inter wasp nav. ameri. et frolic nav. ang. die 

XVIII. OCT. MDCCCXII. 

Silver medals were also decreed to the commissioned officers of the 
Wasp. 

3. Occasion. — Capture of the British frigate Macedonian. 

To Captain Stephen Decatur of Philadelphia, commander of 
the frigate United States, for the capture of the British frigate Mace- 
donian, Captain John Carden, October 25, 1812, Decreed March 
3d, 1813. 



Description of American Medals. 311 

Face. — A bust of Captain Decatur. 

Legend. — stephanus decatur, navarchus pugnis pluribus 

VICTOR. 

Reverse. — Two ships engaged ;, the topmasts of one shot away, 
— the other with a few shot only in her sails. 

Legend. — i ccidit signum hostile, sidera stjrgunt. 
Exergue. — inter sta. uni. nav. amer. et macedo. nav. 

ANG. DIE XXV. OCTOBRIS MDCCCXI1. 

Silver medals were also voted to each of the commissioned officers of 
the frigate United States. 

4. Occasion. — Capture of the British frigate Java. 

To Captain William Bainhridge of Philadelphia, commander of 
the frigate Constitution, for the capture of the British frigate Java, 
Captain Lambert, December 29, 1812. Decreed March 3d, 
1813. 

Face. — A bust of Captain Bainbridge. 

Legend. — gulielmus bainbridge patria victisqjje lau- 
datus. 

Reverse. — A ship with three stumps only of her masts standing. ; 
the American ship with but a few shot-holes in her sails. 

Legend. — pugnando. 

Exergue. — inter const, nav. ameri. et jav. nav. angl. 

DIE XXIX. DECEM. MDCCCX1I. 

Silver Medals were also decreed to each of the commissioned officers of 
the frigate Constitution. 

5. Occasion. — Victory on Lake Erie. 

To Captain Oliver Hazard Perry of Rhode Island, commander 
of the fleet on Lake Erie ; for the signal victory over a British 
squadron of superior force on that lake, September 10, 1813. 
Decreed January 6th, 1814. 

Face. — ■ A bust of Captain Perry. 

Legend. — oliverus h. perry, princeps stagno eriensi, 

CLASSIM TOTAM CONTUDIT. 

Reverse. — A fleet closely engaged. 

Legend. — viam invenit virtus aut facit. 

Exergue. — inter class, ameri. et brit. die x. sept. 

MDCCCXIII. 

6. Occasion. — Victory on Lake Erie. 

Another Gold Medal was presented by the State of Pennsylvania 
to Captain Perry, by a vote of January 31, 1814. 
Face. — A bust of Captain Perry. 
Legend. — oliverus hazard perry pro patria vicit. 

PRESENTED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



312 Description of American Medals. 

Reverse. — A fleet of small vessels engaged. Captain Perry 
standing up in a boat, while passing from the Lawrence (which was 
disabled) to the Niagara, to which vessel Captain Perry shifted his 
flag. An eagle perched on the truck, of the Niagara. 

Legend. — we have met the enemy, and they are ours. 

Exergue. — British fleet on lake erie captured sept. 
10, 1813. 

7. Occasion. — Victory on Lake Erie, 

A third Medal was struck by the Government of Pennsylvania 
to be presented to those citizens of Pennsylvania who volunteered 
on board the American fleet, on Lake Erie, January 31, 1814. 

Face. ■ — A bust of Captain Perry. 

Legend. — Oliver hazard perry pro patria vicit. 

PRESENTED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

Reverse. — A laurel wreath surrounding a blank for the insertion 
of the name of the officer. 

Legend. — we have met the enemy, and they are ours. 
Exergue. — in testimony of his patriotism and bravery 

IN THE NAVAL ACTION ON LAKE ERIE, SEPT. 10, 1813. 

8. Occasion. — Victory on Lake Erie. 

To Captain Jesse Duncan Elliott, of Baltimore, second in com- 
mand, for gallantry in the action on Lake Erie. Decreed January 
6, 1814. 

Face. — A bust of Captain Elliott. 

Legend. — jesse d. elliott. nil actum reputans si quid 

SUPERESSET AGENDUM. 

Reverse. — A fleet engaged. 

Leo-end. — viam invenit virtus aut facit. 

Exergue. — inter class, ameri. et brit. die x. sept. 

MDCCCXIII. 

Silver Medals, with suitable emblems and devices, were also decreed to 
each of the commissioned officers, whether of the navy or army, serving on 
board ; and one to the nearest male relative of Lieutenant John Brooks 
of the marines,* who was killed in the action. 

Gold Medals were also voted to Captain Elliott and Lieutenant John J. 
Yarnell, by the government of Pennsylvania, for their gallantry in the 
action on the Lake. 

9. Occasion. — Capture of the British sloop-of-war Boxer. 

To the nearest male relative of Lieutenant William Burrows, of 
Philadelphia, commander of the brig Enterprise, and killed in 
action ; for the capture of the British sloop of war Boxer, Captain 
Blythe, September 4, 1813. 

* Son of the late Governor Brooks of Massachusetts. 



Description of American Medals. 313 

Face. — An Urn with the inscription, W. Burrows, on the 
pedestal; military emblems tastefully arranged on each side, — 
one is a coronal wreath hanging from a trident. 

Legend. — victokiam tibi claram, patrije mcestam. 

Reverse. — Two brigs engaged. The Boxer on the larboard 
side of the Enterprise. Main-topmast of the Boxer shot away. 

Legend. — vivere sat vincere. 

Exergue. — inter enterprise nav. ameri. et boxer nav. 

BRIT. DIE IV. SEPT. MDCCCXIII. 

Silver Medals were also decreed to the commissioned officers of the 
Enterprise. 

10. Occasion. — Same as the preceding. 

To Lieutenant Edward R. M'Call of South Carolina, second in 
command on board the Enterprise. Decreed January 6, 1814. 

Face. — A bust of Lieutenant M'Call. 

Legend. — edward r. m'call navis enterprise pr;efectus. 

Exergue. — sic itur ad astra. 

Reverse, and inscription on the exergue, the same as those on 
the Medal of Lieutenant Burrows. 

11. Occasion. — Capture of the British brig Peacock. 

To the nearest male relative of Captain James Lawrence, of New 
Jersey, commander of the sloop-of-war Hornet, for the capture of 
the British brig Peacock, Captain William Peake. January 11, 
1814. 

Face. — A bust of Captain Lawrence. 

Legend. — jac lawrence. dulce et decorum est pro 

PATRIA MORI. 

Reverse. — A vessel in the act of sinking, mizen mast shot away ; 
— a boat rowing towards her from the American ship. 
Legend. — mansuetud. maj. q,uam victoria. 
Exergue. — inter hornet nav. ameri. et peacock nav. 

ANG. DIE XXIV. FEB. MDCCCXIII. 

Silver Medals were also decreed to each commissioned officer of the 
Hornet. 

12. Occasion. — Victory on Lake Champlain. 

To Captain Thomas Macdonough, of Delaware, commander of 
the fleet on Lake Champlain. 

Face. — A bust of Captain Macdonough. 

Legend. — tho. macdonough stagno champlain class. 

REG. BRITAN. SUPERAVIT. 

Reverse. — Fleet engaged ; many boats on the lake ; Plattsburg 
in sight. 

VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 40 



314 Description of American Medals, 

Legend. — uno latere percusso alterum impavide vertit. 
Exergue. — inter class, ameri. et brit. die xi. sept. 

MDCCCXIV. 

Silver Medals were also decreed to the commissioned officers of the 
fleet, and to the officers of the army on board of it, and to the nearest male 
relative of Lieutenant Peter Gamble, and of Lieutenant Stansbury, who 
were killed in the engagement. 

13. Occasion. — Victory on Lake Champlain. 

To Captain Robert Henley, second in command on Lake Cham- 
plain. 

Face. — A bust of Captain Henley. 

Legend. — rob. henley eagle prjefect. palma virtu. 

PER JETERNIT. FLOREBIT. 

Reverse. — A fleet engaged before a town enveloped in smoke. 
Several boats on the lake filled with sailors rowing. 

Legend. — uno latere percusso alterum impavide vertit. 
Exergue, — inter class, ameri. et brit. die xi. sept. 

MDCCCXIV. 

14. Occasion. — Victory on Lake Champlain. 
To Lieutenant Stephen Cassin. 

Face. — A bust of Lieutenant Cassin. 

Legend. — step, cassin ticonderoga prefect. Qua: regio 
in terris nos. non plena lab. 

Reverse, and inscription on the exergue, the same as on Captain 
Henley's Medal. 

15. Occasion. — Capture of the British brig L'Epervier. 

To Captain Lewis Warrington of Virginia, commander of the 
sloop-of-war Peacock, for the capture of the British brig L'Epervier, 
Captain Wales, April 29, 1814. Decreed October 21, 1614. 

Face. LUDOVICUS WARRINGTON dux navalis amer. 

Reverse. — Two ships engaged ; the topmast of one shot off. 

Legend. — pro patria paratus aut vincere aut mori. 

Exergue. — inter peacock nav. ameri. et epervier nav. 

ANG. DIE XXIX. MAR. MDCCCXIV. 

16. Occasion. — Capture of the British sloop-of-war Reindeer. 
To Captain Johnston Blakeley, of North Carolina, commander of 

the sloop-of-war Wasp, for the capture of the British sloop-of-war 
Reindeer, Captain Manners, June 28, 1814. 

Face. — A bust of Captain Blakeley. 

Legend. — Johnston blakeley reip. fed. am. nav. wasp dux. 

Reverse. — Two ships engaged. 

Legend. — eheu! bis victor, patria tua te luget plaudit^. 






Description of American Medals. 315 

Exergue. — inter wasp nav. ameri. et reindeer nav. ang. 

DIE XXVIII JUN. MDCCCXIV. 

Silver Medals were also decreed to the commissioned officers of the 
Wasp. 

17. Occasion. — Capture of the Cyane and the Levant. 

To Captain Charles Stewart, of Philadelphia, commander of the 
Frigate Constitution, for the capture of the Cyane, Captain Gordon 
Falcon, and of the Levant, Captain George Douglass, February 20, 
1815. 

Face. — A bust of Captain Stewart. 

Legend. — carolus stewart navis ameri. constitution dux. 

Reverse. — Two ships closely engaged ; a third at a little distance. 

Legend. — una victoriam ekipuit ratibus binis. 

Exergue. — inter constitu. nav. ameri. et levant et 

CYANE NAV. ANG. DIE XX FEB. MDCCCXV. 

Silver Medals were also decreed to the commissioned officers of the 
Constitution. 

18. Occasion. — Battles of Chippewa and Niagara. 
To General Scott. 

Face. — A bust of General Scott. 

Legend. — major general winfield scott. 

Reverse. — resolution of congress, November 3, 1814. 

BATTLES OF CHIPPEWA, JULY 5, 1814, NIAGARA, JULY 25, 1814. 

(Surrounded by a wreath of laurel and palm entwining a snake.) 

19. Occasion. — Battles of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie. 
To General Miller. 

Face. — A bust of General Miller. 

Legend. — brigadier-general james miller. 

Exergue. — i 'll try. 

Reverse. — Two armies engaged on a hill ; troops advancing at 
a distance. 

Legend. — resolution of congress, nov. 3, 1814. 

Exergue. — battles of chifpewa, july 5, 1814, Niagara, 
july 25, 1814, erie, sept. 17, 1814. 

20. Occasion. — Battle of Fort Erie. 
To General Gaines. 

Face. — A bust of General Gaines. 

Legend. — major-general edmund p. gaines. 

Reverse. — Victory standing on a shield, under which are a stand 
of colors and a halbert, and holding a palm-branch in her left hand, 
as in the act of placing a laurel crown on the cascabel of a cannon 
marked R, which is fixed upright in the ground, and is surroundsd 



316 Description of American Medals. 

with a scroll inscribed erie. On one trunnion rests a stand of 
British colors, and from the other is suspended a broad-sword. 
By the side of the cannon are a howitzer, helmet, and several balls. 
Behind the cannon is a halbert. 

Legend. — resolution of congress, nov. 3, 1814. 

Exergue. — battle of erie, aug. 15, 1814. 

21. Occasion. — Battles of Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie. 
To General Porter. 

Face. — A bust of General P. B. Porter. 

Legend. — major-general p. b. porter. 

Reverse. — Victory standing, holding a palm-branch and wreath 
in her right hand ; and three stands of colors, bearing the inscrip- 
tions "niagara, erie, chippewa." in her left. The Muse of 
history is recording the above names. 

Legend. — resolution of congress, nov. 3, 1814. 

Exergue. — battles of chippewa, july 5, 1814, Niagara, 

JULY 25, 1814, ERIE, SEPT. 17, 1814. 

22. Occasion. — Battles of Chippewa, Niagara, Erie. 
To Major General Brown. 

Face. — A bust of General Brown. 

Legend. — major general jacob brown. 

Reverse. — The Roman fasces, as indicative of the union and 
strength of the States ; the top encircled with a laurel wreath, from 
which are suspended three tablets, bearing the inscriptions erie, 
Niagara, chippewa ; and encircled by three stands of British 
colors and other military implements. In front and at the base of 
the fasces is an American eagle, standing on the British colors, 
its wings outspread. 

Legend. — resolution of congress, November 3, 1814. 

Exergue. — battles of chippewa, july 5, 1S14, Niagara, 

JULY 25, J 814, ERIE, SEPT. 17, 1814. 

23. Occasion. — Battles of Chippewa, Niagara, Erie. 
To General Ripley. 

Face. — A bust of General Ripley. 

Lerend. — brig, general eleazer w. ripley. 

Reverse. — Victory holding up a tablet among the branches o,f a 
palm-tree, inscribed with Niagara, chippewa, erie. In her 
right hand, which gracefully hangs by her side, are a trumpet and 
laurel wreath. 

Legend. — resolution of congress, nov. 3, 1814. 

Exergue. — battles of chippewa, july 5, 1814, Niagara, 

JULY 25, 1814, ERIE, SEPT. 17, 1814. 



Description of American Medals. 317 

24. Occasion. — Battle of Plattsburg. 
To General Macomb. 

Face. — A bust of General Macomb. 

Legend. — major-general Alexander macomb. 

Reverse. — A battle on land, Plaltsburgh in sight ; troops cross- 
ing a bridge, on the head of which the American standard is flying ; 
vessels engaged on the Lake. 

Legend. — resolution of congress, nov. 3, 1814. 

Exergue. — battle of plattsburg, sept. 11, 1814. 

25. Occasion. — Capture of the sloop-of-war Penguin. 

To Captain James Biddle, of Philadelphia, commander of the 
sloop-of-war Hornet, for the capture of the sloop-of-war Penguin, 
Captain Dickinson, in 22 minutes, March 23, 1815. 

Face. — Bust of Captain Biddle. 

Legend. — the congress of the u. s. to capt. james 

BIDDLE FOR HIS GALLANTRY, GOOD CONDUCT, AND SERVICES. 

Reverse. — Two ships engaged : the Peak of Tristan d' Aeunha 
in sight. 

Legend. — capture of the British ship penguin by the 
u. s. ship hornet. 

Exergue. — off tristan d' acunha, march xxiii. mdcccxv. 

Silver Medals were also presented to the commissioned officers of the 
Hornet. 

26. Occasion. — Victory at New-Orleans. 
To General Jackson. 

Face. — A bust of General Jackson. 

Legend. — major-general andrew jackson. 

Reverse. — Victory seated, and supporting a tablet before her, 
with her left hand, which also holds a laurel wreath, has commenced 
the record of the glorious victory of the 8th of January, 1815, and 
headed the tablet with the word Orleans, but is interrupted by 
a female, personifying Peace, who holds an olive-branch in her right 
hand, and with her left points to the tablet, as if directing Victory 
to record the peace between the United States and England. 
Victory is in the act of turning round to listen to her instructress. 

Exergue — battle of new Orleans, January 8, 18.5. 

Legend. — resolution of congkess, feb. 27, 1815. 

27. Occasion. — Battle of the Thames. 
To General Shelby. 

Face. — A bust of General Shelby. 

Legend, — governor isaac shelby. 

Reverse. — A representation of die battle of the Thames, in 
Canada ; Governor Shelby charging the enemy with his mounted 
Rangers. 



318 Description of American Medals. 

Legend. — battle of the Thames, oct. 5, 1813. 
Exergue. — resolution of congress, april 4, 1818. 

28. Occasion. — Battle of the Thames. 

To General Harrison. 

Face. — A bust of General Harrison. 

Legend. — major-general willtam h. harrison. 

Reverse. — A female placing a wreath round two bayonets fixed 
on muskets and a color-staff stacked, over a drum and a cannon, 
a bow and quiver; her right hand resting on a shield, bearing the 
stars and stripes of the United States, and holding a halbert. From 
the point of union of the stack, hangs a badge, with the inscription, 

FORT MEIGS, BATTLE OF THE THAMES. 

Legend.— resolution of congress, april 4, 1S18. 
Exergue. — battle of the thames, oct. 5, 1813. 



29. Occasion". — Attack, at Paulus Hook. 

To Major Henry Lee, (afterwards General Lee,) for a successful 
attack on a British party at Paulus Hook, New Jersey, in the 
year 1779. 

Face. — Bust of Major Lee. 

Legend. — henrico lee, eqjjit. pr^fecto. 

Exergue. — comitia Americana. 

Reverse. — non obstantib. fluminibus, vallis, astutia et 

VIRTUTE BELLICA, PARVA MANU HOSTES VICIT VICTUSQ,. ARMIS 
HUMANITATE DEVINXIT. IN MEM. PUGN. AD PAULUS HOOK, DIE 
XIX. AUG. 1779.* 

30. Medal of Franklin. 
Face. — A head of Franklin. 

Legend. — benj'n franklin minist. plen. des etats unis 
de l'ameriq. sept, mdcclxxxiii. 

Reverse. — The temple of Independence; three of the Nine 
Sisters are engaged in working at the columns ; four are chiseling a 
block of stone ; two are conversing. 

Legend. — de leurs travaux naitre leur gloire. 

In the possession of the American Philosophical Society of Phila- 
delphia. This medal was evidently struck in Paris, and probably 
by the French government. 

* The engraver has made a mistake in the year, and inserted mdclxxix. 

The resolution of Congress is in these words : " Resolved, That the thanks of 
Congress be given to Major Lee, for the remarkable prudence, address, and 
bravery displayed by him on the occasion, and that they approve the humanity 
shown in circumstances prompting to severity, honorable to the arms of the 
United States, and correspondent to the noble principles on which they are 
assumed. 

" Resolved, That a Gold Medal, emblematical of this affair, be struck, under 
the direction of the Board of Treasury, and presented to Major Lee." 



Description of American Medals. 319 

For the three following medals the world is indebted to the 
public spirit of the late worthy Joseph Sansom of Philadelphia, who 
had the dies engraved and the medals struck, at the United 
States' mint, upwards of thirty years since. 

31. Face. — A bust of Dr. Franklin. 

Legend. — lightjning averted, tyranny repelled. 
Reverse. — An American beaver gnawing down the oak, — sym- 
bolical of British supremacy in the United States. Date, 1776. 

32. Face. — Busts of Washington and Franklin side by side. 
Reverse. — The American eagle with an olive-branch in its beak, 

and the lightning in its claws, descending upon the United States. 
Date, 1783. 

33. Face. — A bustof Washington, (a good likeness.) 
Legend. — g. Washington, pres. u. states. 

Reverse. — The ensigns of authority civil and military, surmounted 
with laurels, deposited upon the table of the Union. 

Legend. — commiss. resigned : presidency relink. 
Exergue. — 1797. 



The three following medals are in the Cabinet of Joshua Fran- 
cis Fisher, Esq., of Philadelphia, who procured them recently in 
London. 

1. Occasion. — The acknowledgment of Mr. John Adams, as 
envoy of the United States to the Dutch Government, during the 
war of Independence. 

Device. — Pallas shaking hands with an Indian queen (personi- 
fying the United States), over an altar on which incense is burning ; 
on the front of the altar is a caduceus between two cornucopias. 
A sun over their heads. Pallas holds her lance in her left hand, 
bearing on the top a hat of the Dutch fashion, viz. a low crown and 
broad brim, which she is placing on the head of the queen. One 
foot of the queen is pressing down the head of a prostrate lion. 

Legend. — libera soror. 

Exergue. — solemni decr. agn. xix. april. mbcclxxxii. 

Reverse. Device. The British Unicorn tumbling forward, with 
his head against the rock of Independence ; his horn is broken, and 
part of it lying on the ground. 

Legend. — tyrannis virtute repulsa. 

Exergue. — ■ sub gallic auspiciis. 

By reference to Sparks's " Diplomatic Correspondence," Vol. VI. p. 308, 
I find that the resolution of the States General to receive Mr. Adams was 
passed on the 19th of April 1782 ; and as the medal is emblematic of the 
occasion, and of the two countries, I think there can be no question as to 
its having been struck in commemoration of that occurrence. 



320 Description of American Medals. 

2. Occasion. Treaty of amity and commerce between the 
United States and the Dutch Government. 

Device. — Fame in a cloud proclaiming, by sound of trumpet, 
the treaty between the two governments, and holding in her right 
hand the shields of both nations ; under them is a lion and the club 
of Hercules. 

Legend. — faustissimo fcedere junctje die viii. oct. 

MDCCLXXXII. 

Reverse. — Mercury with a caduceus in his hand is crowning a 
group composed of a shield and battle-axe, surmounted with a 
crown, and placed against a pyramid from the base of which 
hangs a scroll inscribed prodromus ; ships in sight; a cock 
standing on an anchor-stock. 

Legend. — justitiam et non temnere divos. 

Exergue. — s. p. q. amst. sacrum. 

3. Occasion. — Battle of Germantown. 

Device. — Artillery at a distance playing on a large house ; 
fields laid off on each side ; troops in the interval. 
Reverse, — Inscription, germantown, oct. 4, 1777. 

The device refers to the most prominent circumstance of the battle, 
viz. the taking possession of Mr. Chew's stone house, by Lieut. Colonel 
Musgrave, with a part of the 49th British regiment, while the American 
troops were driving the British army before them ; and during the unfor- 
tunate delay in attempting to dislodge Musgrave's detachment. 



The following Abstracts of the Bills of Mortality for the City 
of Boston for the tight years 1825 — 1832, as prepared by 
order of the Mayor and Aldermen, have been obligingly 
communicated to the Publishing Committee by Samuel H. 
Mewes, Esq., Superintendent of the Burial Grounds. 

For preceding years, see Historical Collections, Vol. L Third 
Series, p. 286. 






VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES. 41 



BILLS OF MORTALITY FOR THE CITY OF BOSTON. 



323 



General Abstract of the Bill of Mjrtality for the City of Boston, 
from 1 January, 1825, to 1 January, 1826. 



1825. 



Jan. 

Feb. 

i\Iar . 

April, 

May, 

June 

July, 

Aujr 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



M. K 

6 "2 
3 3 

6 4 
13 6 

9 13 

7 7 
7 1! 

10 16 

15 10 

5 4 

1 7 

3 3 



100 S5 85 



M. F. 

3 1 

4 3 
2 2 

6 5 



57 47 



1 1 

2 3 
1 

3 2 

4 2 

3 

5 1 

1 3 
5 2 



27 19 



M F. 
2 4 
2 2 

1 2 
2 

3 

2 2 

1 5 
•2 2 
4 3 
1 5 
1 3 

3 2 
19 35 



5» 

M V 

1 2 

2 12 

4 6 

6 G 

7 7 



o 
55 


t^ 


© 


3 


o 


c 



6 7 
65 71 



M. F. 
3 2 
3 9 

3 1 
1 3 

4 4 

5 3 



M . F . 
1 3 
5 
4 
2 

1 
1 


1 4 
1 4 
3 3 



M . F 
1 











1 



72 45 37 44 21 30 19 36 11 15 17 1 59 66 88 



is i <a 



s -"2 
* ^_ 

F. 

5 9 
4 11 

2 4 

5 ! 5 
T T 
91 4 
9 5 
T 7 

7 12 
45 

8 | 8 
4 11 



119 
83 
111 
121 
101 
170 
152 
145 
123 
10G 
120 
1-150 



The folloiting are the diseases, as far as they toere reported to the Health Office, which 
occasioned th deaths in the City during the year 1325. 



Fevers, Typhus . . 54 

" Synocba . 12 

" Intermittent . 1 

" Yellow (R. I ) I 



Asthma 
Pleuritis 
Pneumonia 
Phthisis Pulmonalis 
Influenza . 

Phrenitis . 

Diaphragmitis . 

Enteritis 

Cystitis 

Hepatitis 

Icterus 

Peritonitis Chronica 

Dysenteria 
Colica Biliosa 
Diarrhoea . 
Cholera Morbus 
Dyspepsia . . 
Obstipatio , . 

Intemperance 
Delirium Tremens 

Vesania 

Ascites or Anasarca 



2 

(> 

67 

220 

7 

3 
1 

15 
1 

16 



Hydrocephalus 
Hydrothorax 

Etheumatismus 
Arthritis 

Erysipelas . 
Scrotula 



1 
4 
1 
Variola (Rainsford Island) 1 

Heart, organic diseases of 5 
* 'arditis ... 2 
Palpitatio . . . 1 



Old age 
Marasmus . 
Sphacelus . 

Abscessus . 

Tumor 

White Swelling . 

Carcinoma . 

Burns 

Sciatica 

Calculus 

Syphilis 

Hernia 

Puerperal diseases 
Stillborn . 
Infantile diseases 



Cholera Infantum 

Dentitio 

Aphtha 

Pertussis 

Rubeola 

Scarlatina . 

Cynanche maligna 
" trachealis 

u tonsillaris 



Accidental 

Drowned 

Murder 

Suicide 

Suffocation 

Poison 

Frozen 

Cold water. 

Heat . 

Sudden 

Bursting blood vessel 



Lethargus 
Spasmi 
Apoplexia 
Paralysis 

Unknown 



13 
15 

40 

27 

77 

1 

6 

24 

3 

.3 

. 11 

. 21 

. 1 

. 4 

, • 1 

. 1 

. 1 

drinking of 3 

.' 35 

2 

1 

48 
12 
14 



Total 



. 227 
1450 






324 



BILLS OF MORTALITY FOR THE CITY OF BOSTON. 



General Abstract of the Bill of Mortality for the City of Boston t 
from 1 January, 1826, to 1 January, 1827. 





,H 






o 


o 


o 


O 


O 




3 © 


© 


© 


© 


8 


Sf 






V ^' 


e* 


lO 


r-< 


<N 


CO 


rf 


ffl 


© i> 


CD 


©5 


?H 


s 


2 


1826. 


S.* 

M. F. 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


Q 


© 


3 -2 


© 


© 


© 


i 1 




O 




r-1 


w 


\a 


O 


o 


© 


o 


o © 


© 


O 


© 




H 




M. F. 


M . t 




rH 


M.F 


CO 
M.F. 


M.F. 


to © 

M.F. M. F 


M F. 


00 
M.F. 


© 

M.F 


M. F 


«B. 







. M.F. M.F. 


Jan. 


11 6 


3 5 


6 i 


12 4 2 1 


7 3 


4 3 


4 4 


5 


4 1 2 


1 1 


1 4 


1 


2 


6 


97 


Feb. 


7 8 


2 4 


•2 


10 4 


6 2 


5 3 


4 3 


1 


5 4 5 


1 5 


1 





6 


7 


88 


Mar. 


12 7 


3 2 


2 i 


12 2 3 


5 7 12 5 


5 4 


1 


4 4 3 


1 2 


3 





1 2 


10 


106 


April, 


6 8 


8 5 


1 ( 


5 4 2 11 


6 27 9 


4 4 





4 4 2 


1 4 


1 1 





1 3 


6 


101 


May, 


11 9 


4 7 


6 I 


> 3 2 1 2 


8 6 8 7 


7 2 


6 


3 2 4 


2 


1 





1 1 


6 


114 


June, 


14 3 


5 1 


5 i 


I 2 3 


4 4 


3 510 5 


6 5 


3 


1 2 2 


2 


1 





1 


10 


99 


July, 


10 11 


2 4 


3 


1 


3 2 


8 5 10 8 


9 3 


1 


2 1 2 


4 1 


1 1 


1 


1 


7 


102 


Aug. 


16 13 


13 12 


2 ; 


3 3 


2 2 


8 10 


7 


10 3 


3 


4 4 


1 3 


1 2 





4 


4 


133 


Sept. 


20 13 


4 12 


5 5 


. 3 2 


! 2 3 


7 5 


8 4 


7 4 


3 


3 I 2 


3 2 








2 1 


10 


123 


Oct. 


11 6 


4 5 


2 ] 


5 1 


3 


5 14 


7 5 


6 7 


4 


2 7 4 


1 5 





1 


1 2 


9 


118 


Nov. 


6 2 


7 8 


2 4 


I 


2 1 


5 5 


9 7 


6 3 


4 


5 2 


2 2 





1 


2 


8 


93 


Dec. 


9 5 


1 2 
56 67 


3 : 





3 3 


2 3 


9 6 


3 4 

71 46 


4 10 3 
35 33 28 31 


1 

20 25 


1 2 
6 15 



2 2 


1 2 
21 13 


4 
37 


75 
1254 


'l33 91 


39 36 25 20 21 29 70 67 96 62 


The following are the diseases, as far as they were 


reported to the Health Office, which 


occasioned the deaths in the City du 


r'ng the year 1826. 


Accidental . . 14 


Fever, Bilious . 


. 11 


Mortification . . 9 


Abscess 


5 


" Typhus . 


. 31 


Measles . . 10 


Apoplexy . 


10 


" Scarlet . 


. 6 


Old Age 


. 40 


Asthma 


1 


" Putrid . 


. 1 


Palsy 


. 9 


Abscess, lumbar 


1 


" Lung 


. 41 


Poison 


. 1 


Bleeding, lungs 


1 


" Slow 


2 


Pleurisy 


. 7 


Burns 


U 


" Brain 


. 13 


Quinsy 


. 5 


Bloody Flux 


1 


" unknown kinc 


1 9 


Rupture 


. 2 


Consumption 


231 


Frozen 


1 


Rupture of blood-vessel 2 


Croup 


24 


Fistula 


2 


Rheumatism . . 4 


Canker 


25 


Fits . 


45 


Scurvy ... 1 


Cancer 


5 


Gravel 


4 


Stillborn ... 87 


Colic 


4 


Gout . 


] 


Spasm ... 8 


Cholera Morbus 


5 


Heart, diseases of 


11 


Suicide ... 5 


Canker Rash 


4 


Hooping Cough 


23 


Scirrhus of mesenteric 


Cholera infantum 


12 


Hip-joint Disease 


1 


glands ... 1 


Child-bed Diseases . 


12 


Intemperance . 


38 


Scalded ... 3 


Dysentery 


47 


Inflammation of the 




Scrofula ... 1 


Dropsical Diseases 


32 


bowels 


24 


Teething ... 8 


Dropsy, Brain , 


29 


" of the Chest 


1 


Throat Distemper . 6 


" Heart . 


1 


" of the l.iver 


1 


Tumor ... 2 


" Chest . 


9 


" of the Brain 


3 


Venereal ... 1 


Delirium tremens 


5 


" of the Stomach 


1 


Ulcer ... 2 


Debility . 


18 


Inflammatory disease 


s 3 


Worms ... 4 


Disorders of the head 


5 


Infantile . 


40 


White Swelling . 1 


Drowned . 


22 


Insane 


1 





Dyspepsia . 


1 


Jaundice . 


5 


219 


Diseases unknown . 


161 


Liver, diseases of 


11 


332 


Epilepsy . 


1 


Lock-jaw . 


1 


703 


Fever, inflammatory 6 


Lethargy . 


1 













Total 1254 


703 




332 





BILLS OF MORTALITY FOR THE CITY OF BOSTON. 



325 



General Abstract of the Bill of Mortality for the City of Boston, 
from 1 January, 1827, to 1 of January, 1828. 





r^ 









o 


o 


O 


© 


© © 


© 


© 


© 




£ J 


1S27. 


1 § 




tO 


■2 


O* 


CO 

© 


© 


to 


© 
© 


© 


00 

© 


© 
© 


© 


i «~ 


© 4 




J ^ 








** 


*■* 


** 


* J 


■w 




" w 




■*■> 


® i ifjj o 




s 


rH 


Ol 


to 


o 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 














1—1 


Oi 


CO 


TJH 


to © 


i^ 


oc 


»'. 




r -C 




M. F. 


M.F 


M.F 


M . F . 


M F. 


M F 


M F. 


M F. M. F. M.F. 


M.F 


M.F 


M.F 


M.F. 






Jan. 


9 3 


2 1 


1 2 





1 2 


4 lb 


5 3 


5 2 


3 5 10 


1 


1 3 





2 1 


7 


80 


Feb. 


6 2 


1 


2 3 


1 


5 1 


4 4 


2 4 


8 4 


10 16 


2 1 


1 





2 1 


5 


67 


Mar. 


12 6 


2 3 


5 5 


4 1 


3 1 


3 6 


7 5 


4 3 


5 3 1 


2 2 


1 1 





1 


6 


92 


April 


9 9 


2 


4 4 


2 


1 


1 3 


10 4 


2 3 


6 2 2 2 


1 3 


1 2 


1 


1 


8 


83 


May, 


5 3 


3 2 


3 1 


2 2 


3 1 


8 4 


8 7 


4 4 


3 5 


2 


2 2 


2 





1 2 


9 


88 


June, 


7 1 


5 2 


3 


1 1 


1 1 


5 6 


7 3 


4 2 


8 1 





1 1 


1 





1 


7 


69 


July, 


5 5 


5 4 


3 2 


1 


3 2 


4 3 


6 7 


4 9 


5 1 


4. 2 


2 1 


1 2 








5 


86 


Aug. 


13 11 


4 10 


3 1 


3 3 


3 4 


3 5 


5 7 


3 3 


7 1 


3 1 


1 2 


4 





1 1 7 


109 


Sept. 


14 12 


3 9 


1 2 


1 


2 2 


4 8 


2 8 


8 3 


1 4 


3 


2 


1 1 





4 1 10 


106 


Oct. 


6 10 


1 2 


1 


2 


1 3 


7 5 


4 


10 4 


1 3 


5 1 


1 1 


1 





2 10 


81 


Nov. 


4 6 


2 3 


5 


3 1 


2 2 


9 3 


7 7 


6 5 


3 1 


1 2 


.3 1 


I 1 





1 4 


83 


Dec. 


4 6 


3 3 


4 1 


1 
17 12 


3 2 
23 21 


5 4 
57 67 


5 6 
61 65 


3 4 


4 2 


3 3 


5 



10 15 


1 1 

2 1 


1 5 


78 


94 74 


32 40 


32 2^ 


1,1 46,42 30 28 18 16 21 


13 10 83 


1022 


The following are the c 


Useas 


zs, as far as they were reported to the Health Office, which 


occasic 


ned t) 


te deaths in the City during the year 1827. 


Abscess 


% <c 


Erysipelas . S 


Mortification in the 


Accidental 


13 


Fistula 


1 


Bowels ... 2 


Apoplexy . 


10 


Fever, unknown kinc 


I 4 


Old Age ... 37 


Asthma 


2 


" Nervous 


1 


Palpitation of the Heart 1 


Bowel Complaint 


19 


" Typhus . 


24 


Palsy ... 6 


Bloody Fux 


1 


" Lung 


36 


Paralytic Affection . 6 


Brain, diseases of 


3 


" Scarlet . 


1 


Poison ... 1 


Burns 


8 


" Bilious . 


3 


Prolapsus Uteri . 1 


Cancer 


4 


" Inflammatory 


2 


Pleurisy ... 3 


Canker 


18 


" Putrid . 


2 1 


Quinsy ... 2 


Canker Rash 


1 


'' Brain 


19 


Rheumatism . . 4 


Cholera Morbus 


5 


Gravel 


2 


scrofula ... 2 


Consumption 


178 


Hanged 


1 


Suicide ... 4 


( holera Infantum 


3 


Hooping Cough 


6 


Spasm 6 


Child-bed diseases 


11 


Heait, diseases of 


6 


Small Pox . . 3 


Convulsions 


23 


Hip disease 


1 


Syphilis ... 1 


Colic, bilious 


2 


Head, diseases of 


2 


Suffocation . . 1 


Croup 


25 


infantile diseases 


35 


Stillborn ... 83 


Diseases unknown 


152 


Insanity 


5 


Sudden ... 3 


Debili;y 


6 


Intei/.perance . 


. 25 


Throat Distemper * . 6 


Delirium tremens 


1 


Inflammation 


4 


Tumor ... 3 


Diarrhoea . 


3 


" of the Heart 1 


Teething . . .23 


Dyspepsia 


1 


" of the Bowels 12 


Ulcer ... 1 


Drowned . 


21 


" of the Brain 1 


Worms ... 4 


Dropsy 


25 


" of the Lungs 2 


Wounds ... 1 


Dropsy in the chest . 


6 


Jaundice ... 3 


, 


Dysentery 


23 


Lethargy ... 1 


204 


Dropsy of the brain . 


24 


Liver complaint . 7 


224 


Diabetes 


1 


Mortification . . 9 


594 


Epilepsy . 


3 













224 


Total 1022 




594 







326 



BILLS OF MORTALITY FOR THE CITY OF BOSTON- 



General Abstract of the Bill of Mortality for the City of Boston, 
from 1 January, 1828, to 1 January, 1829. 





rH 




O 


o 


c 


o 


O 


O 


o 


o 


o 


© 


e 


si 




&. **' CJ 


lO 




Oi 




Tf 


LT 




t^ 


30 


OS 








1828. 


•ij © 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


Q 




© 


a 


£. 


^2 * 


5 H 




g ^ *~ 






*° 










*° 






' fcj 


5 o 






Of 


iO 


o 


o 




C 




o 


© 


© 


O 


"JC 


3 H 




>0 




.M.F 


M.F. 


M. F 


n 

•1 F. 


rt- 
!\1 F 


M F 


M. F 


<^ 00 
M F. M. F 


M F. 


a. f 


■o 




M. F. M.F M.I 


Jan. 


12 15 4 3 


4 


3 1 4 


1 4 


6 ' 


3 8 


4 3 


4 4 


1 4 


3 


3 


2 


1 


2 106 


Feb 


11 10 3-2 





2-2 2 


2 


3 . : 


,0 3 


2 3 


2 1 


3 


2 


1 








3 


1 72 


Mar. 


13 2 2 4 


3 


3 1 


1 2 


5 9 


5 5 


4 3 


3 5 


1 3 


1 


1 2 


1 


1 


3 


S3 


April. 


11 8 4 5 


5 


7 2 5 


2 3 


8 8 


8 4 


3 4 


1 


3 1 


1 3 


2 








7 


i 105 


May. 


14 10 2 3 


2 


1 2 1 


2 7 


9 E 


7 6 


5 5 


8 2 


1 1 


2 2 


1 





1 1 


8 


106 


June, 


8 4 4 3 


2 


3 4 3 


1 3 


7 6 


7 7 


4 4 


3 


5 3 


2 


1 





1 


8 


j 93 


July; 


11 4 3 3 


1 


1 1 


2 2 


7 11 


8 9 


2 3 


2 3 


3 


2 3 


2 





1 


12 


96 


Aug. 


20 12 9 6 


1 


1 2 


2 2 


13 7 


5 1C 


9 4 


2 4 


2 4 


2 3 








2 1 


4 


' 127 


Sept 


14 20 11 8 


5 


5 1 2 


4 2 


13 G 


12 4 


4 4 


10 4 


2 5 


1 1 


1 








8 


150 


Oct. 


10 11 10 7 


1 


D 1 


23 


13 ti 


9 6 


8 4 


5 2 


1 1 


2 


1 





1 1 


8 


'■■ 113 


Nov 


6 10 4 1 


1 


1 4 1 


1 3 


5 4 


9 7 


5 4 


3 2 


3 1 


1 3 


2 1 





2 1 


4 


» 


Dec. 


6 3 2 3 4 


4 2 1 
1 23 10 


2 5 

20 38 


4 1? 
93 8h 


3 5 
86 7J 


5 2 
55 4° 


5 3 

-14 34 


1 3 

20 3-. 


2 1 
15 2> 


1 4 

12 11 


1 

1 3 


1 
11 4 


7 


: 93 


136 H'0: 58 4S29 ? 


74 1233 


The following are the 


disease 


s, as far as they were reported to the Health Office, which 


occasi 


oned tf 


x deaths in the Cittj dun 


ng the year 1828. 


Abscess 


. 1 


Drinking Cold water 


2 


Mortification, general 7 


" lumbar 


. 1 


Erysipelas 


3 


" of the Bowels 4 


Apoplexy . 


. 18 


Fever, unknown kind 


5 


Matrix, diseases of . 1 


Accidental 


14 


" Typhus . 


31 


Mesentery, diseases of 1 


Asthma 


. 1 


" Bilious . 


16 


Old Age ... 54 


Burns 


. 9 


" Lung 


81 


Pleurisy 




2 


Bleeding at the Lun^ 


rs 2 


" Brain . 


12 


Poison 




2 


" at the Stom 


ich 1 


" Hectic . 


3 


Palsy 




10 


Bowel complaints 


. 2 


" Malignant 


1 


Piles 




1 


Consumption 


. 2i7 


" Inflammatory 


2 


Quinsy 




1 


Child-bed diseases 


. 14 


" Scarlet . 


2 


Rupture 




1 


Croup 


. 25 


" Nervous 


1 


Rheumatism 




2 


Convulsions 


. 31 


" Intermittent . 


2 


Scrofula 




5 


Canker 


. 13 


Fracture . 


2 


Suicide 




9 


Cholera Infantum 


. 19 


Gravel 


1 


Spasm 




1 


" Morbus 


. 7 


Heart, diseases of 


6 


Small Pox 




2 


Chicken Pox 


1 


Hooping Cough 


40 


Sudden 




2 


Cancer 


. 4 


Inflammation, general 


4 


Scirrhus . 




1 


Colic, Bilious . 


. 3 


" of the Larynx 


1 


Stillborn . 




74 


Dysentery 


. 20 


" of the Bowels 


33 


Throat Distemp 


sr 


1 


Dropsy 


. 20 


" of the Stomach 


2 


Ulcers 




3 


" of the Chest 


1 


" of the Brain 


5 


Venereal . 




3 


" of the Brain 


. 38 


" of the Lungs 


5 


White Swelling 


1 


Diseases unknown 


. 178 


Infantile diseases 


55 


Worms 


1 


Delirium tremens 


. 7 


Intemperance . 


34 





Drowned . 


. 16 


Jaundice . 


2 


189 


Debility . 


. 6 


Insanity 


1 


363 


Diabetes . 


1 


Liver Complaint 


10 


681 


Diarrhoea . 


. 2 


Lock-jaw . 


1 


Total 1233 




681 


363 








BILLS OP MORTALITY FOR THE CITY OF BOSTON. 



327 



General Abstract of the Bill of Mortality for the City of Boston, 
from 1 January, 1829, to 1 January, 1830. 





<-! 






O 


o 


o 


o 


O 


C 


© 


o 


o 


o 




5 




1829. 




OJ 
o 


to 


o 




CO 




Mi 


-z 


t^ 

© 


00 


OS 


© 




t= 


< 
H 
O 




b 


— i 


^ 


Mi 


o 


o 


o 


o 


c 


© 


o 


o 


o 




H 














CM 


CO 


«<* 


u- 


o 


t* 


JC 






r 






M. F. 


M V. 


vi . V ' 


M.F. 


M.F. 


M. F. 


M.F. M.F 


M. 


V: M.F 


M.F. 


M.F. 


M F. 


M. F. 






Jan. 


10 7 


3 S 


3 6 


4 


3 


5 6 


9 6 


6 4 


3 


2 1 5 


1 2 


1 3 


1 





5 


105 


Feb. 


10 8 


5 3 


7 5 


2 


1 1 


7 3 


5 4 


9 2 


2 


2 2 4 


4 6 


2 2 








7 


103 


Mar. 


12 4 


4 ? 


4 5 


2 


3 


7 8 


7 8 


7 4 


7 


2 2 2 


1 


1 








9 


103 


April. 


9 2 


3 S 


3 2 


2 6 


2 4 


5 12 


6 9 


4 6 


1 


3 3 


2 4 


2 





1 


4 


98 


May, 


8 s 7 


1 6 


4 1 


1 


3 2 


5 11 


14 4 


6 9 


2 


2 1 


1 


2 


1 1 





7 


99 


June, 


6 ^2 


6 


7 2 


1 


4 3 


6 2 


4 8 


1 3 


4 


1 3 2 


2 3 


2 








7 


78 


July, 


6 5 


10 1 


2 4 


5 


3 3 


12 8 


11 3 


3 6 


■x 


3 2 3 


1 








1 


3 


97 


Aug. 


14 5 


3 12 


2 5 


2 


4 


7 7 


7 6 


3 4 


■1 


2 2 4 


} 


2 1 





1 


1 


97 


Sept. 


22 13 


13 15 


5 5 


2 3 


2 7 


6 4 


5 4 


3 3 


■2 


1 2 


2 


1 








2 


122 


Oct. 


8 10 


12 1( 


8 7 


4 


6 


5 5 


8 6 


3 2 


i 


3 l 1 


1 3 


1 1 


1 


1 


1 


108 


Nov. 


5 11 


6 e 


11 8 


2 2 


4 1 


6 4 


2 9 


4 5 


1 


1 3 2 


1 2 


2 


1 


1 1 


- 


108 


Dec. 


11 5 


4 8 


5 5 

61 55 


1 3 

25 17 


2 1 


11 5 


4 4 


2 1 


5 

32 


2 2 
19 -!6 2' 


1 6 
15 29 


1 1 

10 15 




1 4 


1 
5 2 


12 

D5 


103 
1-221 


121 79 64 8> 


27 32 82 75 SO 71 51 49 


The following are the diseases, as far as they were 


reported to the Health Office, which 


occasioned the deaths in the City during the year 1829. 


Apoplexy . . .12 


Fever, Bilious . 


6 


Measles . .72 


Accidental . . 12 


" Putrid . 


. 1 


Nervous Affection . 1 


Abscess ... 1 


" unknown kin 


I 2 


Old Age . . . 65 


" of the Lungs 1 


" Intermittent 


. 1 


Palsy . . 11 


" of the Brain 2 


" Scarlet . 


1 


Pleurisy ... 4 


Burns ... 4 


" Inflammatory 


1 


Piles ... 1 


Brain, disease of . 2 


" Malignant 


. 1 


Poison ... 1 


Consumption . . 203 


" Nervous . 


. 1 


Quinsy 3 


Convulsions . . 28 


Fistula 


1 


Rheumatism . . 3 


Croup . . .35 


Fracture . 


1 


Rupture ... 1 


Child-bed, Diseases of 17 


Gravel 


. 2 


" of Blood Vessel 1 


Canker ... 7 


Gout 


1 


Sudden ... 7 


Carcinoma Uteri . 1 


Hemorrhage of Lung 
" of the Bowe 


s 1 


Stillborn . . . 65 


Colic ... 3 


Is 1 


Suffocation . . 1 


Cholera Morbus . 1 


Hooping Cough 


11 


Spleen, Disease of . 1 


Chlorosis ... 1 


Hip Disease 


. 3 


Salt Rheum . . 1 


Cancer ... 3 


Heart, Diseases of 


. 9 


Scrofula ... 4 


Diseases unknown . ICO 


Infantile Diseases 


55 


Suicide ... 5 


Dropsy . . . 12 


Inflammation 


11 


Scald ... 1 


" of the Brain 42 


" oftheBladde 


r 1 


Scurvy ... 1 


" of the Chest 4 


" of the Lungs 


10 


Spasm ... 2 


Dysentery . . 20 


" of the Bowel: 


3 21 


Spine, Disease of . 1 


Drowned . . 19 


" of the Brain 


7 


Stomach, Disease of 2 


Debility ... 10 


Insanity 


3 


Throat Distemper . 3 


Diarrhoea ... 1 


Intemperance . 


30 


Teething . . .13 


Disease of the Bowels 10 


Jaundice . 


1 


Venereal ... 1 


« of the Chest 4 


Lock-jaw . 


1 


Worms ... 3 


Epilepsy ... 2 


Liver, Diseases of 


14 





Fever, Typhus . . 28 


Lethargy . 


1 


274 


" Lung . . 80 


Mortification 


8 


208 


" Brain . .14 


" of the Bowels 


1 


739 


,, 




_ — 


- 


■ 739 




208 


Total 1221 



328 



BILLS OF MORTALITY FOR THE CITY OF BOSTON. 



General Abstract of the Bill of Mortality for the City of Boston, 
from 1 January, 1830, to 1 January, 1831. 





rH 






1 o 


^ 


o i o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 

o 


s 


£ J 




*» b 


C^ 


iO 




CO ; rj< 


O 


CO 


l^ 


00 


o 




eg ij 


1830. 




9 


o 




© 


o a 


© 


2 


© 


o 


a 


o 


si 


^i c 




£ 




(^ 


10 


o 


O O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


><s 


« H 












r-i 


_.cS 1-gS- 


T 


kfl 


CO 


t^ 


30 


as 




CO 




M F. 


M. F. 


M.* 


. M.F. 


M.F. 


M.F. M.F. 


M.F. 


M.F. 


M. F 


M.F. 


M.F. 


M.F. 


M. F. 




Jan. 


15 5 


2 12 


2 ' 


f 3 2 


1 4 


3 10 8 11 


7 4 


5 1 


2 3 


3 


2 








5 117 


Feb. 


9 9 


2 6 


7 


3 


3 1 


4 9 6 5 


5 3 


3 1 


2 1 


4 6 


1 2 








7 100 


Mar. 


9 5 


3 4 


4 t 


II 2 


2 3 


4 8 6 4 


3 7 


5 


2 


4 2 


1 








8 92 


April, 


9 5 


4 3 


4 i 


14 


1 1 


6 6 7 3 


6 3 


5 5 


4 3 


3 


3 2 





1 


12 104 


May, 


8 1 


1 5 


3 ; 


5 13 


2 4 


7 6 7 4 


2 7 


2 1 


3 2 


3 1 











6 81 


June, 


6 5 


6 


1 ( 


) 4 2 


2 2 


4 2 2 3 


2 


2 3 


1 2 


1 1 


1 1 








3 56 


July, 


11 3 


2 4 


2 i 


112 


4 2 


4 5 S 6 


7 2 


2 2 


1 3 


1 2 


1 


1 





7 87 


Aiiif. 


12 U 


2 6 


2 i 


[ 2 2 


3 1 


5 8 7 1 


3 1 


4 


1 4 


1 1 


1 








2-2 104 


Sept 


17 5 


6 7 


6 ( 


> 1 1 




9 5 5 7 




1 2 


2 1 


1 








1 


lit 106 


Oct. 


10 9 


8 9 


7 4 


I 1 


22 


7 12 10 6 


7 5 


3 1 


4 1 





2 





1 


3 114 


Nov. 


3 5 


8 


o i 


! 1 


35 


3 4 14 


4 4 


2 3 


2 3 


1 1 


1 








U 77 


Dec. 


6 6 
115 69 


3 a 

33 73 


5 I 
41 4 


) 1 
4 23 14 


1 4 


7 5 9 14 3 


2 8 
36 27 


1 2 
25 2. 


1 3 


2 







1 2 


5 87 
100 1125 




■25 30 63 80 76 55 55 45 




The following are the 


disca 


ses, as far as they were 


reported to the Health 


Office; 


which oca 


tsionet 


I the deaths in the City during the year 1830. 




Apoplexy . 


12 


Delirium . 


2 


Old Age . 


. 47 


Asthma 


1 


Debility . 


8 


1 leurisy . 


. 2 


Abscess 


3 


Diabetes . 


1 


Palsy 


. 14 


Accidental 


8 


1 ever, unknown kind 


K) 


Quinsy 


. 4 


Brain, diseases of 


C 


" Intermittent . 


1 


Rheumatism 


. 2 


Bowels, diseases of 





" Lung 


50 


Rupture 


. 1 


Bleeding . 


7 


" Inflammatory 


1 


Stillborn . 


. 100 


Burn 


7 


" Typhus . 


2\ 


Strangury 


1 


Child bed Diseases 


13 


" Brain . 


9 


Scald 


. 3 


Consumption 


193 


" Child-bed 


3 


Scrofula 


. 5 


Chicken Pox 


1 


" Bilious . 


4 


Sudden 


. 8 


Cholera Infantum 


12 


Frozen 


2 


Small Pox 


. 5 


Cholera Morbus 


8 


Gravel 


1 


Sun-struck 


. 1 


Convulsions 


27 


Hooping Cough 


10 


Stomach, diseases ( 


>f 2 


Croup 




42 


Heart, diseases of 


11 


Suicide 


. 8 


Canker 




10 


Hip Complaint . 


4 


Spasm 


. 1 


Cancer 




6 


Inflammation 


1 


Syphilis . 


. 1 


Colic 




1 


" of the Lungs 


12 


Tumor 


. 3 


" Bilious 




1 


" of the Bowels 


14 


Throat Distemper 


. 1 


Dropsy 




15 


Infantile Diseases 


41 


Teething . 


. 12 


" of the Heart 


2 


Intemperance . 


19 


Ulcer 


. 1 


" of the Brain 


48 


Insanity 


4 


Worms 


. 1 


" of the Chest 


3 


Kidneys, disease of . 


1 







Diseases unknown 


152 


Liver Complaint 


17 




222 


Dysentery 


22 


Measles 


13 




280 


Diarrhoea . 


. 1 


Mortification 




4 




623, 


Drowned . 


15 


Nervous Afie 


ction 


2 




1 











Total 


1125 




622 


i 


280 







BILLS OF MORTALITY FOR THE CITY OF BOSTON. 



329 



General Abstract of the Bill of Mortality for the City of Boston , 
from 1 January, 133 1 , to 1 January, 1832. 





_ 






o 


© 


© 


o 


© 


© 


© 


o © 


© 




ft 






*■» &£ 


Oi 


kft 


<— 1 


w 


CO 


TF 


lO 


© 


i> 


CO 1 © 


1— 1 


i £ 





4j 


1631. 


-3 1 


a 


3 


3> 


« 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 


© 1 © 


© 


►r ** 


^ 


E-, 
























*.» to 




^ 1 










r _. 


c* 


ift 


© 


i 


o 


«g 


© 


© 


© ' © 


o 


'■£> 


H 










•H 


CO 


■<* 


o 


© 


1> CO 


OS 




^o 






M. F. 


M. F 


vl. F. 


M.F. 


M.F. 


M.F 


M.F. 


M F. 


M F 


M.F 


M.F. M.F. 


M F. 


M. F. 






Jan. 


8 4 


4 4 


5 5 


2 3 


1 4 


5 8 10 2 


3 1(. 


4 


2 ( 


) 1 2 1 1 





1 


9 


99 


Feb 


S 9 


2 8 


5 4 


1 


2 


4 5 5 8 


5 2 


4 3 


2 ] 


10 2 2 


2 





5 


84 


Alar. 


8 8 


1 -2 


3 6 


1 3 


4 


6 6 11 9 


6 12 


2 4 





2 2 12 


1 1 


1 


7 


109 


April 


8 9 


4 4 


I 4 


1 2 


2 4 


9 111 4 3 


3 ? 


4 3 


3 i 


! 2 1 10 


1 





7 


97 


May, 


5 C 


2 v 


5 1 


1 


1 4 


15 5 6 


5 5 


2 3 


2 i 


(5101 


1 





10 


82 


June, 


JO 9 


5 3 


5 4 


1 5 


7 


3 4 4 5 


5 1 


1 3 


3 ; 


J 1 1 3 





n i 


2 


89 


July, 


8 6 


(i 


4 3 


2 4 


3 5 


10 7 7 4 


6 4 


4 4 


2 - 


110 1 


1 





2 


98 


Aug 


16 14 


9 1" 


7 7 


2 1 


1 2 


7 6 9 4 


6 4 


2 2 


6 


2 10 








3 


125 


csept 


18 10 


6 K 


8 3 


5 1 


1 3 


8 5 10 6 


5 5 


2 2 


4 S 


J 4 2 2 


1 





3 


126 


Oct 


11 11 


5 9 


8 6 


5 5 


3 


9 7 9 11 


6 7 


6 5 


2 : 


J, 1 2 1 


1 


1 


3 


136 


Nov. 


9 10 


9 8 


7 15 


5 6 


3 3 


14 5 8 6 


5 1 


4 3 


i : 


S3 2 2 1 








9 


142 


Dec. 


•29 15 


11 12 

58 75 


13 1-2 

71 69 


3 7 
27 39 


2 5 


12 10 16 8 


10 « 

65 60 


10 11 
45 43 


5 1( 
32 3: 


) 2 JO 3 
l'$i 24 10 15 


1 1 

4 7 


1 1 

2 4 


11 
71 


237 
1424 




138 111 


14 46 88 79 98 72 


The following are the 


diseases, as far as they wer 


e reported to the Health 


Office 


which occasi 


oned the deaths in the City du 


ring the year 1831. 






Apoplexy . 


11 


i ebihty 


20 


Pleurisy . 




4 


Asthma 


2 


Erysipelas 


2 


Palsy 




11 


Abscess 


4 


Fever, unknown 


11 


Quinsy 




5 


Accidental 


11 


" Intermittent . 


2 


Rheumatism 




4 


Brain Diseases . 


11 


" Nervous 


2 


Rupture 




1 


Bowel Diseases 


13 


" Lung 


81 


" of Blood-vessel 2 


Bleeding . 


5 


i: Inflammatory 


2 


Stillborn . 




71 


Burns 


13 


" Typhus . 


21 


Scald 




3 


Child-bed Diseases . 


14 


" Brain 


18 


Scrofula . 




o 


Caiarrh 


1 


" Scarlet . 


58 


Sudden 




5 


Consumption 


203 


" Bilious . 


4 


Skin, Diseases of 




1 


Cholera Infantum 


7 


" Spotted . 


1 


Small Pox 




4 


Cholera Morbus 


14 


Frozen 


1 


Stomach, Diseases of 


1 


Convulsions 


2S 


Fracture . 


1 


Suicide 




12 


Croup 




53 


Hooping Cough 


26 


Spleen 




1 


Canker 




14 


Heart Diseases 


8 


Spasms 




5 


Carbuncle 




1 


Hip Complaint . 


2 


Suffocation 




2 


Cancer 




5 


Inflammation 


3 


Tu mor 




5 


Colic 




1 


" of the Bowels 


18 


Tic Douloureux 




1 


" Bilious 




3 


" of the Lungs 


1(5 


Throat Distemper 




26 


Dropsy 




2e 


Infantile Diseases 


56 


Teething . 




10 


" of the Brain . 


m 


Intemperance . 


38 


Ulcer 




3 


" of the Chest . 


4 


Insanity 


1 


Wounds . 




3 


Diseases unknown . 


1&4 


Influenza . 


22 


Worms 




3 


Disease of the Spine 


3 


Jaundice . 


1 








Dysentery 


28 


Liver Complaint 


11 






185 


Drinking Cold Water 


1 


Measles 


2 






505 


Diarrhoea . 


1 


Mortification 


9 






734 


Drowned . 


15 


Old Age . 


67 








Deliiiam Tremens . 


6 


Poison 


1 


Total 




1424 




734 


F 


>05 









VOL. IV. THIRD SERIES* 



42 



330 



BILLS OF MORTALITY FOR THE CITY OF BOSTON. 



General Abstract of the Bill of Mortality for the City of Boston, 
from, 1 January, 1832, to 1 January, 1833. 



1832. 



Jan. 
Fob. 
Mar. 
April, 
May, 
lune, 
July, 
\ug. 
Sept. 
Ort. 
Nov. 
Dec. 



rH 




t» 


(. 




S3 


M, 


F. 


16 


12 


11 


S 


6 


17 


14 


7 


12 


13 


6 


6 


7 


6 


1 


3 


17 


10 


14 


14 


16 


7 


17 


12 


137 


115 



o* 



M. F jM. F. 

6 7 11 9 

5 7 11 9 

7 13 11 7 
9 11 15 17 

15 19 17 10 

6 13 ill 20 
5 8 j 8 7 
3 4 7 9 
9 10 8 5 

10 11 ! 8 8 

a o I o l.i 



91 111 24 116 



U. F. 

7 2 

4 3 

6 

7 

4 

8 

1 



4 
54 39 



M.F. 

1 5 

2 3 
1 5 
4 -2 

3 5 

3 2 

4 4 

3 6 

4 6 
4 6 
4 5 
1 2 

34 51 



M.F. 
7 10 

4 5 
7 3 
9 4 
7 2 

5 6 
2 11 
4 4 
9 

•4 8 



M. V. 

'2 6 
3 6 
8 2 
1 2 

3 2 

4 2 
3 5 
1 2 



M. F. M.F..M.F 



5 3 
10 5 
4 
71 51 40 38 47125 40 6 14 



5 2 
4 
7 i 
5,0 
10 



4 1 1 
10 





1 



II f 



(i 3 



1 










1 




1 



9 
7 
4 3 86 



121 

lOfc 

151 
161 
164 
146 

176 



The following are the diseases, as far as they tcere reported to the Health 
which occasioned the deaths in the City during the year 1832. 



Apoplexy . 

Abscess 

Accidental 

Brain, Diseases of 

Bowels, " " 

Bleeding . 

Burns 

Chicken Pox 

Child-bed, Diseases of 

Catarrh 

Consumption 

Cholera infantum 
" Morbus 
11 Malignant 

Convulsions 

Croup 

Canker 

" Rash . 

Cancer 

Colic 

(i Bilious 

Dropsy 

» of the Brain 
" of the Chest 

Diseases unknown 

Dysentery 

Diarrhoea . 

Dyspepsia 

Drowned . 

Delirium Tremens 



811 



15 


Debility . 


15 


8 
12 


Epilepsy . 
Erysipelas 


1 
4 


17 


Fever, unknown 


4 


27 


" Intermittent . 


1 


G 


" Nervous 


1 


8 


" Lung 


87 


1 
14 

1 


" Inflammatory 
" Typhus . 
" Brain . 


1 
45 
13 


246 


" Scarlet . 


149 


7 


" Bilious . 


1 


8 


" Rheumatic 


2 


78 


Gravel 


1 


35 


Glands. Diseases of 


1 


40 

8 


Hooping Couijh 
Heart Diseases . 


22 

7 


1 


Hip. Di ease of 


. 3 


4 


Inflammation . 


. 3 


1 


" of the Bowe 


Is 31 


3 


" of the Lung 


s 19 


38 


" of the Stom 


ich 3 


44 


Infantile Diseases 


. 70 


6 


Intemperance . 


. 44 


126 


Influenza . 


. 24 


21 


Jaundice . 


. 3 


3 


Lock-jaw . 


1 


1 


Liver Complaint 


. 9 


22 

10 


Lethargy . 
Measles 


. 1 

. 70 



636 



Mortification 


<t 


Old Age . 


(2 


Pleurisy 


3 


Palsy 


19 


Quinsy 


6 


Rheumatism 


1 


Stillborn . 


86 


Scald 


2 


Scurvy 


1 


Scrofula 


3 


Scirrhus . 


1 


Sudden 


9 


Small Pox 


1 


Suicide 


8 


Spasms 


6 


Spine. Disease of 


. 1 


Syphilis 


4 


St t angulation . 


1 


Suffocation 


2 


Throat Distemper 


50 


Teething . 


21 


Tumor 


2 


Ulcer 


2 


Uterus, Disease of 


J 


Worms 


7 


Wounds . 


. 6 




314 




636 




811 



Total 1761 



LAWS AND REGULATIONS 

or THE 

MASSACHUSETTS EIISTORICAL SOCIETY 

REVISED AND REPORTED BY THE STANDING COMMITTEE, 
PURSUANT TO A VOTE OF THE SOCIETY, APRIL 25, 1833. 



CHAPTER I. 



Article 1. Each resident member shall pay eight 
dollars at the time of his admission, and two dollars 
annually, to create a fund, for the benefit of the institu- 
tion. And any member shall be exempted from the 
annual payment of two dollars, provided he shall, at 
any time after six months from his admission, pay to 
the Treasurer thirty dollars, in addition to what he had 
before paid. 

Article 2. If any person elected shall neglect to 
pay his admission money for one year after being ap- 
prized of his election, the said election shall be consid- 
ered void. And if any resident member shall neglect 
to pay his annual assessment for the space of three 
years after it shall have become due, and have been de- 
manded, he shall forfeit his right to its privileges, and 
shall no longer be considered as a member thereof. 
Each member, at his election, shall be furnished with 
an attested copy of this article. The Treasurer shall 
report from time to time those members, who neglect 
to pay their admission or annual assessments as ahove 
required. 



332 LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF 

Article 3. All elections shall be made by ballot. 
In balloting for members, and in taking any question by 
yeas and nays, the law and custom of our forefathers is 
adopted, — Indian corn and beans ; — The corn to ex- 
press yeas, the beans nays. Nominations of corre- 
sponding members may be made by the members of 
the Society ; but no member shall nominate more than 
one candidate at the same meeting ; and all nomina- 
tions shall be made at a meeting previous to that at 
which the ballot is to be taken. 

Article 4. There shall be a stated meeting of the 
Society on the last Thursday of every month, except 
in Commencement week at Harvard University, when 
it shall be on the Tuesday next preceding; and occa- 
sional meetings shall be convened, on due not fication 
by the President, or, in case of his absence, by one of 
the Secretaries, on the application of any two of the 
members. 

Article 5. There shall be annually chosen, at the 
meeting in April, a President, a Recording Secretary, 
a Corresponding Secretary, a Treasurer, a Librarian, 
a Cabinet-Keeper, and a Standing Committee of five. 

Article 6. At the request of any two members 
present, any motion shall be deferred to another meet- 
ing, for further consideration, before it is finally deter- 
mined, and shall then be taken up. 

Article 7. Five members present shall be a quo- 
rum for all purposes, excepting those of making altera- 
tions in, or additions to, the laws and regulations of this 
Society, and the election of members. 

Article 8. No alterations in, or additions to, the 
laws and regulations of this Society shall be made, un- 
less there are eight members present ; and no member 
shall be chosen, unless there are nine members present 
at the election, and unless two thirds of the members 
present vote for his admission. 



THE MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 333 

Article 9. Members who are chosen in other states 
and countries, shall not be required to make contribu- 
tion with the mtmbers who are citizens of this Com- 
monwealth. 

Article 10. The time and place of every meetirg 
shall be published in one, at least, of the Boston news- 
papers ; [and the Recording Secretary shall also send 
notifications of the same to every member, whose usual 
residence is within ten miles of Boston.] * 

Article 1 1. The Treasurer shall not pay any mon- 
eys, except in pursuance of a vote of the Society, or 
on the voucher of an officer or committee, under whose 
direction any expense may be incurred, conformably to 
the laws or orders of the Society. 



CHAPTER II. 

Laics regulating the Standing Committee. 

Article 1. All nominations of resident members 
shall be made by the President and Standing Commit- 
tee, at one meeting, at least, previous to that at which 
the ballot is to be taken. 

Article 2. The Standing Committee shall regulate 
the common expenses of the Society, and make the 
necessary provision of such small articles as may be 
wanted, and shall have power to draw on the Treasurer 
to defray the expense. 

Article 3. They shall aid the Librarian and Cabi- 
net-Keeper, when they shall require it, in the arrange- 
ment of the books, pamphlets, maps, and manuscripts, 
and in the disposition of curiosities and articles belong- 
ing to the Cabinet, and shall especially attend to the 
preservation and binding of books and pamphlets. 

* The clause in brackets was repealed in September, 1833. 



334 LAWS AND REGULATION'S OF 

Article 4. They shall frequently inspect the rec- 
ords and inquire whether all the orders of the Society 
are carried into effect with precision and promptitude. 
The names of members in the records shall be in alpha- 
betical order. 

Article 5. It shall be the duty of every member of 
the Society, and especially of the Standing Committee, 
to inquire for, and endeavour to obtain, on the best 
terms, for the benefit of the Society, manuscripts, books, 
and articles of curiosity. 

Article 6. They shall meet previous to each stated 
meeting of the Society and arrange and prepare such 
business as may be a subject for the Society's attention. 
The President shall notify to the Standing Commttee 
their stated meetings. 



CHAPTER III. 

Laws regulating the Library and Museum. 

Article 1. All books which are presented to the 
library shall be accepted with thanks, and also every 
curiosity for the museum. 

Article 2. American coins and curiosities shall be 
kept by themselves in the best part of the cabinet. 

Arttcle 3. At every stated meeting, a catalogue of 
books, pamphlets, manuscripts, and maps, shall be pro- 
duced by the Librarian, and a catalogue of the curiosi- 
ties by the Cabinet-Keeper. 

Article 4, Once in every year, previous to the 
April meeting, the Standing Committee shall inspect the 
library and museum, and report the state of every arti- 
cle at that meeting, and what books are particularly 
wanted. 

Article 5. There shall be two keys to the Society's 
Room, one of which shall be kept by the Librarian, and 



THE MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 335 

the other by the Cabinet-Keeper, to be by them deliv- 
ered to no person except one of the members. 

Article 6. No book shall be taken from the libra- 
ry, but. with the knowledge of the Librarian, who shall 
make a record of the same, A member shall not have 
more than three books at a time, unless by special leave 
obtained by a vote of the Society. He shall not retain 
any volume longer than four weeks, but may renew the 
same once ; after which the same person shall not have 
the same books for three months, unless by especial 
leave of the Standing Committee. Members living 
more than ten miles from Boston may renew their books 
without personal application. No manuscript shall be 
taken out of the library, but in the presence of the 
Librarian, and with permission from the Standing Com- 
mittee. 

Article 7. The sixth article shall not prevent the 
Committee, chosen to superintend the publications of 
the Society, from taking out of the library, with the 
knowledge of the Librarian, as many books and papers 
as they may want. 

Article 8. Newspapers and maps shall not be al- 
lowed to be taken out of the library, except by the 
Publishing Committee and in the presence of the Li- 
brarian. 

Article 9. Fines for a breach of the sixth article 
shall be at the weekly rate of 10 cents for every book 
less than an octavo, 20 for an octavo, 30 for a quarto, 
and 40 for a folio. 

Article 10. An application in writing, left with the 
Librarian, shall secure any volume or set for a fortnight 
after it may be returned to the library ; and if more than 
one such application be made, they shall be answered 
in the order of their respective dates. 

Article 11. If books or manuscripts be requested 
for public uses, or for the peculiar benefit of persons 
whom the Society is disposed to oblige, the application 
shall be made to the Librarian, through the medium of 



336 LAWS AND REGULATIONS. 

some member who shall be responsible in a written ob- 
ligation for the return of each article borrowed, within 
such time as shall be stipulated by the Librarian, not 
exceeding three months. 

Article 12. All persons who take books from the 
library shall be answerable for any injury to the same, 
which shall be estimated by the Standing Committee. 

Article 13. The privilege of using the library shall 
be suspended, as respects the person who neglects to 
pay any fines, or assessments, for damages, longer than 
one month after he shall have received notice from the 
Librarian. 

Article 14. It shall be the duty of the Librarian 
to attend at the library, or to procure some member to 
attend in his stead, on the afternoon of each Thursday, 
at 3 o'clock, for the accommodation of members ; and 
it is understood and expected, that the members will 
regulate themselves accordingly. 

Article 15. All pamphlets shall be bound, except 
duplicates, which shall be kept by themselves, and trip- 
licates shall be exchanged. 

Article 16. All manuscripts shall be distinctly mark- 
ed and numbered, and kept in cases of paper ; which 
shall also be numbered, and the contents of each regis- 
tered. 

Article 17. Every present received shall be re- 
corded, and an account of it rendered at the next meet- 
ing of the Society. 

Article 18. A printed ticket shall be pasted on 
the inside of the cover of each book, signifying that it 
is the property of the Society, and also the name of 
the donor, if it be a present. 



#9 



r